Jamiluddin Aali is an acknowledged poet, columnist and a famous travelogue writer. He produced a great work and contributed a fabulous literature to urdu. Theme of this research is Jamiluddin Aali's travelogues. He has written three travelogues namely "Dunia mery aagy", "Tamasha mery aagy" and "Ice land". The thesis has been divided into five chapters.
In first chapter the detailed account of his personality, life history and literary servises has been discussed which attempts to explain that Jamiluddin Aali's themes have a deep insight and thoughts.
Second chapter deals with the history of urdu travelogues before and after partition. Besides tracing the origin and development of travelogues writing, emphasis has been given on the background and technical aspects of travelogues writing.
Next chapter reflects the history of Jamiluddin Aali's travels and the important places and personalities to which a reader come across in his travelogues. In addition it also discusses cultural and historical background of traveled countries.
Fourth chapter is a stylistic analysis of Jamiluddin Aali's travelogues. It also attempts to explain the techniques used in his travelogues.
The last chapter concludes the research study by illustrating the significance of Jamiluddin Aali's travelogues. It also determines his position in the tradition of urdu travelogues.
Services Rendered by Yousaf Hassan in Literature:
There are certain people on whom there is no research work at high level. Their writings are scattered in the form of different articles in magazines. But it is the dire need of the hour that their work must come in front page on behalf of deep research in different disciplines. It cansist of five chapters. First chapter gives a detailed life history, education and his literary work.
In second chapter his poetry has been analysed both on literary and critical level. He has adopted the technique of "Ghazal" and "Nazam" to elaborate his thought. In third chapter his motive and cause has been discussed. His chool of thought is progressive movement. All his literary, critical work, article writing and research work high light the same school of thought.
Fourth chapter is also related to the third one in which has described ideas and philosphy of progressive morement. His publications has also come into view in Punjabi and Gojri langauges along with Urdu Language. Fifth chapter is the sum up of all his literary and oritical work. A tribute has also been presented by his contemportaries concering his research work as well as his creativities.
The topic of my thesis is the short stories of the contemporaries of Praim Chand.
In this respect my supposed research is that in the period of Praim Chand the contemporaries of his age have a distinguished place. In this connection historical and hand written method is adopted. Azam Kurewi, Mahasha Sadarshan short stories, and short stories initial stages critical books and magazines are included.
It consists of six chapters:
The first chapter consists of Praim Chand period his contemporary’s short stories.
Second chapter consists of Mahasha Sadarshan short stories that provides thoughtful detail.
Third chapter consists of Mahasha Sadarshan and Praim Chand similarities and dis similarities.
Fourth chapter consists of Azam Kurewi skilled short stories. In which his short stories detailed analysis has been provided.
Fifth chapter consists of Azam Kurewi and Praim Chand thoughtful and skilled similarities and dis similarities.
The chapter six consists of conclusions and recommendations.
اکادمی ادبیات پاکستان کی خدمات: تحقیقی و تنقیدی مطالعہ
The foundation of Pakistan Academy of Letters was laid by July 1976. The fundamental objective that caused the organization and enactment of this institution was to work consistently regarding national status of Urdu language and significant value of regional languages. Academy Adbiyaat came into Prominence as a publishing institution where in besides, propagation of Urdu as a nationl language it focused on International languages and their translated in a coordinationed and systematic way. The basic objective of my dissertation is to explore the services rendered by Academy of letters regarding Urdu language and literature. In this regard, the dissertation is divided into five chapters. The first chapter introduces background of Academy of letter in a comprehensive way. Moreover, the objectives and administrative features of Academy are thoroghly discussed. A detailed overview of the landmark journery of Pakistan.
Academy of Letters, the contribution of its different departments, unflinching efforts put by different chairmans are highlighted in first chapter. Second chapter encapsulates an anlysis of Urdu Publications of Pakistan Acadmey of Letters regarding poetry and prose. Moreover, literary criticism and contemporary research in also focused is this chapter. Third chapter is comprised of classical Mamar-i-Adab series, Urdu translations and miscellaneous books published by Adbiyaat. Where as fourth chapter focuses on the introduction of quarterly journel of Academy "Adbiyaat' its different magazines and their historic contribution regarding poetry and prose. Fifth chapter presents the concluding remarks in a detailed way; it highlights the fundamental issues regarding Academy Adbiyaat and their consequences with special reference to Urdu language and literature.
Muhammad Asim Butt, the renowned Urdu writer, started his literary career during 1990s. He developed his own peculiar style of his literary writings, which distinguishes him from his contemporaries. In addition, he introduced the modern western literary cults and trends through his works of translations into Urdu. He has issued many valuable volumes of the modern literature to promote the modern literature. In his literary works, he deals with the present-day subjects of his times.
I tried to make an analytical study of the literary works of Muhammad Asim Butt in my research dissertation for M Phil. I tried to critically appreciate his novels, short stories, and works of translations.
My dissertation comprises of six chapters. Chapter one: It deals with the person and the biography of the writer. In this chapter, his family background, family life, and the start of his career as a writer have been discussed.
Chapter two: It deals with his short stories. In this chapter, an overview of history of short story has been presented in a brief manner. Then, a thematic and stylistic study of the short stories of the writer is rendered. Chapter three: This chapter deals with the novels of the writer. In this chapter, a brief overview of the history of the novel is presented, then, the two novels of the writer has been studied with respect to their themes, characters, and style. Chapter four: in this chapter after discussing the technicalities of the science of translation, the writer's works of translation have been studies.
Chapter five: in this chapter the editorial works of the writer have been discussed. The last chapter comprises of an overview, findings and recommendations.
ستر کی دہای کے افسانوی رجحانات کے تناظرمیں احمد جاوید کی افسانہ نگاری کا مطالعہ
Study of Ahmed Javed's short story in the context of trends of 70s' short story.
Tradition of Urdu short story has many turns and short story writers of 70s have their own view point about the political and social phenomena influencing the society. Ahmed Javed is one of them and has his own voice and tone which can easily be identified among others. This thesis is an attempt to identify and highlight the thematic as well as stylistic approach of Ahmed Javed used in his four books of short stories published so far. The thesis has been divided in five chapters. First chapter is biographic study of Ahmed Javed and consists of details of his life and works, His early life, educational career, professional associations and achievements are recorded in it. Moreover Ahmed Javed's literary grooming and his literary company is also highlighted. Second chapter discusses the thematic and stylistic study of short story writer of 70s. This chapter provides the grounds to understand collective features of Urdu short story of this decade. Third chapter is an analysis of thematic dimensions of Ahmed Javed's short stories. Political viewpoint, contemporary sensibility, romantic behavior and other important aspects are the part of this study. Fourth chapter is an analysis of stylistic distinctions of Ahmed Javed's fictional works. Symbols used by him and his command on narrative is discussed in this chapter to understand and highlight various dimensions of his art of writing. Fifth chapter consists of analysis of Ahmed Javed's short stories with his contemporary writers of 70s with regard to thematic approach and stylistic characteristics.
At last an overview, findings, concluding remarks and some recommendations are presented.
Gilgit Baltistan is a multilingual region of Pakistan .In this region Urdu poetry is promoting day by day. Urdu poetry of Gilgit Baltistan has a strong artistic and intellectual attachment with the main stream of Pakistani Urdu Poetry. On the other hand it has its own distinct tone and tradition according to its political, social and literal background. It is important to work on regional Urdu poetry and its stylistics for the improvement of Pakistani Urdu Poetry and literal trends. This research topic has been chosen to achieve this purpose. This study is based on the individual poetic attitudes, styles and themes of the Urdu poets of Gilgit Baltistan. To make the study comprehensive and authoritative and credible, the contents and chronological periods are classified as follows: In the first chapter geographical, historical and literary background of Gilgit Baltistan (beginning to 1948) has discussed.
In the second chapter early Urdu poetry of Gilgit Baltistan (1948 to 1980 has reviewed.
In the third chapter topics, themes and styles of Urdu poetry in Gilgit Baltistan (from 1980 to 2000), has been analyzed.
The Fourth chapter analyses the latest themes, areas and styles of the Urdu Poetry of Gilgit Baltistan (from2000 to 2013).
Finally the results of the research are compiled and some important recommendations have been presented.
“Poem in Urdu” wanders here and there in the environmental outskirts in search of its topics and having found its jewel, a poet with sensitive mind, with his poetic attitude and aptitude, and choice of words, finds such topics with whose embellished use provides his reader and critic with ample material. Our society has been facing terrorism for decades. In such an environment, poetic figminations and angles find new horizons.
Urdu – particularly poem in Urdu evolved in atmosphere of tyranny, terror, frightfulness, the poets, at topic level and with choice of words have excelled this in a decorated manner and have tried to abolish the atmosphere of horror and terror and have brought ease and comfort to the society. To revive this comfort and peace, the poets of poem in Urdu have used various narratives, different steps and angles of this narrative is the prime purpose of this research.
The dissertation is about the importance, need and literary stand of The dissertation is about the importance, need and literary stand of popular fiction. There is hardly any work done on this type of fiction from critical and research point of view. Popular fiction is generally termed as ‘street literature’. This literature and its writers do not have any literary standing either. That is why this literature was not considered to be worth taking pains for any kind of literary, research or critical work.
The tradition of popular fiction exists in almost all literatures of the world. In this research, effort has been made to highlight the fact that popular Urdu Fiction is by all means of any standard literary work. Its popularity in Urdu literature dates back the beginning of 20th century when it had a fairly large readership. An effort has also been made to analyze its different forms and to ascertain its extent in terms of themes and techniques. The standard of this literature has been determined through the writing of some of the popular writers and their fiction.
جدید اردو نظم میں سیاسی شعور (ن۔م۔راشد،فیض ،مجید امجداور منیر نیازی کے خصوصی حوالے سے)
If we look at the 2Oth century with a historical perspective it becomes evident that this era has been of political chaos. In the sub-continent, similar to the rest of the world, new colonization seems to be coming to an end in this area too. As a result political awareness, freedom movements and ideological associations seem to be at their peak. Urdu poem also entered into Its modem era in this pen`od- The sub-continent and ifs people were affected by the changes in the world of political horizon on one hand and saw the changes of in the local political on the other. Urdu poem has shown a complete awareness ~of the changing world scenario like other genres of literature, in which the political angle is very evident The questi`on is how this political awareness is highkghfod the modem Urdu poem and how the style and theme of poem get affected by it In the journey of political awareness in poem, four representative poets have been selected which include Noon Meem Rashid, Faiz Ahmed Faiz, Haloed Amjad and Munir Niazi.
The thesis has been divided in to 6 chapters: In the first chapter the introduction of topic, statement of the problem delimitation and research procedure have been e~. After that the basic thoughts related to literature and politics have been discussed the relationship between politics and literature has been tried to be established. Then tradition of political awareness in Urdu poem from the beginning till Iqbal, has been considered as a prologue study. In the last part of the chapter, those political and social conditions in the beginning of 2Oth century have been described which are the reasons of the development of the political awareness of the poets under consideration.
In the second chapter, background of Noon-Meem Rashid's poetry has been briefly discussed_ The second part of the chapter has been used for the study of political thoughts in the poems of Noon-Meem Rashid
The political and social background of Faiz Ahmed Faiz's poetry has been described in the 3rd chapter and then the analysis of Faiz's poems has been done in the light of political awareness The analysis of Majeed Amjad's poetry is done in 4th chapter and that of Muneer Nlazi is done in the 5th Chapter.
The 6th Chapter of the thesis consists of the overall description of the political awareness in the poetry of the poets under research the conclusion and the results of the research has been presented at the end of this chapter and same suggestion and recommendation have also been made.
میں نے اپنے مقا لے کو چھےابواب میں تقسیم کیا ہے جن کی تفصیل یہ ہے:-
پہلا باب افسا نے میں اسلوب اور تکنیک کی اہمیت کے بارے میں ہے ۔ اس باب کے آغاز میں افسا نے کی فنی مبا دیا ت کا جا ئز ہ لیا گیا ہے ۔ اس صنف نے مغر ب میں جنم لیا ۔ اس لیے اس کے اصول بھی وہیں مر تب کیے گئے لیکن اس صنف کی اردو میں آمد تک ہیئت کے اعتبار سے کئی تبد یلیاں آئیں ۔ اسلوب اور تکنیک کے کئی تجر بات ہو ئے ۔ اس باب میں ان باتوں کا جا ئزہ لیا گیا ہے ۔ علا وہ ازیں تکنیک اور اسلو ب کے فنی مسا ئل پر بحث کی گئی ہے اور مغر ب میں افسا نہ نگاری کی روایت اور اس رو ایت کی بد لتی ہو ئی صورتوں کو مو ضوع بنا یا گیا ہے۔
دوسرے باب کا تعلق اردو افسا نے کے دورِ اولین سے ہے ۔ پر یم چند اور سجاد حیدر یلدرم ہمارے دو ایسے افسا نہ نگار ہیں جنہوں نے اپنی حیات ہی میں دبستان کی شکل اختیار کر لی تھی ۔ اس طرح افسا نوی نثر میں حققیت نگاری اور روما نو یت کو ارتقا کر نے کا مو قع ملا ۔ اسی باب میں سجاد ظہیر اور ڈاکٹر رشید جہاں کے مجمو عے "انگارے" کا بھی تنقیدی اور تجز یا تی مطالعہ کیا گیا ہے ۔ اس مجموعے پر مغر ب کی جدید تحر یکوں کے اثرا ت ہیں ۔ اس طرح رو ما نیت اور حقیقت نگاری کے علا وہ جدید یت کی مغر بی روا یت کا جائزہ لیا گیا ہے۔
تیسرے با ب میں اردو افسا نے کو تر قی پسند تحریک کے ساتھ اور حقیقت نگا ری کی مقبولیت کے محر کات کے ساتھ سمجھنے کی کو شش کی گئی ہے ۔ یہ ارد و افسا نے کا زریں دور ہے۔ جب سعادت حسن منٹو، کر شن چندر ، غلام عباس ، عصمت چغتا ئی ، احمد ندیم قاسمی ، راجندر سنگھ بیدی جیسے اہم افسا نہ نگار سا منے آئے جن کی مقبولیت میں آج بھی کو ئی کمی واقع نہیں ہو ئی۔ تر قی پسند تحریک ایک واضح منشور کے ساتھ شروع ہو ئی تھی ۔ اس منشور کا تقا ضا تھا کہ جو کچھ لکھا جا ئے وہ حقیقت نگاری کے پیرا ئے میں ہو ۔ یہی وجہ ہے کہ اس عہد میں حقیقت نگا ری کو خوب مقبو لیت حاصل ہو ئی۔ لیکن حقیقت نگاری میں بھی ہر بڑے افسا نہ نگار نے اپنا انفرادی رنگ پیدا کیا ۔ اس باب میں جہاں ایک طرف حقیقت نگا ری کی مقبولیت کے اسبا ب کا جا ئزہ لیا گیاہے وہاں اہم افسا نہ نگا ری کی انفرادی خصوصیات کا بھی تجز یہ کیا گیا ہے ۔
چو تھا باب تر قی پسند عہد۔ اردو افسا نے پر مغر ب کے نفسیا تی و تکنیکی اثرا ت کے مو ضوع پر ہے ۔ تر قی پسند عہد میں اگر چہ حقیقت نگاری کو مقبو لیت حاصل ہو ئی مگر سما جی شعور کے سا تھ ساتھ ایک حلقہ ایسا بھی تھا جس نے مغر بی تحریکوں اور نظر یات سے کسبِ فیض کا سلسلہ جا ری رکھا ۔ خاص طور پر علمِ نفسیات کے اثرا ت بعض افسا نہ نگاروں پر بہت نما یاں دیکھے جا سکتے ہیں ۔ اس باب میں مغرب کے نفسیا تی و تکنیکی اثرا ت کا مجمو عی جا ئزہ لینے کے سا تھ ساتھ افسا نہ نگاروں کے انفرا دی مطا لعے بھی شامل ہیں ۔
پا نچواں باب "آزادی کے بعد اردو افسا نہ" کے مو ضوع پر ہے ۔ تقسیم ہند کے بعد افسا دات کے مو ضوع پر بہت لکھا گیا ۔ یہ المیہ جس نے انسا نیت کے اخلا قی رو یوں کی دھجیا ں اڑادی تھیں اپنے ساتھ کئی کہا نیاں لے کر آیا ۔ اس عہد میں افسا نہ نگاروں کے رویے اور طر یقہ اظہار کی جو صو رتیں سا منے آئیں۔ ان کا مطا لعہ کر تے ہو ئے یہ سمجھنے کی کو شش کی گئی ہے کہ فسا دات کے زمانے میں معیاری افسا نہ تعداد میں کیوں کم ہے ۔ علاوہ ازیں فسا دات کے بعد ہجر ت کے کر ب اور رو ما نو یت کا بھی تنقیدی جا ئزہ لیا گیا ہے ۔ ہمارے ہاں سا ٹھ کی دہا ئی میں جدید افسا نے کا آغاز ہوا اسی باب میں ساٹھ اور ستر کی دہا ئی میں جدید افسا نے کے محر کات کا بھی جا ئزہ لیا گیا ہے ۔
چھٹا با ب جدید افسا نے میں اسلوب اور تکنیک کے نئے تجر بات کے مجمو عی جا ئزے اور انفرا دی مطا لعوں پر مشتمل ہے۔ اس باب میں نئے افسا نے کے فکری پس منظر ، علا متی نظام اور اس کے فنی لوا زم، اسلوب اور تکنیک کی سطح پر وقوع پذ یر ہو نے والی تبدیلیوں ، ابلاغ کے مسا ئل ، نئے زاویہ نظر کی آمد اور علا متی افسا نے کی مقبولیت کے محر کات کو تفصیل سے جاننے کی کو شش کی گئی ہے ۔ سا ٹھ کے بعد ابھر نے والے افسا نہ نگاروں میں بے شمار نام ایسے ہیں جو اپنا انفرا دی رنگ رکھتے ہیں اس با ب میں منتخب جدید افسانہ نگاروں کی تکنیک اور اسلوب کو پیش ِ نظر رکھتے ہو ئے ان کی انفرا دیت کو سمجھنے کی کو شش کی گئی ہے
Rebellious Character in Urdu Novel
Urdu novel has manifested contemporary attitudes and behaviors of the society. The writers has tried to present the social and psychological issues and problems of the people in novels. Sometimes it appears in the theme of the novel and sometimes in the characters. Rebellious characters are always there in every society who question the prevailing customs and values and try to cross the barriers of so called norms. The thesis is based on analytical study of the rebellious characters in Urdu novel.
It consists of five chapters:
First chapter is about basic concepts of the study and operational definitions.
Second chapter discusses the very first period of Urdu novel with regard to presentation of rebellious characters.
Third chapter consists of the analytical study of selected characters of Urdu novel in the context of rebellious attitude. This chapter covers the period of Urdu novel from the start of 20th century to partition.
Fourth chapter covers the post-partition period of Urdu novel to discuss and analyze the behaviors of rebellious characters.
Fifth chapter is for conclusion and recommendations.
پاکستانی ناولوں کا ہیتی ، اسلوبیاتی اور ماجرائی مطالعہ:1947تا2000
Present study comprises of following six chapters. First chapter consists of basic study of ‘Form, style of novel and MAJRA’. It has been strived to define form, style and MAJRA. This is a foundation stone of present thesis. It determines a specific direction of the light of researchers’ opinions.
The topic of second chapter is ‘Tradition of Urdu Novel in Pre-Partition Era – A Background Study’. In this chapter a number of novels from beginning to partition have been studied in the perspective of form, style and MAJRA. Furthermore, impacts of different literary movements on Urdu novels have also been analyzed.
In the third chapter, analytical study of various novels from establishment of Pakistan to 1960 has been presented. Post-partition phase gave birth to circumstances of political upheaval and riots which stirred ideological and structural experiments in Urdu novel. Some renowned novels have been studied generally and ‘ESE BULANDEE ESE PASTEE’, ‘NAGRE NAGRE PHERA MUSAFIR’, ‘KHUDA KE BASTE’, ‘KHOON-E-JIGR HONE TAK’ AND ‘AAG KA DAREA’ have been specially studied on the basis of form, style and MAJRA.
Fourth chapter consists of different novels written from 1960 to 1980. Partition, riots, political disturbance, large scale migration and martial law shattered foundations of entire society. Likewise social and cultural problems also metamorphosed. With the advent of these radical changes, literature as a delicate genre also changed alongwith bent of mind. These social changes personified in novel in new style, form and plot, thus, a number of novels have been studied specially focusing on form, style and MAJRA.
In fifth chapter, selected novels from 1980 to 2000 have been critically analyzed. This era revealed Decca Falls, sectarian conflicts, linguistic and ethnic biases, advancement of media, bloodshed, frustration in youth, deterioration of peace and tranquility, political crises, mutilation of values and such other issues as well as bitter realities of life. All above mentioned facts are evident in topic, form, style and MAJRA. All these features have been studied and analyzed minutely in this chapter. Presently study is concerned with significant novels of 1980s like ‘BASTE’, ‘JANAM KUDNLE’, ‘DEWAR KE PEECHE’ and ‘KHUSHEO KA BAGH’.
Sixth chapter presents overall analysis of selected novels ranging from partition to 2000 with perspective of form, style and MAJRA. Moreover, logical conclusions and recommendations have been presented.
The topic of this research is, "The Reflection of Islamic Thought in Pakistani Urdu Novels". It has been divided into five chapters.
Chapter 1 comprises two parts: the first deals wiht the ideal of Muslim Nationhood. The concept of Nationhood propounded by lqbal and Jinnah has been primarily focused upon whereas the definition of Muslim Nationhood has been determined with reference to various critics and thinkers.
In the second part of this chapter, after a brief introduction of other international religions, their concept of Nationhood has been discussed. Basic tenets of Islam Oneness of God, Prophet hood, eschatological details along with the basic rights of the non-Muslims have also been discussed.
Chapter two also comprises two parts. The first part analyzes Islamic trends and traditions of Urdu literature. Some other major literary movements have also come under discussion, but the focus remains on those intellectuals and critics who are associated with the movement of Islamic literature. The second part is about the origin, effects of Islamic literary movements and other relevant issues.
The first part of chapter three discusses the background of Pakistan movement Two, Nation theory, Sir Syed Movement, the Movement of Islamic literature with its background of Urdu - Hindi controversy, and the concept of Muslim Nationhood. The second part of this chapter includes a discussion of Islamic thought in pre-independence Urdu.
The fourth chapter deals with the theme of Islamic thought and civilization in the post-independence Urdu novels. A list of other Pakistani novels in other languages such as Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi and Saraiki has also been included. These novels stand for Islamic thought in relation to Pakistani civilization.
The fifth chapter is gist comprising conclusions and estimations derived, form anlyses of the researcher.