تحقیق و بررسی شخصیت عرفانی، معنوی و ادبی سید محمد نور بخش و نقش عقائد نور بخشیہ د. شبہ قار
This study starts with generalizations such as: statement of the problem, hypothesis, research objectives, formulation of the original question along with sub-questions, research methodology, data and information gathering, research domain, pinpointing of the novel and the original in this research and brief description of obstacles and problems faced during this venture, and then proceeds to introducing the personality of Sayed Muhammad Noor Bakshsh with his academic position and status, his uprising, a brief resume of his outstanding teachers and refutation with proofs of the allegation of the claim of mehdi'ism ascribed to him by his opponents. This is followed by a classificatory detail description of his academic and literary writings and works listed under 84 headings on Quranic exegesis, jurisprudence, ethics, Gnostic science and Sufism, physiognomy, history, etc. — an encyclopedic work subjected to necessary critical introduction.
بررسی و تحلیل محتوابی – تاریخی سیر اقبال شناسی درایران
The relationship between Iran and Pakistan backs to long time ago. This relationship with the advent of Allama Mohammad Iqbal and understanding his poems and thoughts, by Iranian people, entered a new phase .Allama Mohammad Iqbal by studying and research about Iranian history, literature, philosophy and Persian Mysticism had a profound impact and expressed this impact by the language of poetry (in Farsi and Urdu). In this regard, the title of this paper has been chosen as "Study and Content- HistoricalAnalysis of the Development of Iqbal Studies in Iran". This study is using content analysis method and has been done by relying on all the library and electronic documents about Iqbal studies in Iran. The geographic limits of this study included the created works in Iran from the beginning till 2013.
The purpose of this study is analyzing the historical-content development of Iqbal studies in Iran, so that the general ground of the historical development of Iqbal studies in Iran has been studied and compared and at the same time modem researches about the above mentioned topic can be analyzed and introduced. Also the effects of Allama Iqbal on different grounds such as literature, philosophy, politics and cultural issues in Iran have been studied. The results of this study indicate that Allama Ictbars ideas had a great influence and this effect, after the Islamic Revolution in Iran, besides literature has also entered the thoughts, politics and culture of the people.
تحقیق وبررسی زبان 'ادبیات وفرھنگ بلتستان وتاثیرزبان' ادبیات وفرھنگ ایرانی برآنھا
Baltistan is situated in the north of Pakistan and near the mountains of Krakuram, Himalia & K2. It is surrounded by Gilgit in west, Kargil&Ladakh in the East, Sinkyang in North and Kashmir in South. Persian is one of the famous language of Indo European group of languages it is an official language of I.R.Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan Relationship between Pakistan & Iran backs to long time ago. Before the British reign, Persian was the official language of Sub continent.
Due to preaching of Iranian scholars people of this region not only embraced Islam but also got information about Iranian language, literature & Culture. Most important scholars like Syed Ali Hamdani, Syed Muhammad Noor Baksh, Shams din Araqi and Tosi Brothers can be named in this regards. I have selected the topic for this research “Research & Study of language, literature and Culture of Baltistan and Impact of Iranian language literature and Culture on it”.During this research I faced many difficulties for getting material For this study. Historical method is used.
Through this research I want to acquaint the new generation to the historical and culture background of Baltistan from beginning till now in my work I have divided my research work in two parts. In first part I have discussed the Balti language, literature, and culture in detail.In the second part the impact of Irani language, literature and culture has been analyzed. In this research I have tried to enlighten the reasons and factors why and how Iranian language, literature & Culture Prevailed in this region as neither they are neighboring countries nor they have any religious ties.
Tughra-e-Mashadi is amongst the eminent Irani poets, writers and treatiser of the 11th century. The government of Safvee in those times was neglectful towards the development of art and literature, which further disheartened many poets and writers and forced them to move to the Indo Pak subcontinent and Tughra was one of them. It was the Time of Mughal reign, a time when literature was flourishing. Tughra-e-Mashadi came to Dakkan for some time and then worked in the court of King Shahjahan. Later he got appointed as a MUNCHI of Prince Muraci Bakhsh.
Tughra-e-Mashadi was well known for his poetry and prose. His writings had an amalgamation of Persian prose and poetry and Hindi words. His poetic works includes qasaid, ghazals, rubayat, qataat and masnawee. The prose depicts his hard work in minutely expressing the thoughts and ideas by the interfusion of verse in prose. A few of his Rassails also start with a verses. His writing style is inspired by Gulistan-e-Saadi. Tughra-e-Mashade has not only used stylized language in prose but has also provided vivid paraphrasing and explanation. The most striking feature of Tughra's Treatises are that they were part of the curriculum in the 11th century. Dr.Zabih-ul-Ilah safa aminent scholar of Iran considers Tugra-e - Mashadi as the second famous writer who got popularity for his works during his life. Another Iranian scholar All Akbar Dehkhuda has also talked about Tugra-e-Mashadi in his "Lughat -namma".Tugra-e -Mashadi has beautifully written about different topics like the success stories of kings, literature mysticism, astronomy, the health benefits of various herbs, and the beauty and serenity of different cities in his Rassail. In his Ruqaaat he has talked about rulers and the contemporary poets and writers. Tugra-e-Mashadi's language was difficult to understand that is why most of his writings could not be deeply understood and therefore no authentic work has been done.
In this thesis the researcher has selected one of the earliest manuscripts and compared it with three different authentic manuscripts that were collected from GangBaksh Library Islamabad, Karachi Museum Library and British Museum Library London. The in accuracies of grammar and punctuation are written in the foot notes along with the meanings of Hindi words used in the original text. The meanings of Quranic verses and Hadith are also mentioned for further understanding. The researcher has recorded the fragments in exactly the same manner as that of the original text.
Research is required on the manuscripts available in our libraries for further knowledge on various topics relating to art and literature.
An Analytical Study of Thoughts and Short Story Writing Art of Simin Daneshver
Semin Daneshver is known as the first famous contemporary novelist, fiction writer and translator of Persian language. She is the first feminist story writer of Iran as well as who bore the courage to write among the male writers of her period. Atesh-e Khamush (The Quenched Fire) was the first collection of Persian short stories by Simin Daneshver published in 1948 whereas the first novel by her Suvashun (Mourners of Siavoush) was published in 1969. Her other major works are: The Novels Sarban-e –Sargardan ( The wandering Camel ride) and Jazire- ye- Sargardani ( The wander Islanad), Collection of Short stories : 1.- Atesh-e Khamush (The Quenched Fire) 2- Shehri Chon Behesht( A City as paradise) 3- Be ki Salam Konam? (To whom should I Say hello?) 4- Az Parinde haye mohajir beporse( Ask the immigrant birds) 5- Intekhab (Selection). Likewise her translations of Chekhove, Bernard Shaw, Hawthorne, Schnitzler and Saroyan had become a valuable addition to the collection of foreign works available in Pakistan.
This research is based upon the structural analysis of her five collections of short stories according to the elements of short story such as Experience, Conflict, Plot, Theme and Point of view, Characterization, Dialogues, Settings and Symbol. According to the afore mentioned elements of short stories, Simin Daneshver is a successful writer. Though her early work Aatish e Khamush was not so successful, but later Danehver’s Prose style was considerably mature, closer to the language of the people and developed with a short, clear and concise sentence structure. Daneshver’s stories reflect reality rather than fantasy. They contain themes such as child kidnapping, adultery, marriage, childbirth, sickness, death, treason, profiteering, illiteracy, Ignorance, Poverty, and loneliness. The issues she deals with were the social problems of 1960s and 1970s in Iran which have immediacy and credibility for readers. She drew inspiration from the people around her.
Daneshver is also successful in creating the real, as well as the imaginary worlds of her characters. Hence, her feminist point of view remains the centre of many works. Daneshver asserted her devotion to depict women’s conditions of Iranian society in the short story “Shahri Chun Behesht”. Here she no longer dwells on the general characteristics of women; rather she assumes a neutral position and avoids passing judgment on them; she merely portrays the women and their lives as she saw them. Her characters are able to speak for themselves and demonstrate where their major strengths and weaknesses lie. As a women writer she wrote about the sensitivity of the Iranian women. Her characters are quite real and she is close to her readers as she writes about the common everyday problems in simple and understandable language. In the light of the analysis of her works and writing art she is an eminent and successful writer and her thoughts are assets for future female writers.
A Study on the contribution of Persian poetesses of subcontinent from 4th century to 14th century
History of Persian Language and Literature can be divided into six periods. The first Islamic period began with the invasion of Ghaznavids in the Subcontinent, in fourth century, which means that Persian language was in fashion for around a thousand years in this region. Numerous poets and poetesses contributed to this language through their renowned works. As in Temurid Era a numbers of well-educated female writers especially poets earned recognition .After Temurid periods, British Rule tried to uproot the influence of Persian language and promoted English as official language, but it is just because of the resistance showed by the poets and writers of that time that Urdu, a language with great influence of Persian is our national language and enjoys better status in Pakistan as compared to India. Female poets of Pakistan have great contribution in the promotion of Persian language through their poetic works. Two Divans of renowned poetesses of Pakistan are published.
The topic of my thesis is “A Study on the Contribution of Persian Poetesses of the Subcontinent from 4th century to 14th century”. This thesis is divided in following six chapters.
1st chapter is titled as: “Ancient period of Subcontinent”. In this chapter Samanids; Ghanavids and Ghoris period has been discussed.This starts from 204 A.H. to 602 A.H.
In second chapter titled: “Rulers of Delhi Saltanat”, in which period of Delhi emperors started from 602 to 932 Hijri has been given.
Third and fourth chapters are about Temorid period from 932 AH to 1014 AH and from 1014 AH to 1118 AH respectively.
Fifth chapter is about “Modern period” which starts from 1857AD to 1947 AD.
Six and last chapter is “contemporary period “which starts from 1947 till date of thesis.
Key words: Persian language & literature, subcontinent, Persian poetesses.
Naqush-e-Zanan Dar Ahwal o Afkar o Aasar-e-Iqbal”, i.e. Role of Women in Life, Works and Thoughts of Allama Iqbal.
This research, after giving Preface is divided into five chapters, as follows:
Chapter 1, titled Life, works and thoughts of Iqbal, giving a brief account of his biography. Chapter 2: “Role of Women in Life of Iqbal” is further divided into two sections, “Women in family” and “Women out of family”, giving brief account of 14 ladies from within Allama Iqbal’s family and 32 women Iqbal interacted in his life from outside the family.
Chapter 3, titled: “Women in Poetry of Allama Iqbal”, has four further parts including introduction of 23 different female characters from homeland and abroad recalled in Urdu and Persian poetic works of Allama Iqbal, 6 imaginary characters of women in poetry of Iqbal, poetic terminologies about women used in poetry of Iqbal and poems of Iqbal about on women.
Chapter 4 is “Message for Women in Poetry of Iqbal”, discusses different social, cultural etc. issues related to female.
Chapter 5 enlists the collection of Urdu and Persian poetry of Iqbal regarding women, including his three kuliat. Conclusion: It is concluded from this research that the most important role played by women in his life is of his mother, as to him mother is a trainer of future generations. The message of Allama Iqbal foe women is the same as directed by Islam for Muslim women in Specific. Allah who granted Islam as religion to his nation, made a high place for Muslim women and they share the responsibilities of enjoying truth, forbidding evil and raisin flag of Islam. Appendix: includes some pictures of women discussed from life of Iqbal. Index: includes names of persons, places. At the end bibliography of references used for this study is given.
Key words: Allama Iqbal, women, Urdu, Persian, poetry.
“A Descriptive Analysis and Study of Persian Epics In Pakistan And India”
It is a Study to know that how Pakistani and Indian Persian Epics inspired from the Shahnameh in prose or in verse. There is no dought, the Shanameh Ferdowsi has much influenced in the writing of Persian Epics in Pakistan and India. It is a role model for Indian Persian Epics. A Specific Literary Movement has started to make a Epic story, after it. Shahnameh, which is consist on Epic poetry was interesting and attracting for Eastren Epics from a long time. It was read in the court of Kings and Statemen. Poets Followed it, The books which were written in Pakistan and India, Specially History and Epic books, all were in Persian language.
In this research, we come to know that at least one book or translation of Shahnameh were wtitten in every historical period. Poets and Orators of Pakistan and India to follow of Ferdowsi, wrote number of books in Shahnameh convergent to measure the expassion of kings are great religious figures. Number of books are written in prose or verse on the history of Pakistan and India and Similarly History of Islam known as Shahnameh, are inspired from it.
In this study we came to know that many scholars and historian from Pakistan and India, wrote many Musnavi,ha, Fatehnameh,ha, Mukhtarnameh,ha, jangnameh,ha, and historical and religious Epics, all were written on the convergent of Ferdowsi. Pakistani and Indian poets and writters, wrote many books in Persian in the favour of their Soldiers Success in battlefields. Hence many books of Epic poetry or prose or mixture of prose and poetry, have been written as the patron of Shahnameh.
Great treasury of Persian Literature is being maintained in the form of Manuscripts in the libraries of Iran as well as all over the world especially in the Indo Pak Subcontinent. The editing and transcription of any one of these Manuscripts will help us to find out valuable knowledge in the form of books related to the ancient literary.
Accordingly, in this study I have tried to analyze the manuscript of poetical work of Diwane Hairat Lahori and his poetic techniques and ideas. Manuscript of this diwan is being maintained in the Gangbakhsh library (Iran Pak institute of Persian studies, Islamabad Pakistan).
Hairat was the poet of (12th century A.H) he has talked about the names of his contemporary poets in his verses like: Bedill, Shoukat Bokharaye and Saib
Tabreezi, the dominant poets of his period as well.
He was a brave military Person in the army of Muhammad Shah Alam the son of Orangzaib. He has used military terminology in his poetry several time. He was inspired by Naqshbandiya Sufism dynasty and he has used Sufism’s terms in his poetry.
Hairat was a poet of third big Persian poetry style; indo Pak subcontinent style. His poetry is enriched of the aforementioned style’s that can be easily found his poetry. The marvelous biography of the poet from the various sources, his religion, his, vision, knowledge and influence the poets of his era on him and specialty of the methodology that he have used in his poetry, has been introduced in this thesis.
After introducing the existing edition of his verses, I have presented an accurate image of his ‘Ghazal’, ‘Qasida’ and ‘Rubayees’.
Keywords: Hairat, Manuscript, Poetry, Editing, Saib, Subcontinent style.
تحقیق و بررسی بازتاب فرھنگ و تمدن ایرانی در شعر اردوی اقبال
تحقیق و بررسی بازتاب فرهنگ و تمدن ایرانی در شعر اردوی اقبال
Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal is widely regarded as one of the greatest poets of Urdu and Persian Languages, of all times.
Although Allama Iqbal was born in India and had started his poetry in Urdu yet he was deeply influenced by Persian literature and culture. His poetry is a unique combnation of purpose and art. The purpose of his poetry was to awaken the Islamic nation as a whole.His collection of Urdu poetry consists of Bang-e Dara,Ball-e- Jibril,Zarb-e-Kaleem and Armeghan-e- Hajjaz (Half Urdu)
There has been no research done to assess the impact of Persian Literature on Iqbal’s Urdu poetry. That is why I have chosen this topic for my Ph.D research .
I have divided my thesis to seven Chapters. In the end , I have listed the conclusions suggestions and notable people, books , references and origins.
I have consulted authentic books for my research work.
The impact of Persian Language and Culture on Iqbal’s Urdu poetry , is a vast topic. If ever, Allah Almighty gives me a chance, I shall explore this topic further.
" تصیح و تحشیہ و تعلیقات "مثنوی نیرنگ عشق غنیمت کنجاہی و استقبال آن در شبہ قارہ"
Critical Analyses Masnavi “Nairang _ E _ Ishq”of Ghaneemat Kunjahi
and its reception in Sub- Continent .
His real name is Mohammad Akram S/O Nazar Mohammad. His
father and Uncle were the moored of Syed-ul- Arifeen Haji Mohammad
Nosha Gunj Baksh and they had spiritually a great status of sofi. Ghaneemat
kunjahi also was the follower and allegiance of Syed Saleh Mohammad that
had a link with Ghoos-ul- Azam Sheikh Abdul Qadar Geelani. As the result
of this association with them the verses of Ghaneemat Kunjahi are full of
spiritualism, and he got a great same because of it.
Ghaneemat has mentioned about his allegiance in of his
Masnavie’s”Nairang-e- ishq” .The other books of Ghaneemat Kunajhi are
“Deevan-e-Ghaneemat,Saqinama, Gulzar-e-mohabbat, Manazira of Gull and
Nargis ,and Letters of Ghaneemat are also famous.
Life and works of Ghaneemat Kujahi are not found in detail. Some of the
writers have mentioned him in their articles or have published his books
without any detail. But still it needs explanation ,so it was necessary that
beside of his so many writings research about his Masnavi, as to must be
researched. And may be utilized by the researchers as a separate article. I
have selected the Masanvi as my PhD thesis for that purpose and the states
that Ghaneemat had in between the books of
Sub-continent may be put in the reach of them. I hope my effort my open a
new path in the Persian Language and Literature of sub-continent.
After the study of the Masnavi we acknowledge that it not only reflects the
picture in the society of those days, which explains the feelings, customs and
habits, civilization and culture of the people of that ears but ,it reflects the
terminologies and verbal sentimental, metaphors and talismans. Sometime it
seems that Ghaneemat Kunjahi has last hi path but he did not gave up his
objective of research. And he describes his objectives as a good and
Editing and Annotation of "FazalulLiqa" of Sultan Bahoo
Sultan-ul-Arifeen Sultan Bahoo(1629-1691) was a renowned Sufiof the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent. He authored more than 140 books on Sufism in which one is written in Punjabi Language and 139 in the Persian language.He was a prolific writer ofprose. His Persian and Punjabipoetry is full ofmystic and gnostic language and literature which directly appeals to the soul, heart and head of the reader. He was deeply influenced by MevlanaRumi's literature on spirituality. This research work presents "Editing and Annotation of "FazalulLiqa" of Sultan Bahoo"."FazalulLiqa" is a manuscript, written during the reign of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir (1618 - 1707)which comprises of six chapters and a foreword.Hadrat Sultan Bahoo explains beautifully Ism-e-Allah Zaat (Actual name of Allah Almighty) directly in accordance with the injunctions of Holy Quran and Sunnah. Topics like Ishq-e-Elahi and Ishq-e-Mustafa (PBUH) are also covered in “FazalulLiqa” and it is a beautiful book on Sufism.My work consists of analyzing four different manuscripts belonging to; i) MeskeenMuhammad Deen S/O Mean Jelani Bakhsh,ii)Faqeer Muhammad Hayat, iii)Hadrat Ji Sahib Burhan Shareef, iv)Zahoor Ahmad Saghar Hashmi al-QadriBahawalpuri.The oldest manuscript is used asa base reference and the rest three are tallied with the base using comparative analysis.All the four manuscripts are compared carefully and the difference of wordsis added infootnotes. Any change or mistake in the original manuscript is ratified in accordance with the rest of the manuscripts and the same is mentioned in footnotes. Obsolete Persian words are replaced with modern Persian words.Different tropes and various terminologies used in the manuscript are written separately in the end. All the Quranic verses and the sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) mentioned in “FazalulLiqa” aresegregated and written in the end along with references.