More than half of world's population consists of women. The women is forced to live life according the social norms, attitudes moral, ethical values, and laws of the land. In a male dominated society the status of women is not decided in a fair and just manner. The rights of women are exploited due to which many problems have emerge in the society Generally in Urdu literature and especially in Urdu short stories such issue are presented nicely It was not possible for the writers of short stories to stay away from the realities of women’s life. Hence the writers of short stories tried to give a reflection of these problems of the women of their era. The research work done for present dissertation also focuses on such issues. In this study social economic and psychological problems of women have been probed. The circumstances which give rise to these problems have also been studied.
The manuscript has been divided in to six chapters. First Chapter emphasis the problems of women in a historical perspective. Second Chapter covers the period of short stories written prior to the creation of Pakistan. The Third chapter problems faced by women in 1st period of Pakistan as presented in short stories by various writers have been analysed. In the fourth, chapter too, the short stories of various writers who have tried to raise issues faced by women have been discussed. In the fifth chapter, modern period and its demands new problems of woman of modern era along with a blend of old problems have been analysed
This study encompasses the influence of Western culture and civilization on Urdu novel from its beginning in 1869 to 2012. Urdu novel has strong ties with culture and civilization related themes. Novel in Urdu, right from its beginning, has been deeply influenced by Western culture and civilization.
The thesis under view has been divided into six chapters. The first chapter discusses the terms culture and civilization, giving various views, Western as well as Eastern, in this regard. Furthermore, the relation between culture, civilization and literature has also been discussed briefly. Chapter two is based upon the works of pioneers of Urdu novel. This chapter covers the influence of Western culture and civilization on early novels from 1869 to 1930. In the third chapter of the thesis, influence of Western culture and civilization on the novels written under the influence of Progressive Writers Movement has been discussed in detail. Chapter four highlights post-independence Pakistani novel from 1947 to 1980. In the fifth chapter, influence of Western culture and civilization on contemporary Urdu novel has been discussed. The sixth and last chapter comprises a conclusion, overall review of the discussion done in first five chapters, findings of the research and recommendations for further research work.
پاکستان ٹیلیویژن کے سلسلہ وار اردو ڈرامے میں پنجاب اور سندھ کے جاگیردارانہ سماج کا تحقیقی وتجزیاتی مطالعہ
Drama is among one of the earlier forms of literature. Drama is a medium that has been used to represent cultural and Social realities Since its earliest days. This representation became more evident in the form of television drama. East India company's arrival in the sub-continent brought stage in India and drama started to presented on stage. Theatrical companies started putting on performances for verging audiences. Drama became even more popular with the advent of television. Radio and stage failed to complete with the popularity of television drama.
This research (and Thesis) is about those television plays which are based on the feudal societies of Punjab and Sindh. As it would have made the discussion extremely lengthy to include plays from all the centers of Pakistan television, plays from Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore centers taken for the research.
The first chapter introduces the topic of the thesis. The basics and principles of drama, its literary impotence, it beginning and evolution, its kinds and traditions are discussed.
The second chapter is discusses the feudal system. The reasons of its strength are explanation. How it began and ended in Europe? Why has it survived in Pakistan while being eradicated from the rest of the world? Answers to all such questions are provided in this chapter. Details of when and how PTV transmissions began are furnished as well.
From its onset till the twenty first century, feudal system has been a theme of PTV drama repeatedly. Third, fourth and fifth chapters present a critical review of the plays about this system in the light of Pakistan's political and social situation. The last chapter puts forward the marrow of the entire research as it provider an overall analysis of these plays and advances the outcome and recommendations in this regard.
This research thesis is about Urdu column writing --- An analysis of its literary and linguistic importance. The purpose of selecting this topic for research is to analyse the place of Urdu column in Urdu literature and its services for Urdu language. The main research questions of this thesis are,
1-. Does column belong to literature or it is a part of Journalism?
2-. Has column rendered any service to Urdu literature and language?
3-. What will be the future of Urdu column in the modern age of information technology and electronic media?
To answer the above questions, the research thesis is divided into six chapters.
First chapter defines the column, gives its kinds, states its tradition in Urdu and analyse the literary importance of early Urdu column writers. The second chapter explores the whole history of Urdu column in Pakistan during the last six decades (1947-2010). About forty Urdu column writers of the front rank, belonging to different decades, have been included in this chapter, discussing their writing styles and literary importance. The third and fourth chapters are about the subjective study of the Urdu column and its comparison with other non-fictional types of Urdu prose. In fifth chapter literary and linguistic importance of Urdu column has been discussed. The last chapter concludes the whole discussion and gives a few suggestions for future research.
The thesis has sufficient proofs that Urdu column is an integral part of non-fictional Urdu prose. Its contribution to Urdu language and literature is no less than any other type of Urdu prose. Urdu column became a source of great popularity for Urdu newspapers in the beginning. Even now, when newspapers have lost their attraction due to electronic media because the news printed in them are already in the knowledge of the readers, people buy newspapers to read columns of their favourite column writers. Thus information technology and electronic media do not seem to effect the Urdu column. On the other hand its future is expected to be bright.
The present research work sets out to analyze representation of different religions in Urdu novel. Religion is pivot of life. So important is it in human life that its value cannot be overstated. In one way or other it reflects in all spheres of human life and controls all activities: may it be rituals of birth or death; wedding ceremonies or funerals. Literature, on the other hand is reflection of life. It takes stuff from society and portrays the way life actually goes on there. Realizing the important roles of religion and literature this research project attempts to analyse the way different religions are presented in Urdu novels (an important part of Urdu literature.
This research work is divided into six chapters. The first chapter carries a wholesome discussion on major religions including: Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Christianity, and Islam. It covers detailed introduction of these religions, their basic belief system, rituals, religious personalities, and code of life.
Second chapter mainly covers topics of modernity, equality, accountability, and ethics with respect to different religions. It also brings under discussion areas of goodness and badness; good, and evil; life and death as presented in Urdu novel.
In third chapter spirituality and religions along with ways and value of preaching common people in the light of teachings of different religions as portrayed in Urdu novel is discussed.
In fourth chapter extremism, sectarianism, intolerance etc. in religious context and concept of punishment and reward in different religions as presented in Urdu novel is discussed.
Fifth chapter role of religious leaders and preachers, highlighting their positive and negative aspects has been analysed in relation to different religions. Finally, light has also been shed on status of women in different religions as represented in Urdu novels. It also covers exploitation of women in the name of their respective religions.
Chapter six, "Conclusion" which is final chapter of this research work recapitulates the whole discussion. It not only comprehensively summarizes the previous chapters but also carries suggestions for future researchers in this field.
Presentation of Rural Society in Urdu Novel is a popular genre of Urdu literature which comes under western influence and set down a rich tradition in Urdu. Generally every genre of literature portray and present the social and psychological behavior of the society, however in novel the details and colors of society can be presented in depth and more expressively.
Indian sub-continent is basically an agriculture area and the majority of the people live in rural areas. This theme of this research work is the study of novel with the angle of analyzing the representation of rural society in different eras of the tradition of this literary genre in Urdu literature.
The work is divided into five chapters:
In first chapter, introductory information about the Indian rural society is presented. Historical value, characteristics and basic element of rural society has also been discussed in detail. In second chapter, tradition of presentation of rural society in Urdu novel before the partition of sub-continent is discussed. Starting from early era of Urdu novel i.e. of Deputy Nazir Ahmed, Sarshar and Mirza Hadi Ruswa a detailed study of Prem Chand's novels is the part of this chapter. The novels written in the period of the Progressive Movement are also discussed in the same chapter. In third chapter, novels written between 1947 to 1971 are discussed in the above mentioned context. Aziz Ahmed, Quratul Ain Haider, Rajinder Singh Bedi, Abdullah Hussain and other novelists are included in the study. Special study of the Ghulam Saglain Naqvi, Syed Shabbir Hussain and Shoukat Siddiqi's novels is also the part of chapter. In fourth chapter, new trends of Pakistani society and literature from 1971 onwards are discussed as background and then prominent novels of this era are analyzed in the context of presentation of rural society.
The last chapter comprises of overview of the research, conclusion and recommendations.
غلام الثقلین نقوی کی افسانہ نگاری: فنی و فکری جائزہ
The researcher has divided this thesis in five main chapters as described below:
The first chapter is complete literary history of Urdu short stories and gradual progress of this art which helps to understand the main features and traditions of short story writing. It also covers technical experiments and relational thinking approaches and trends which are reflected in the literary works of short story writers during different period s of time. These revolutionary thinking approaches had great impact on the mind of short story writers.
The second chapter is based on the literary struggle of Ghulam-us-Saqlain Naqvi. It shows his inclinations and inherited qualities in the field of short story writing. It describes the literary activities of the writers from the onset. The role of his friends, admirers and supporters which was responsible to boost up his literary activities has been discussed in this chapter.
Themes of Ghulam-us-Saqlain Naqvi have been discussed in the third chapter. Social issues, urban and rural problems, psycho- analysis, romanticism, sense of humor, satire, land scanning and style of short story writing of the writer has been depicted along with illustrations and examples from his famous stories. The mode of writing of the writer and his craftsmanship in writing stories of the Punjab rural life is main feature of this chapter.
The fourth chapter includes analysis of the main stories of Ghulam-us-Saqlain Naqvi. It describes the main story, its plot, characters, social themes, its style and other major literary elements reflected in the works of the writer. This analysis is aimed at to assess the inherited literary qualities of the writer. For this purpose, main stories from his early age to the last age of his life have been analyzed and discussed in this chapter.
Fifth and last chapter concludes the thesis and highlights the special features of Ghulam-us-Saglain Naqvi's short stories. The opinion of the critics has been also included in this chapter which enables us to asses the actual position of the writer among the ranks of short story writers.
The researcher has divided this thesis in five chapters as detailed below:
The first chapter is about the mental and intellectual background of Waqar bin Ilahi. Although the thesis is about his literary works but it is necessary to know main events of his life to understand his approach. Details of his literary activities and his works are also included in this chapter. The second chapter is about the literary history of Urdu Short Story which helps to understand the main features of its tradition from start to modern age. Themes of waqar's short stories are discussed in the third chapter. Social issues, problems and environment of our offices, political issues, isolation of individual in modern society, psychological problems of the individual etc. are the main themes of waqar's short stories which have been discussed in this chapter. In the fourth chapter major elements of the art of short story writing with reference to waqar's works have been analysed. Fifth and the last chapter concludes the thesis and highlights the special features of waqar bin Ilahi's short stories
My MPhil Thesis presents topical review of the novels written after the creation of Pakistan. This is with a view to determining the impact of the changing circumstances on the choice of topics for the Urdu novel.
This thesis has been divided into six chapters, as per following details.
In the first chapter, the importance of the theme/topic in a novel has been highlighted. Besides, those factors which help identify the topic of a novel have been duly examined. In this background, a brief survey of the topics of Urdu novels written from the very beginning up to the creation of Pakistan has been included.
In the second chapter, the impact of the Freedom Movement and the resultant Hindu-Muslim riots on Urdu novel in particular and Urdu literature in general has been evaluated. In this context, the chapter contains a special topical study of three important Urdu novels, namely 'Aag Ka Darya', 'Aangan' and 'Udaas Naslen'.
A study of the political and social changes in the Pakistan society and their impact on the Urdu, novel forms part of the third chapter. With regard to the prevalent political and social environment immediately after the creation of Pakistan and its effect on the Urdu novel, a brief review of Khadeeja Mastoor's novel 'Zameen' has been included in this chapter. The chapter also contains an analysis of Shaukat Siddiqui's novel 'Khuda Ki Basti' in the context of the new industrial culture and unequal distribution of wealth. In additon, topical impact of 1965 lndo-Pak War and the Fall of Dacca as also the emergence of an attitude of resistance in the wake of 1977 Martial Law and its effect on Urdu novel has been particularly reviewed.
The fourth chapter describes the new socio-cultural scenario after the creation of Pakistan and traces its impact on the Urdu novel. In this regard, it critically examines three important novels i.e. 'Bah 'Qurbat-e-Marg Mein Mohabbat' and 'Raja Gidh'.
The fifth chapter studies the themes and topics of the modern Urdu novel. After giving a brief background of the modern Urdu literature in Pakistan, it examines in detail such modern novels as 'Basti','Khushion Ka Baagh' and 'Diwaar Ke Peechey'.
The sixth chapter reviews, in particular, Urdu novels written with reference to the Struggle for the Liberation of Kashmir. It also generally discusses novels written on miscellaneous topics. After explaining the historical background of the Kashmir dispute, some novels written in this context have been examined in detail. Other novels discussed in this chapter relate to female issues as also historical, romantic, psychological and rural themes.
Editing of Deevan-e-Chishti and a comprehensive research on his Deevan has a purpose that is attainment of M.Phil Degree. The work, being a very significant discipline, is to pass on the true spirit with its all realistic approaches to the next generation. Molvi Noor Ahmed Chishti belonged to Punjab. His era was important regarding Urdu Poetry. It was the time when Urdu Poetry had established a strong tradition in Delhi and Lukhno. But, in Punjab, Urdu Poetry was bereft of true patronage because the then non-muslim regime was partial to other languages. In those circumstances, the father of Moulvi Noor Ahmed Chishti. Moulvi Ahmed Bukhsh Chishti Yakdil had been striving for the establishment of a society where Muslims, important branches of knowledge like history, comprehension of Din and literature could get their esteem and status. Yakdiln was successful enough in winning a keen interest of his students towards Urdu and Persian Poetry and prose. He successfully produced such a devoted group of his students who made Punjab, Delhi, and Lukhno important places for the nourishment of Urdu prose and poetry. Moulvi Noor Ahmed Chishti, Amarnath Akbari, Facieer Noor-ul-Din Munnawar, Anwar Hussain Huma and Ghulam Hussain Khurrum are some prominent names in this regard.
Literary circles of Delhi felt deeply indebted for their contribution. The last Mughal Emperor Bahadar Shah Zafar conferred Moulvi Ahmed Bukhsh with the title of ' Fakhar-ul-Shu'ara' and he was awarded with seven-pieces `Khila'at'. Moulvi Noor Ahmed's prose work, research and Yaadgar-e-Chishti are his valuable contributions. His poetic work has been edited in the light of his unpublished manuscripts. This editing and research work will be an addition to the literary history of Punjab. I hope it will enhance the value of Urdu literature of Punjab.
"Sihr-ul-Biyan" is an evergreen and living Urdu Masnavi. It was edited and published in 1805 for the first time in Fort William College, Calcutta. While preparing this edition, Sher Ali Afsos took into consideration the needs and requirements of the English officers and students. We can guess easily from the texts of the Masnavi, discovered later on, that some changes were made just to meet the academic needs of the English students. Hence, it was awfully required to have a comprehensive edition of the Masnavi based on an authentic text. Different texts of this Masnavi were found in different times and the scholars continued their efforts to search original text of Mir Hassan.
Fort William College did not publish autographic text of Mir Hassan but we persume that there might be a text contemporary to Mir Hassan. All later editions from 1844 to 1947 do not reflect clearly that which text is their exempler. In 2000, seven years ago, a renowned Urdu scholar and outstanding expert of textual criticism, Rashid Hassan Khan has edited "Sihr-ul-Biyan" but it is based on the edition of Fort William College. Therefore it has no authority of any specific contemporary text of Mir Hassan or any other authentic text.
The present edition is based on the text written in 1215 Hijrah. It appeared fourteen years after the death of Mir Hassan. It clearly shows that the edition of 1215 Hijra is based on some contemporary text of Mir Hassan. The very purpose of this research article is to provide the future generation with a comprehensive edition of the Masnavi "Sihr-ul-Biyan" based on an authentic text
سعادت حسن منٹوبطور مضمون نگار اور خاکہ نگار : تحقیقی و تنقیدی جائزہ
سعادت حسن منٹو اردو افسانے کا ایک معتبر نام ہیں۔ انہوں نے دیگر تخلیقی اور غیر تخلیقی جہات میں بھی طبع آزمائی کی ہے جن میں صحافتی کالم، ریڈیائی ڈرامہ،مضمون نگاری اور خاکہ نگاری میں اُنہیں خاص شہرت حاصل تھی۔ اس مقالے کاموضوع س”عادت حسن منٹو بطور مضمون نگار اور خاکہ نگار (تحقیقی و تنقیدی جائزہ) “ہے۔ مقالے کو سات ابواب میں تقسیم کیا گیا ہے جن کا اجمالی تعارف درج ذیل ہے۔
پہلے باب میں اردو مضمون نگاری کی روایت کا جائزہ لیا گیا ہے۔ مضمون نگاری کے آغاز و ارتقا کے علاوہ اس کے پس منظر کو جاننے کی کوشش کی گئی ہے۔ مضمون اور مضمون نگاری کی فنی ضروریات کا احاطہ کرنے کے علاوہ اس باب میں یہ دیکھنے کی کوشش کی گئی ہے کہ باقاعدہ اردو مضمون نگاری سے قبل اردو نثر کا رواج موجود تھا تاہم مضمون نویسی یا انشا پردازی کا با قاعدہ آغاز دلی کالج کے استاد ماسٹر رام چندر اور بعد ازاں سر سید تحریک سے ہوا۔ اس سے قبل اردو نثر میں زبان و بیان میں تصنع اور تکلف کے سبب خیالات کی روانی متاثر ہوتی تھی لیکن دلی کالج اور سرسید تحریک نے اردو مضمون نگاری کو ایسا اسلوب عطا کیاجس میں علمی،ادبی،سائنسی،مذہبی اور معاشرتی ہر طرز کے مضمون لکھے جا سکتے تھے۔ اس باب میں اس امر کا بھی جائزہ لیا گیا ہے کہ اردو کے ابتدائی مضمون نگار کون کون سے تھے اور مضمون کی اولیں صورتیں کیا تھیں جبکہ اردو مضمون نگاری ماسٹر رام چندر اور سر سید کے عہد سے لے کر منٹو کے عہد تک کیسے ارتقاء پذیر ہوئی اور اس میں کیا نمایاں تبدیلیاں وقوع پذیر ہوئیں۔
دوسرا باب منٹو کے مضامین سے متعلق ہے۔ اس میں منٹو کے مضامین کے موضوعات کا جائزہ لیا گیا ہے۔ منٹو کے مضامین میں ان کے انشائی، فکاہی،ادبی و شخصی،سیاسی و سماجی اور فلمی موضوعات پر مبنی مضامین کے حوالے سے منٹو کے ادبی ،سیاسی اور سماجی نظریات سے بحث کی گئی ہے۔ جس سے اس امر کی وضاحت ہوتی ہے کہ منٹو کے ادبی، سیاسی و سماجی نظریات ان کے عہد سے ہم آہنگ تھے۔ منٹو کے عہد میں علمی مضمون نگاری کا رواج ہو چکا تھا لیکن ان کے مضامین کا عمومی انداز فکاہی ہی رہا۔ تاہم اس باب میں یہ وضاحت کرنے کی کوشش کی گئی ہے کہ منٹو کے انتخاب کردہ موضوعات اپنے اندر ایک گہری سنجیدگی اور تفکر بھی رکھتے ہیں۔
تیسرے باب میں منٹو کی اہمیت بطور مضمون نگار متعین کی گئی ہے۔ نیز ان کے مضامین کے اسلوب کا جائزہ لیا گیا ہے اور یہ دیکھنے کی کوشش کی گئی ہے کہ منٹو کے مضامین پر ان کے افسانوں کا اسلوب کس قدر اثر انداز ہوا ہے اور اردو مضمون نگاری میں منٹو کے اسلوب کی اہمیت و افادیت کیا ہے۔ نیز اسی باب میں منٹو کی بحیثیت مضمون نگار اہمیت متعین کرنے کی کوشش کی گئی ہے۔
چوتھا باب اردو ادب میں خاکہ نگاری کے آغاز و ارتقا اور اس کے فن سے متعلق ہے۔ اس باب میں یہ دیکھنے کی کوشش کی گئی ہے کہ اردو ادب میں خاکہ نگاری کے آثار بعض قدیم تذکروں اور سوانح میں تلاش کیے جا سکتے ہیں۔ تا ہم " آب حیات" اس ضمن نمایاں تذکرہ ہے جس میں خاکہ نگاری کے واضح نقوش ملتے ہیں۔ اسی طرح اردو خاکہ نگاری کے ارتقاء میں دیگر خاکہ نگاروں کی خدمات کا جائزہ لیا گیا ہے۔ اسی باب میں اردو خاکہ نگاری کے فن پر بھی گفتگو کی گئی ہے۔ نیز ایک جائزہ اردو خاکہ نگاری کی تاریخ کا بھی لیا گیا ہے۔
سعادت حسن منٹو کی خاکہ نگاری کا مفصل جائزہ پانچویں باب میں لیا گیا ہے۔ اس باب میں منٹو کے خاکوں کو تین بڑے عنوانات میں تقسیم کیا گیا ہے۔ اسی طرح سیاسی،ادبی و صحافتی اور فلم کے شعبے سے وابستہ شخصیات پر مشتمل خاکوں کا جائزہ لیا گیا ہے۔ اسی باب میں منٹو کی خاکہ نگاری کے نمایاں اوصاف اور اردو فن خاکہ نگاری پہ ان کی دسترس نیز اردو خاکہ نگاری میں افسانوی طرز اظہار کے حوالے سے ان کے خاکوں کا تجزیہ کیا گیا ہے۔
چھٹا باب فن خاکہ نگاری میں منٹو کے مقام کے تعین کے بارے میں ہے۔ اس میں منٹو کے خاکوں کے اسلوب کا جائزہ لیا گیا ہے۔ نیز ان کے اسلوب کے نمایاں اوصاف اور ان کے اسلوب کی اہمیت بیان کی گئی ہے اور ان کے ہم عصر اہم خاکہ نگاروں سے ان کا تقابل کرتے ہوئے اردو خاکہ نگاری پر ان کے اثرات اور اردو خاکہ نگاری میں ان کے مقام کے تعین کی کوشش کی گئی ہے۔
ساتواں باب مجموعی مطالعے پر مشتمل ہے۔ اس باب میں مقالے میں جن مباحث پر گفتگو کی گئی ان کی بنیاد پر نتائج اخذ کرنےکی کوشش کی گئی ہے اور منٹو کی اردو ادب میں اہمیت اور ان کے متعین مقام و مرتبے کا جائزہ لیا گیا ہے۔ اردو ادب کی دیگر اصناف افسانہ نگاری،ڈرامہ نگاری اور منٹو کی صحافتی زندگی سے ان کی کالم نگاری کا بھی اجمالاً تذکرہ کیا گیا ہے اور اردو مضمون نگاری اور خاکہ نگاری پر ان کے اثرات کا مطالعہ کیا گیا ہے۔ نیز اس امر کا بھی جائزہ لیا گیا ہے کہ منٹو کے مضامین اور خاکوں میں کون سے اشتراکات ہیں کہ ان کا جائزہ ایک ہی مقالے میں لینے کی ضرورت پیش آئی۔ اسی طرح ان کی تخلیقی نثر پر ان کی غیر افسانوی نثر کے اثرات کا بھی ایک مختصر جائزہ لیا گیا ہے
Sir Dr Allama Muhammad Iqbal was an ideologist, a poet-philosopher and a spiritualist personality who was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilization. He had solid comprehension in many knowledge domains. Allama Iqbal expressed his opinion on politics, economics, history, nationalism, philosophy, religion, revival of Muslim life and the universal brotherhood of Islam in scholastic manner. He used poetry, literature and lectures as his medium of expression. In this practice, he developed verbal and written skills in different languages. So these aspects of Allama Iqbal's life are the main theme of my thesis. Although Iqbal did the maximum of his poetry and literary work in Persian and Urdu but he could also read, write and speak other languages. His potential in understandings of Arabic, English, German, Hindi and Sanskrit along with the Persian and Urdu have been elucidated in first chapter. Being a great scholar, he had a special aptitude for imparting his own literary taste in reviving the Islamic culture in Muslim Ummah.
In second chapter, focus is on how much Allama Iqbal was related to the domain of justice and law. Dr Allama Iqbal acquired the law education in formal manner from renowned institutions. He practiced as lawyer and established his reputation as professional prosecutor.
Political life of Allama Iqbal has been addressed in third chapter. His contributions in Indian politics have been highlighted. Allama's political activities though primarily concentrated on Indian Muslims but he did express his concerns for political issues of Muslim Ummah. He was extremely desirous of secure political and social life for all Muslims. In fourth chapter, Allama Iqbal's understanding of the different economical system has been elaborated with special emphasis on Capitalism vis-à-vis Communalism. However Allama Iqbal has been close to principal working of communalism but he was impressed with Islamic system of economics which he communicated in his book "Ilm-ul-Iqtassadiyat". In fifth chapter, Allama Iqbal as a scholastic philosopher (Mutakkalim — Mahir-e-Ilm-ul-Kalam) scholar has been portrayed. He tried to interpret Islam in such a way as to show that religious doctrines are in perfect harmony with the established rational philosophies. He was well aware of different philosophical ideologies of the world. However, he extended his taste for Greek philosophy but he strictly adhered to Islamic philosophy.
His PhD dissertation "Development of Meta Physics in Persia" speaks of his philosophical orientation. Allama Iqbal was well acquainted with the historical events of the world. In sixth chapter Allama Iqbal's efforts for finding out the reasons for the rise and fall of the Muslim nation have been discussed. He illuminated the magnificent era of Muslims' ancestors and urged the Muslim community to reinstate their lost glorious time. In seventh chapter, the Allama Iqbal's association for Islam in comparison with other prominent religions of the world has been spelled out. Allama had the capability to share and compare his Islamic thoughts with other divine and earthly religion. He also delivered lectures/speeches for highlighting the Islamic way of life. He emphasized the world to adopt the Islamic values if they are desirous of peace and harmony.
In the last chapter, all the topics, discussed in this complete thesis have been summarized with their significance.
Urdu Short story undergone many thematic and stylistic changes through its evolution decade by decade in the 20th century. In the first three or four decades narrative style of short story writing was much popular style because it was much suitable for the topics associated with realism. In Pakistan era, soon after independence narrative style of writing gradually changed and influence of modern movements in other arts and literature and techniques associated with these movements increased on Urdu short story. In 60s a movement in Urdu Nazm emerged generally called Nai Nazm (the new poem). The movement was initiated basically for poetic genres especially free verse. The movement was of the opinion that the old phrases and set grammatical structures are not sufficient to convey the complexity of the mind of modern man. So these structures should be broken and new and fresh patterns should be introduced. This changed the new poetry with regard to its content as well as its style. These changes in Nai Nazm influence other genres of literature especially the modern short story.
This thesis critically analysis these changes. The thesis consists of five chapters and starting from the start of 20th century, when the Urdu short story was introduced in Urdu literature and influenced by contemporary literary movements, it presents a thorough study of Urdu short story before partition. In the next chapters emerging of the movement of Nai Nazm, its salient features are discussed. In the next chapters influence of this movement on modern literature is analyzed. In the final chapter works of selected short story writers are critically discussed in the context of influence of Nai Nazm movement.