The trends for the Urdu short story right from the beginning are political. Politics and Literature have deep ties because of the desire of change in almost every writer. I have studied these influences in the context of Pakistani Urdu short story (1947 to 2011).
The thesis under view consists of five chapters. The first chapter contains "Introduction and basic concepts" of Politics and literature and its ties. The second chapter covers the influence of politics on short story from 1900 to 1947. Chapter three covers the political influence on Pakistani Urdu short story. I have discussed political influences on modern short story from 1960 to 2011 in chapter four. Chapter five contains conclusion, recommendation and synthesis of first four chapters. In the present study I have also focused the changing political, social and economic scenario and incidents which have influenced Pakistani politics
اردو افسانے میں واحد متکلم کا کردار: تجزیاتی مطالعہ
A short story, novel or drama is in fact a representation or reflection of life. Multiple techniques are used with reference to plot, characterization and narration for this purpose. The role of a narrator is quite significant in this respect. The narrator has been vital in the development of theme and events of a story from the beginning. The history of the genre of the short story reveals that the narrator has been portrayed in many ways according to the structure, composition and other requirements of the story. This thesis aims at discovering and identifying the significance of the narrator in the development and success of a short story. The research is based on the hypothesis that using a narrator is quite helpful for the story- writer because it can state the external and extraneous factors as well as the internal realities and hidden phenomenon.
The thesis includes six chapters in all. The first chapter deals with the introduction, definition and literary limitations of a narrator. It also sheds light on its significance in fiction and studies the historical development of its use in fiction. In the second chapter the early period of Urdu Short Story has been studied in this respect and particularly the use of narrator by the writers like Sajjad Haidar Yaldram and Prem Chand has been studied and analyzed.
The third chapter covers the period between 1936 and 1947 and the use of this technique by the writers like Saadat Hassan Manto, Krishan Chand, Rajindar Singh Bedi, Ghulam Abbass, Aziz Ahmad and Amsat Chughtai has been specifically studied and analyzed. This period is considered very important in the history of Urdu short story and the Progressive school of thought influenced the Urdu short story the most in this period. Angarey, the first anthology of progressive short stories was published; which has also been a focus of study in this chapter. The fourth chapter deals with the post-colonial story writers until 1960s. It includes the most important names such as Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi, Mumtaz Mufti, Qurat al Ain Haidar, Ashfaque Ahmed, Bano Qudsia, Khadija Mastoor, Razia Fashi Ahmad, Akhtar Jamal and Ghulam Saqlain Naqvi. An attempt has been made to comprehend how these writers have used the narrator to develop their short stories and make them more effective. The fifth chapter deals with the contemporary short story. Modern writers like Intizar Hussain, Anwar Sajjad, Khalida Hussain, Mirza Hamid Baig, Rasheed Amjad, Mansha yaad and Asad Muhammad Khan have been studied in respect of the use of narrator in their short stories. The last chapter gives an overview of the whole period and concludes the whole thesis by giving an over-all analysis of the role narrator in Urdu short story.
اردو زبان کا تاریخی و لسانی جائزہ: (دکنی عہد سے بیسویں صدی تک)
The topic of this dissertation is to evaluate historic and linguistic aspects of Urdu language (covering from Deccan Era to 20th century). The dissertation is divided into seven chapters to grasp and comprehend it well. These seven chapters are the reflection of poetry and prose which emerged under the influence of proclivity and concoction of renowned language and literature because it is intended to observe how conception and comprehension of language inspire human intellect, behavior and action. It also reveals that how by passing through evolutionary changes creativity and comprehension bring about maturity and stability in civilization and literature and under the influence of these changes what does a society expresses.
In first chapter 'Urdu language of Deccan Era' is briefly evaluated. As Urdu language, its growth and its publication started from Deccan and then it got the status of official language. Moreover, how the poet of Deccani Wali covered the journey of tradition and proclivity for the poets of the North India. It is almost the tale of the changes of the Urdu language and literature. Its brief sketch has been presented.
In second chapter salient features and motives which ornamented poetry (covering from Wali to Dagh) which inspired language and mode of poetry and appointed specific style and trend is considered. The poetry which is written under impact of these motives and became representative of that particular literary period is evaluated.
In third chapter prose (covering from Insha to Mirza Ghalib) is considered the characteristic language and contemporary prose of that age along with changes of construction and composition in different periods are also discussed.
Fourth chapter is a review of prose written under the influence of Fort Willium College regarding its diction and philological aspects. So that it will be revealed how Urdu language developed till 20th century.
Chapter five throws light on the services of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and his cohort, who worker for Urdu to expand its criterion.
Sixth chapter cover the changes in language and topics in Urdu poetry and prose in 20' - century. Moreover the changes brought about by the harmony of language inclinations with requisition of modern era are narrated.
Seventh chapter collaborates collective and brief review of Urdu language and literature. I: presents alternate side of Urdu language and literature by covering its all prospects.
In the end references which were helpful in preparation of this dissertation are given.
Urdu Short Story and Awareness of its Contemporary Scenario
Literature is closely associated with its contemporary political and social scenario. Writers conceive their ideas directly from the environment they live in. So literary works reflect the awareness of the writer towards current issues. Urdu short story has manifested the awareness of its writers about social and political problems of the region and is a reliable source to understand the problems faced by the common man in the last few decades.
The thesis discusses the Urdu short story in its contemporary social and political scenario. It is divided into six chapters.
First chapter discusses the relation of literature and its contemporary social and political issues in general and also with special reference to Urdu literature.
Second chapter discusses the first period of Urdu short story in the above mentioned perspective especially the post-partition situation of the country.
Third chapter analysis the Urdu short story written in 60s with special reference to the martial law and its impacts on the society.
In fourth chapter Urdu short story of 70s is discussed. This decade is of great shock for the nation because the fall of Dacca. Thorough discussion has been undertaken on the short story of this period and in thematic as well as stylistic perspective.
Fifth chapter discusses the short story of 80s in the above mention context. And the sixth chapter consists of conclusions and recommendations.
Language and associated fields have always been favorite topics of discussion among Urdu scholars. Initially these discussions were introductory but gradually they expanded. The grammar had been compiled, dictionaries published and brief discussions ensued about the creation and evolution of Urdu language. During the colonial era in India the socio-linguistics' issues imparted a vital role in these language researches discussions but always remained in the background.
There were a number of prominent orientalists who pioneered modern language research in India. Although later on under colonial influence and in the socio-political scenario of India, Muslim and Hindu etymologists also indulged in these language discussions using modern techniques and theories. The growth of English language and the resistance against it, Urdu-Hindi dispute and Hind-Islamic cultural identity are major factors which enhanced the importance of language and helped to establish linguistics as a field of study. So as a result by 1947 many vital and notable works had already emerged.
After the establishment of Pakistan, studies in language continued and appreciable efforts can be found in improving existing language studies. In this new scenario modern linguistic theories and discourse has become important and the traditional language-related studies stayed behind as compared to more recognized and scientific methods that had evolved. Not only existing data of language study had been analyzed thoroughly but many new theories and trends discovered as well.
The primary purpose of my research is to study, analyze and evaluate the whole language related discourse of Urdu in Pakistan. Through this the scattered material would be collected and easily determined its status, worth and significance. This research would help understand the details of studies in Urdu language.
Dr. John Borthwick Gilchrist is one of those Orientalists, who did great service for the development of Urdu Language and Literature. His scholarly interests were not too limited to Urdu only; he did linguistic research in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian and Hindee also. He is among the founders of Urdu Grammar and lexicography.
Gilchrist's Grammar can be called the first comprehensive effort in Urdu. He introduced a new method in the tradition of Urdu Grammar. He was the first one who wrote Grammar on the basis of Parts of speech in Urdu. In reality Gilchrist had done this scholarly almost one and a half century prior to Moulvi Abdul Haq, who compiled "Quwaid-e-Urdu" on the same Grammatical Model.
Gilchrist's Grammar is written in English, and for Urdu words Roman Script and vis-à-vis Urdu type is used. Gilchrist's English Hindoostani Dictionary a huge one, consists of thirteen hundred pages. It is important to analyze the similarities and differences between the dictionary part of Hindoostanee Philology (1810) and the original Dictionary. Moreover in this dissertation the different pieces of dictionary dispersed into different books of Gilchrist are analyzed. It is tried to bring to light the behaviors and strategies of colonizers on the basis of analysis of Gilchrist's Grammar, Dictionary and other linguistic work of Gilchrist.
In this study the focus is, to enquire the method, theory and Grammatical model of Gilchrist. After the detailed analytical study of Gilchrist's Grammar and Dictionary, his other linguistic works are studied which hitherto were undiscussed in Urdu circles. Among them Gilchrist's efforts in laying down the foundation of renaissance of Urdu prose, Structuring of "Language of command", publishing of Urdu prose books and his translations, and struggle for making Urdu an official language along with any other effort which helped in one or the other way, in promoting Urdu Language and literature are discussed in detail.
Gilchrist wrote more than twenty titles on Urdu Language in English and Roman Script. Their scarcity and roman script were the main causes, that they were not studied and acknowledged in Urdu circles. This dissertation is written to fill that space. I hope it will start a serious discussion in Urdu Grammar and Dictionary studies.
“Ghazal”is evergreen genere of Urdu literature. With the passage of time, it has gone through changes in its subjects, and structure. Because of these changes, not only variety of Urdu Ghazal was amplified, but also there was an addition in the critical treasure of Ghazal. After the Partition, Urdu Ghazal in Pakistan has also got gradually distinctiveness in its thematic approach, topical variation and artistic characteristics. Today where “Pakistani Ghazal” has got a solitary identity, the critics on it has become most comprehensive, accurate, modern and most helpful in its consideration and explanation. The criticism of Urdu Ghazal not only focused the changes coming in the language and expression, methods and rhythm of Urdu Ghazal but also harmonized itself with the changes.
This research is an effort to know and evaluate the trends in critiquing “Urdu Ghazal of Pakistan” and the nature and quality of its development. This study will be helpful not only in knowing the characteristics, trends and inclination of Urdu Ghazal of Pakistan but also will support in consideration of periodical changes in trends and views of critical analysis of Pakistani Urdu Ghazal and identifying the nature, pace and direction of its future journey.
The following kinds of materials have been considered fundamental, to cover up the authentic sources and materials:
1. The critical books containing discussions, as a whole, on Pakistani Urdu Ghazal.
2. Constant Critical Books on Urdu Ghazal/Ghazal poets.
3. General reviews which contain references of Pakistani Urdu Ghazal.
4. Articles containing analytical discussions of Pakistani Urdu Ghazal.
5. Articles consisting of comprehensive evaluation on Pakistani Urdu Ghazal.
6. Critical Books containing any article written on Pakistani Ghazal or any Pakistani Ghazal poet.
7. Compiled Books, Prefaces and Flaps on the collection of Ghazal of renowned poets.
8. Important analytical articles on Pakistani Ghazal or Ghazal poet.
9. The special volumes of journals and magazines on Ghazal poet or Ghazal.
10. Published or unpublished degree thesis.
In making a comprehensive study, chapters have been presented as under:
Chapter one is consisted of the discussion on the critical culture of Urdu Ghazal and basic points in which the initial stages of critic on Ghazal and prominent features are included.
The second chapter presents an analysis of the different trends of critics on Pakistani Urdu Ghazal from 1947 to 1960.
The third chapter presents a review of the trends of critic on Ghazal in the critical books and famous journals and publications which are written in respect of movements of lingual development in 1960’sand 1970’s.
The fourth chapter is consisted on the analysis of critics on Ghazal and different trends in 1980’s and 1990’s.
The fifth chapter presents an analysis of the critics of Ghazal from 2000 till now in respect of an established Pakistani consciousness.
The sixth chapter presents a collective analysis of critics of Ghazal in the light of the initial and evolutionary trends and modern critical views and discussions of Pakistani Urdu Ghazal, and there are some recommendations and suggestions as well.
Urdu novel has manifested contemporary attitudes and behaviors of the society. The writers has tried to present the social and psychological issues and problems of the people in novels. Sometimes it appears in the theme of the novel and sometimes in the characters. Rebellious characters are always there in every society who question the prevailing customs and values and try to cross the barriers of so called norms. The thesis is based on analytical study of the rebellious characters in Urdu novel.
It consists of five chapters:
First chapter is about basic concepts of the study and operational definitions.
Second chapter discusses the very first period of Urdu novel with regard to presentation of rebellious characters.
Third chapter consists of the analytical study of selected characters of Urdu novel in the context of rebellious attitude. This chapter covers the period of Urdu novel from the start of 20th century to partition.
Fourth chapter covers the post-partition period of Urdu novel to discuss and analyze the behaviors of rebellious characters.
Fifth chapter is for conclusion and recommendations.
In the present research work, the effect of thought and stylistic study of Modern Poem on Urdu Ghazal is discussed in detail. Urdu Ghazal and modern poem reflects the human feelings and truth of the present. Therefore for this research work, the mutual relationship of Modern Poem on Urdu Ghazal, thinking, technical and stylistics study is taken as a topic for research. It is tried to find the changes and factors producing changes, what is the creative process of both and what is the individual value of each and what is the individuality though the study of thinking effect of Modern Poem on Urdu Ghazal.
For this purpose the present research work is divided into five chapters.
First chapter is about the introduction of the topic in detail. In this chapter with the basic discussion on Urdu Ghazal and Poem the differences between Ghazal and Poem and Molana Aaltaf Hussain Haale to the present shape is analyzed beautifully.
The second chapter is about the formal effects of modern poem on Urdu Ghazal. In this chapter the formal process of Modern Poem and the appearance of nw formal changes under the effect of Modern Poem in Urdu Ghazal is also analyzed. The effect of Modern Poem on Urdu Ghazal is also important that because of it in Urdu Ghazal, Anti Ghazal, Azad Ghazal, Zain Ghazal, Ghazal like Geet, Tedy Ghazal, Mukalmati Ghazal, Mokalmati Azad Ghazal and Ghazal-e- Musalsal is discussed in this chapter in detail.
The third chapter of this research work is about the analysis of formal effect of Modern Poem on Urdu Ghazal, formal process and the constituent of formal relation of poem and Ghazal, imagination, language and expression, symbolism, punctuation, changes in language and expression, changes in expression and immediate reaction is possible only by the effect of Modern Poem.
Chapter four is about the discussion of thinking effect of Modern Poem on Urdu Ghazal. Therefore in this chapter thinking combination of Ghazal and Poem, creation process between Urdu Ghazal and Modern Poem and the thinking effect of Modern Poem on the Urdu Ghazal is discussed in detail in this chapter.
The last and final chapter is the overall analysis of the topic and suggestion are listed here for further research work on the base of present research work.
پاکستانی ظنزیہ و مزاحیہ شاعری کے سیاسی و سماجی محرکات کا تنقیدی جائزہ
Before the establishment of Pakistan, there was a strong tradition of Urdu satire and humorous poetry. After the disintegration of subcontinent, due to the geographical, cultural and political charges a new era of Urdu humorous poetry has been started. It has adopted the effects of changes due to the creation of Pakistan in 1947 and gradually has reflected the political, social, cultural and economical changes of the new born country. Therefore, satire and humorous poetry is considered as the historical literature of Pakistan's political and social circumstances. It also collects materials and topics from the changes in political and social fields of national and international levels, and whenever it founds any weakness, it hits that point. That’s why there was started a great addition in the Urdu humorous poetry's treasure on one side, and on the other side new possibilities were introduced in the development of Urdu language and critical literature. There was less attention towards humorous poetry in comparison to the serious poetry, while the humorous poetry also accepts the effects of political and social changes as the serious poetry does. As the serious poetry supports the critical literature, humorous poetry also isn't lagging behind in throwing light on such facts.
The under view research has been written to highlight the importance and usefulness of humorous poetry on the above basis. To make this research a complete work the distribution of chapter has been done as under:
1st Chapter: Throwing light on the principles and basic topics on satire and humorous poetry with discussion on humorous before creation of Pakistan.
2nd Chapter: Humorous poetry from 1947 to 1960/discussion on social and political conditions of this era.
3rd Chapter: Humorous poetry from 1960 to 1971 study of humorous poetry in the light of political and social conditions of that era.
4th Chapter: 1971 to 1990 / Social circumstances and political environment and humorous poetry.
5th Chapter 1991 to 2013 political and social conditions and its effects on humorous poetry.
Last Chapter: An overview, conclusion and recommendations were presented
In the early decades of 20th century, Urdu Literature was awarded by a contemporary genre called Afsana which is a notorious and noted genre of Urdu Literature and the literary criticism upon Urdu Afsana is existed for as long as Urdu Afsana itself. Through this study '' The Evolution of Literary Criticism Upon Pakistani Urdu Afsana: Analytical Study '' analyzes and evaluates the salient features of literary critical writings upon Pakistani Urdu Afsana, which is expanded all most of the century.
The criticism upon Urdu Afsana started its work not so efficiently. In the early decades of twentieth century, there were some critical essays and prefaces and nothing to flip through the pages. The progressive movement in Urdu Afsana showed commitment to the Marxist Philosophy in their writings, before the creation of Pakistan brought some novelty in the subjects, techniques and subject material equally to its literary criticism. Most of the contemporary writers dealt with the the theme of'' Realism " in 1947 to 1960.Therefore the criticism upon Urdu Afsana before partition of the subcontinent should be under consideration due to its acute importance. Before 1947, criticism upon Urdu Afsana consist of Narrative and Basic discussion or controversies. After that, Modern literary criticism upon Pakistani Urdu Afsana is basically formed on the basis of literary theory of symbolism, impressionism and surialism which were the newly added spices in the literary Urdu criticism written around the decades of sixties and seventies. The criticism written in that age was more mature and appealing to the critical minds.
In 1960 to 1970, the origin time period of criticism upon Pakistani Urdu Afsana. It covers the various theoretical debate on Pakistani culture. It contains the effects of Modernism on decorum of literary criticism upon Pakistani Urdu Afsana.
The literary study gets the taste of new theories around the eighties, ''Structuralism '' than '' Post Structuralism'' introduced as the very new and fresh terms in literary criticism of Urdu Afsana. 1980 till day shows survey of effects of post Modernism, Structuralism, Post Structuralism, the study of distinguish feature of literary criticism upon Urdu Afsana is also a part of thesis. In the last chapter, comparative study of the literary criticism upon Pakistani Urdu Afsana collected explorations and results of the discussion has been arranged.
Although , the literary criticism of Pakistani Urdu Afsana is comprised of various time period discussed in this study but the division of critical inclinations of one time period affects the fictional criticism of others time periods. Therefore, criticism of Pakistani Urdu Afsana went through different stages. Till now there are changes taking place in it. From the start of twentieth century till now the critical literary theories, social and political conditions changed it and it becomes more progressive and elaborated.
The objective of this study is to highlight all the ups and downs of literary criticism written upon Pakistani Urdu Afsana during 20th century. It is the analytical study of quality and evolution of literary criticism .Actually this study is an attempt to understand the critical approaches to Pakistani Urdu Afsana which vary from time to time.
Bano Qudsia: Life and Works
Bano Qudsia is a versatile genius of Urdu Literature. She is considered a remarkable literary figure round the globe. There are multiple layers of her intellectual endeavor. Her multifaceted novelty and ingenuity is reflected in different genres including short story, novel, drama and autobiography. Her literary enterprise has heightened her artistic stature among Udru writers. By 2014, 31 books have been published by Bano Qudsia. This dissertation present artistic and reflective essence of her works. The topic of the study is "Bano Qudsia: Life and Works".
The present study is divided into six chapters. In first chapter, a detailed subjective analysis is presented in accordance with her superb works. In second chapter genre of short story narrated by Bano Qudsia is divided into three sections. The first section highlights critical analysis of intermingling traits of psychological, sociological and metaphysical aspects. The second section reflects her artistic and technical craftsmanship and it deeply analyzes the stylistic and linguistic features. The last section encompasses conclusion of the study. The third chapter highlights her art of novel writing by Bano Qudsia and brings to the fore an analysis of her reflective and creative journey.
The reflective dimension of her novel writing analyzes intertwining continuum of spiritual elements interspersed with sociological and literary traits. On the other hand technical dimension of her intellectual quest highlights phases of progression of the art of characterization. In fourth chapter art of drama writing, its contextual and technical and reflective analysis of Punjabi drama by Bano Qudsia is presented. The fifth chapter summarizes an overview of her miscellaneous writings including literary journalism and biographical elements. The conclusion encapsulates a detailed overview and results of the study.
Rebellious Attitude in Urdu Short Story
Rebellious attitude in human beings has been explored as an important motive in Urdu short stories. The first chapter deals with the definitions, background, range, tradition and limitations of the rebellious attitude and some Islamic concepts about it. In addition, its presence in the other genres like novel, dastaan and poetry has also been discussed. In the earlier times, rebellious attitude was expressed in various forms that shows that the poets and writers described it without any fear and due to this a few had to suffer as well.
The second chapter throws light on the earlier forms of rebellious attitude. In Yaldaram school of thought, we find traces of social suppression and romance, while in Prem Chand school of thought we find rejection of the conflicting nature of social values. The third chapter shows different varieties of rebellious attitudes in the short stories written between 1932 and 1947. The short stories of Angar focus on the strong expressions of rebellion that gave a new look to the Urdu short story at that time. Similarly, the story writers of the progressive school of thought highlight an organized rebellion against political and religious exploitation and the class based society of the sub-continent. Manto and Asmat present rebellious attitude resulting from sexual and psychological frustration. The fourth chapter is about post partition Urdu short story and various forms of rebellious behavior. The short stories written under the influence of Halqa e Arbab e Zouq show a clear deviation from the traditional themes. The writers combined the topics of migration, riots and rebellious elements. The fifth chapter focuses on the following forms of the rebellious attitudes in short story.
1. Rebellion against the existing/prevailing theories.
2. Rebellion against existing topics, writers and values (Symbolic short story)
3. Rebellion against social and political suppression (Resistance in short story).
4. Rebellious attitide against self and cosmic suppression.
The sixth chapter gives an overall evaluation of the rebellious attitudes.
بیسویں صدی میں خیبرپختونخوا میں اردو شاعری کا ارتقا
The aim of this research work is to give a critical appraisal of Urdu poetry in 20th century in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Urdu Ghazal started here in Mughal era and Urdu Nazam lately took importance. Urdu poetry is discussed in detail; prominent poets of KPK have also given much importance in this research work. It has been tried to bring all the changes and factors producing changes into light. A comparison also being made between old and new poets that how and to what extent their way of thinking and subjects vary.
For this purpose this research work is divided into five chapters.
First chapter is about the culture and geographical location of this province along with the introduction and a brief background of Urdu poetry before 20th century. Poets like Maazullah khan and Qasim Ali Khan have been discussed in detail whose contributions are second to none in this province.
The second chapter is the study and analysis of the poetic evolution of pre-partition era. In this chapter the poets of early 20th century and their works have been discussed briefly. Poets like sa'en Ahmed Ali, Ghulam Hussain Misger, Aasi Sarhadi, Dilawar Khan Bedil, Jaffar Ali Jaffery, Barq Ganjavi, Qazi Muhammad Umar Qaza, Mir Waliullah Abbottabadi and Khalis Makki brought a revolution in the field of Ghazal and Nazam (poem).
Third chapter of this thesis is the story of poetry and poets of this province emerged after partition till 1980.In this era a number of trends and changes appeared in Ghazal and poems of KPK. Farigh Bukhari, Raza Hamdani, Muhsin Ihsan, Ahmed Faraz, Qateel Shifaie, Khatir Ghaznavi, Yousaf Raja Chishti and Saeed Ahmed Akhtar were the leading poets of this era who brought positive changes in the genre of Ghazal and Nazam. They were the pioneers of Modern poetry in KPK. In this chapter importance has been given to the modern poetry of these poets.
The fourth chapter is comprised of the study and evolution of poetry from 1980 to 2013.In the modern age most of the poets are composing Azad Nazams (free verses) along with Ghazal and Nazam. In this era the poetic scenario have been completely changed in this province.poets like Maqbool Aamir, Ghulam Muhammad Qasir, Ahmad Hussain Mujahid, Nishat Sarhadi, Akhtar Raza Saleemi, Ahmed Fawad Aasif Saqib and Bushra Farrukh have tremendous contribution in modern poetry of KPK.I have made a truthful analysis of these poets in this chapter.
The last chapter is the overall analysis of the topic and suggestions are listed here for further research work and for the promotion of poetic trends in KPK.