Adverse Life Events and Adolescents’ Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Cognitive Factors and Personality as Moderators
The presents study purported to examine the impact of adverse life experiences on adolescents’ emotional and behavioral problems. It further aimed to explore the moderating role of verbal (vocabulary, verbal reasoning, numerical ability, and general knowledge) and nonverbal cognitive abilities, self-debasing (catastrophizing, personalizing, selective abstraction, and over generalization) and self-serving (self-centeredness, blaming others, mislabeling, and assuming the worst) cognitive errors, and personality traits in relationship between experience of adverse life events and problem behaviors. A purposive convenient sample of 663 adolescents (aged 11 to 19 years) was administered with Adverse Life Event Scale (ALES; devised in the present study), School Children problem Scale (SCPS; Saleem & Mehmood, 2011), Sajjad Verbal Intelligence Test Urdu (SVITU; Hussain, 2000), Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM; Raven, 2000), Children Negative Cognitive Errors Questionnaire (CNCEQ; Leitenberg, Yost, & Carroll-Wilson, 1986), How I Think Questionnaire (HIT-Q; Barriga, Gibbs, & Potter, 2001), and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) to meet the objectives of the study. Comprising on three Phases, ALES was developed and HIT-Q was translated At Phase I. At Phase II pilot study (N = 303; Boys = 139, Girls = 164) was conducted to establish the psychometrics (reliability estimates, validity coefficients, internal consistencies etc.) of the scales and to explore the relationship between the study variables. Findings provided support for good validity and reliability coefficients for the study scales. Exploratory analyses at Phase II suggested family related adverse events as the most stressful events and showed that most of the problem behaviors, self-debasing cognitive errors, and neuroticism were higher among adolescents who had experienced family, personal, or school related adverse event. While the ratio of self-serving cognitive errors and other personality traits was higher among those with residence related or health related adverse experiences. Main study (N = 663; Boys = 428, Girls = 235) was then conducted at Phase III for hypothesis testing. Results of the main study revealed that adverse life events, self-debasing cognitive errors, and neuroticism positively and significantly (p<.01, .05) predicted emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents whereas self-serving cognitive errors, verbal cognitive abilities, extraversion, agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness were strong and significant (p<.01, .05) negative predictors of emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents. However, nonverbal cognitive ability remained a non-significant predictor. For moderation effect, self-debasing cognitive errors and neuroticism significantly boosted the effect of adverse life experiences (p<.01, .05) whereas verbal cognitive abilities, self-serving cognitive errors, extraversion, agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness buffered the effect of adverse life experiences on emotional and behavioral problems of adolescents. One way multivariate analyses revealed significant (p<.01, .05) age differences suggesting that middle adolescence group had highest levels of emotional and behavioral problems and self-debasing cognitive errors whereas late adolescence group showed the highest levels of verbal cognitive abilities, self-serving cognitive errors (self-centeredness and blaming others), extraversion, and conscientiousness (p<.01, .05). For income wise comparison, middle income group showed the highest level (p<.01, .05) of problem behaviors and self-debasing cognitive errors whereas high income group showed highest levels of verbal cognitive abilities (vocabulary and numerical ability), extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Neuroticism was highest among low income group. One way ANOVA revealed that the impact of adverse events was highest among middle age and low income groups whereas nonverbal cognitive ability was highest among late age and high income groups of adolescents. Significant group differences (p<.001, .01, .05) on family system and gender were also observed for the study variables. The study holds theoretical (contributing into the existing literature by developing indigenous scale) as well as practical (by highlighting the need for appropriate prevention and interventions measures to deal with problem behaviors of troubled youth) implications.
The Urdu Version of Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI):
Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure Anowra Khan Tamkeen Ashraf Malik National University of Science and Technology, NUST Islamabad, Pakistan The aim of the present study was to translate, adapt and validate Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) in Urdu language. CASI is a self-report questionnaire having eighteen items. It is used to measure anxiety sensitivity in children (6 to 17 years of age) which plays a significant role in etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. CASI was translated, back translated independently, and revised using a sample of (N=334) children. Convergent validity of CASI was analyzed with Screen for Children Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) self-report; SCARED parent report and Fear Survey Schedule for Children Revised (FSSC-R). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) indicated that Urdu version CASI has two first order factor structure accounting for 31.65% variance namely physical concerns and psychosocial concerns along with a higher order factor anxiety sensitivity. Results indicated that CASI Urdu version has moderate internal consistency for total (α=.80) as well as subscales (physical concerns α= .73; psychosocial concerns α=.68). CASI has sound convergent validity with SCARED self-report (r =.52) as well as parent report (r =.49), and FSSC-R (r =.54). It can be concluded that Urdu version CASI has adequate psychometric properties and can be used to assess anxiety sensitivity in children.
Keywords: CASI, Anxiety Sensitivity, Anxiety disorders, Validity, Factor Structure
Self-Concept, Emotional Intelligence, and Life Satisfaction Among Physically Handicapped School Children
The present research is aimed at the study of relationship between self-concept, emotional intelligence, and life satisfaction among physically handicapped school children in comparison to mainstream school children. The sample consisted of 198 school children out of which 100 were mainstream (M = 12.55, SD = 1.05) and 98 were physically handicapped school children (M = 12.44, SD = 1.59) from Government schools of Lahore. The measures used for data collection were Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), and
Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS) along with the demographic information of the participants. The analysis included the application of correlation, Independent samples t-test, ANOVA and linear Regression to explore the relationship and differences between self-concept, emotional intelligence and life satisfaction among physically handicapped school children and mainstream school children. The results indicated a significant difference between self-concept of physically handicapped school children and mainstream school children, however level of emotional intelligence were almost equal in both groups. Gender differences were evident as physically handicapped girls exhibited a more negative self-concept than physically handicapped boys. Furthermore, negative self-concept was found to be a significant predictor of low emotional intelligence and lower life satisfaction on the overall sample of school children, yet emotional intelligence could not significantly predict life satisfaction. Overall, gender differences were found important in attaining a positive or negative self- concept, low or high emotional intelligence, and life satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Similarly, disability appeared to have a significant contribution on self-concept only.
Keywords: Self-concept, Emotional Intelligence, Life satisfaction, Physically handicapped school children, mainstream school children.
Aggressive Children’s Status Among Peers and Their Social Information Processing Styles
The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between aggression and social information processing styles among children with popular and rejected social status group. The total sample was of 503 children of Government Schools between the age range of 9 to 12 years. Two groups comprising 92 aggressive rejected and 73 nonaggressive popular children were extracted from the sample on the basis of their scores on two subscales (Aggression and Prosocial Behavior Scales) of Teacher Checklist of Social Behavior (TCL-Urdu version) and peer sociometric nominations. Urdu version of Social Problem Solving (SPS) stories with adapted pictures and video (consisted on adapted 12 social situations) were used to assess social information processing styles in aggressive rejected and nonaggressive popular children. The findings revealed significant differences among aggressive and nonaggressive children on aggression, prosocial behavior and social status group. Aggressive children were lacking prosocial behavior and faced peer rejection as compared to nonaggressive children. Furthermore, aggressive rejected children differed significantly from nonaggressive popular children on social information processing styles. Aggressive rejected children were inaccurate in detecting peer intention cues and less attentive to relevant social cues. Similarly, aggressive rejected children made hostile attributions to the intent of peers in ambiguous social situations and selected aggressive goals rather than prosocial goals to solve their problems. Differences were also found in enactment skills and endorsement of aggressive, inept, and competent responses to a problem between aggressive rejected and nonaggressive popular children.
Role of Humor in the relationship of Professional Quality of Life and Psychological Distress among Police and Rescue 1122
Various occupations can cause stress but occupations with high-risk are more hazardous and stressful due to their challenging nature. Therefore, this research study was conducted to explore the professional quality of life and psychological distress in the sample of police and rescue 1122 personnel. In addition to it, moderating role of humor style was also analyzed to confirm the protective role of using humor against compassion fatigue and psychological distress. Sample of this study consist of police (N= 290) and rescue workers (N= 265) from Lahore, Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Professional quality of life scale- version-5 (ProQOL; Stamm, 2010), Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale, Urdu version) (DASS-21; Aslam, 2007), and Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) were administrated on the sample to measure professional quality of life, psychological distress and humor styles respectively. Professional quality of life and humor style questionnaire were translated in Urdu to improve their comprehension level among sample. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used to validate instruments in given sample. Data was further analysed using statistical methods including descriptive statistics, correlation, t-test, analysis of variance, regression and moderation. Results indicated that burnout, secondary traumatic stress, psychological distress and negative humor styles have significant positive correlation with one another while having significant negative correlation with compassion satisfaction and positive humor styles. Moreover, burnout, secondary traumatic stress and compassion satisfaction are significant predictors of psychological distress among this sample. Mean differences were found to be significant across family system, city, profession and designation of police. Moderation analysis confirmed the moderating role of positive humor styles in the relationship of professional quality of life and psychological distress while negative humor styles moderate in few of the relationship of subscales of professional quality of life and psychological distress. Therefore, it is concluded that humor can play a significant protective role against psychological distress in police and rescue 1122 when used appropriately. Further, limitations, implications of this study and suggestions for future studies have been discussed.