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منیر نیازی کے شعری تصورات کا تنقیدی جائزہ (اردو شاعری کے حوالے سے) In our national life no one can deny the significance of fine arts that becomes more pronounced when an icon and trendsetter poet like Munir Niazi emerges on the horizon of literature. This is so because such a trend is equally responsible for the growth or decay of the nations or nationalities. Sometimes such a trend outweighs other thoughts and proves as a catalyst that moulds the history. In our national life, poetry of Iqbal can be presented as an argument in such a claim. When we see Munir Niazi in the context of a trendsetter poet, it becomes imperative upon us to study his poetic works intensely and profoundly. Only this way the literary value of Munir Niazi can be appreciated besides reaching the conclusion in proving or disproving Munir Niazi as a trendsetter poet. This research work is being presented while keeping this perspective in mind. In this research work, all the Urdu poetry collection of Munir Niazi is covered. In line with continuity and logic, the paper is divided into six chapters. The first chapter deals with the family background and initial stages of his literary life. It is important from the perspective of understanding that this stage had a lasting impression upon Munir Niazi's life. The second chapter covers the tragedy of the period Munir lived in, followed by his thoughts on the exemplary society. The third chapter is on Munir's ideas of beauty and love. This is important from the perspective that he is most often described by his critics as beauty lover poet. An attempt is made to highlight the factors that elevate Munir Niazi to this status. The fourth chapter is on the political thinking of Munir Niazi. The effects of half a century of country's politics are narrated here. The twentieth century has brought mind boggling changes that proved as precursor of unknown fear and terrorism, such as atomic technology. The fifth chapter dilates upon the ideas of fear, dread, terror, and fatigue. The six chapter deals with three forms of poetry i.e. poem, ghazal and songs to test them on the parameters of writing style and techniques. The last chapter is an overall analysis of Munir Niazi's poetry. Besides drawing the conclusions, the talking points for the future researchers have been left in the recommendations, in this last chapter. It is expected that this study will not only help in understanding the poignant poetry of Munir Niazi, but also prove to be a happy addition for Munir Niazi's fans.
بیسویں صدی کی اردو غزل پر ہندی اثرات The journey of Ghazal from Arabic to Urdu spreads over many, centuries. During this period, it passed through the realms of various civilizations and finally entered into Urdu. In Urdu, it evolved under the influence of Hindi, which includes civilization, mythological, social and religious influences. In this context, the linguistic commonalities between Hindi and Urdu, which have sprung from the same origin, cannot be ignored. I have studied these influences in the context of Urdu Ghazal in 20th century. The thesis under view consists of Six chapters. The first chapter consists of "Salient Features of Hindi Civilization". In its beginning, I have discussed the roots of culture and civilization, the dawn of life in the subcontinent, the emergence of Dravidian, Arian and Muslim civilizations and the amalgamation of their civilization and intellectual aspects, and the impact of all these on Muslim way of life. In the backdrop of the cultural aspect of life, I have analyzed Urdu Ghazal evolution from its beginning to the end of 20th century in 2nd chapter. The third chapter covers the "Influence of Hindi on Important Poets of the 20th Century" which consists of influence of Hindi on Urdu Ghazal from 1900 to 1947, i.e. the partition. Chapter four consists of "Influence of Hindi on Urdu Ghazal" from partition, i.e. 1947 to 1960. Chapter five i.e. "The Influence of Hindi on the Modern Poets (1960 -2000)" discusses influence of Hindi on Modern Ghazal. Chapter six consists of conclusion, recommendation and a synthesis of the first five chapters. In the present study, I have focused on the influence of Hindu civilization, thought, religion, mythology, tradition, customs and Hindi language, which are deep rooted in Urdu language
پاکستانی غزل میں ما بعد الطبیعیاتی عناصر Metaphysical Elements in Pakistani Ghazal This dissertation explores metaphysical elements in Urdu Ghazal from its beginning to the creation of Pakistan. Deccani period, the period of far-fetched conceit (eehaam), the period of Meer and Sauda, the period of Ghalib and the period of modern poetry exhibit metaphysical elements specifically. Under the umbrella of metaphysics, the traces of ontology, cosmology and psychology in Pakistani Ghazal are discussed referentially in this dissertation. The ontological topics of being, attributes, transcendence, eminence, reality, form, revelation and prophet hood; the cosmological concerns like the creation of universe, thought, wonder, mortality, immortality, world of forms; the general metaphysical concepts like death, the grave, the resurrection, paradise and hell, and the psychological aspects like human being, soul, heart, ethics, destiny of man, prayer, free will, predestination, beauty and amour are analyzed in the perspective of Pakistani Ghazal. In Pakistani Ghazal, Hafeez Jalandhri, Abdul Hameed Adam, Hafeez Hoshiarpuri, Yousuf Zafar, Majeed Amjad, Ihsan Danish, Raees Amrohawi, Ahmad Nadeem Qasimi, Ja'far Tahir, Mohib Arifi, Munir Niazi, Nasir Kazimi, Abdul Aziz Khalid, Tauseef Tabassum, Wasif Ali Wasif, John Ailiye, Ghulam Muhammad Qasir, Khurshid Rizwi, Muhammad Izhar ul Haq, Jaleel Aali, Sarwat Husain and Saood Usmani are prominent for their metaphysical elements in their poetry. The works of above mentioned poets are discussed and analyzed in this dissertation chronologically
مکاتیب سر سید احمد خان کا تحقیقی و تنقیدی جائزہ Research I Critical view of Epistolary works by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan In Urdu literature the figure of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and his works are well known for multifaceteo reasons. His prose work has been published in big quantum. Though not becoming to his stature, but much of critical work on his prose art has appeared the recent past. Sir Syed's Urdu prose brought revolutionary change in the history of Urdu prose writing through his unique diction and power of expression. A general introductory preview of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and his contemporary prose writers' achievements are given in the Dr. Syed Abdullah's book "Sir Syed Ahmed our Unkay Namwar Rufaqa Ki Urdu Nasar Ka Fiqri-o-Fanni Jayza". Though much of Sir Syed's prose work has been published but the true worth of his works and his own literary stature has not been completely determined yet. To date, no research work becoming his literary achievements has been published. His prose writing multifaceted. Religious prose, Historical prose, Journalistic prose are some of the dimensions carrying a blend of his epistolary art. During Sir Syed's era, epistolary writing had entered a new epoch. Prior to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Mirza Ghalib introduced a living genre of epistolary writing that was concomitant to his name. Sir Syed's epistolary writing skill is not only the continuation of the same diction but a quest for new horizon / vistas as well. Majlis Tarakki-e-Aciab published 02 volumes of his epistolary work. Now, the need is to evaluate, the works of is contemporary eminent writers and compare with that of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan in perspective of epistolary. In this research the focus is to evaluate the worth and justify the criticism on his work. Harmony of ideas, as well as expressions have been scrutinized in his letters and dissertations both. In the same way an analysis of his thought in his articles as well as writings, has been presented according to his philosophy and deeds. Research oriented views of Sir Syed's addressee also falls in the scope of my work under study. Moreover, a pursuit and hunt for Sir Syed's work yet to be published is included in my work too. On parameters of literature, research and their worth in the history of Urdu literature to be published. My research work fulfills the demand of the question that what was the real form of epistolary writing skil during Sir Syed's era.
مکاتیب حالی کا تحقیقی و تنقیدی مطالعہ In this dissertation, an attempt is made to (re)present Maulana Altaf Hussain Hali as a letter writer in the history of Urdu Literature since he has already been an established Urdu poet, critic, biographer and prose-writei. In this thesis, an analysis of Maulana's skills of biography and other literary writings is presented and, in this way, it has been emphasized that he is a very significant personality not only due to his literary works but also his letters. In this thesis, the perspective of Hali's literary era is given along with his contemporaries' commentaries and scholarly and literary achievements. Hali's prose style and poetic thoughts have also been discussed in this thesis and it has been explained as how Hali's prose is different from that of his contemporaries. A significant feature of this dissertation is that it includes his eighteen unedited letters including two of them unpublished and four unedited writings. The search and quest for such rare works is one among my endeavors in my maiden voyage of research and knowledge. These letters of Maulana would not only add their quantitative strength but also serve as a new discovery and vital sources of research on Hali. This dissertation also reviews the importance of the meanings, criticism and research on Hali's letters. They point towards some very important aspects of Hali's personality besides illuminating Hali's biographical details.
صوبہ سرحد ميں اردو زبان و ادبی نثر کا ارتقاء ۱۸۵۰ء سے قیام پاکستان تک: تحقیقی و تنقیدی جائزہ Development of Urdu Language and Literary Prose in NWFP from 1850 to the creation of Pakistan The aim of this thesis is to give a critical appraisal of the development of Urdu language and literary prose from 1850 to the creation of Pakistan. In order to review and make their war strategy, the invaders of India, coming via the Khyber valley, made a permanent abode in the then Frontier province, now known as Khyber Pakhtunkhwah today. Thus the language of these foreign invaders greatly influenced the indigenous language which resulted in the origination of a new language Urdu. This language made progress by heaps and bounds. The objective of this thesis is to bring to light the pros and cons of the same progress which the language made during its initial stages. There was a huge stock of literature till the creation of Pakistan. A lot of valuable work had been done in all the genres of literature. Although in his book Adbiat-e-Sarhad, Farigh Bukhari has mentioned some prose books in the province till the creation of Pakistan. But its research based and critical review is yet to be presented. Therefore, to present a critical and in-depth analysis of the fiction, humor, satire. Biographies and criticism is also the objective of this thesis. In addition to this, the titles, techniques, art and style of the above mentioned types of prose will also be brought to light. Every literature reflects the political, social and cultural aspects of its age. It also shows the beliefs, customs and thoughts of the people. In this scenario, the objective of the thesis is also to know about the political, social and cultural values of the time.
پاکستانی انشائیہ نگاروں کے اسالیب کا تحقیقی و تنقیدی جائزہ: 1960 تا حال In the second half of the twentieth century, different intellectual, literary, empirical and political movements revolutionized people's general perceptions and attitude in the subcontinent. Moreover, their ideologies, experiences and modern arts and sciences also adopted new shapes and directions. This was the time when the writers of this era also began to look for new methods of expression. In this quest, where they explored several forms of expression and communication, they also invented inshaa'iya. Like other forms of art, it also took its structure from west. During last forty years, there has been made quite a significant development in the writing and style of Urdu inshaa'iya. However, this literary form has met criticism than any other form of Urdu literature in this short span. The reason behind this is the inshaa'iya writers themselves who have used this form in their own varied ways, in fact, termed their work as inshaa'iya although, at times, it lacked the essence of inshaa'iya. Therefore, for a long time, the boundaries of humour, satire and inshaasiya could not be set. One piece of writing would have all the three forms blended in it. Amidst all this appeared Dr. Wazir Agha as an inshaal iya writer who very aptly defined the categorical boundaries of inshaa'iya. If we analyse the progress made up till now in the field of inshaa'iya. We shall find outstanding and worth appreciation efforts made to explore the history and tradition of inshaa'iya writing. But the style of inshaa'iya writing hasn't been a common target among researchers and writers. Many analysts have written about the elements of style to be adopted for inshaa'iya writing, but the work is scattered and needs to be compiled. After this is required a detailed analytical study of the individual styles of Urdu inshaa'iya writers since no significant effort has been made yet in this regard. A collective study of the history of inshaa‘iya and the inshaa'iya writers' style would present a compact picture of inshaa'iya which will help define the significance of this prose form in Urdu literature. In the light of what is written earlier, it becomes apparent that the study of the styles of inshaa.iya writers is certainly required and that their exploration will lead to the exploration of an important chapter in the history of literature. Analysis of the styles of the inshaa' iya writers of the early era of inshaa'iya writing.
پاکستان میں اردو زبان کی تدریس کے مسائل و مباحث Language is a means of communication. Language is the recognition of a nation and the custodian of the culture in a society. Among the various languages of Pakistan, Urdu enjoys a unique status as national language. It is not only a lingua franca but also a means of unifying the whole nation as well. Urdu is taught as a compulsory subject up to higher secondary level. Teaching of Urdu language has been a very chronicle problem since long. A general outcome shows that Urdu is taken for granted as an easier subject, so no extra measures and arrangements are made in its teaching. There was a dire need to review this problem in order to find out the remedial measures. This research is an effort to find a clue for the said purpose. The research study includes both pedagogical and linguistic aspects keeping in view the ground realities. The first chapter deals with a comprehensive introduction and teaching importance of Urdu language whereas the second chapter relates to the pedagogical concepts associated with its teaching. Third chapter deals with the skills covering listening, speaking, reading and writing problems faced by the learners residing in all the areas of this country. Fourth chapter follows the art of written mode, punctuation, annotation and pronunciation problems. Fifth chapter deals with teaching of prose, poetry, grammar and composition. An overall summary and analysis has been given in the last chapter. Besides this, it includes conclusions and recommendations for the improvement of existing situation and further research. I hope this research may prove a useful addition in the realm of teaching Urdu as a language.
اردو ناول میں منظر نگاری: تجزیاتی مطالعہ Like many other genres of literature, novel enjoys worldwide popularity today. The journey of novel in Urdu literature covers and spans a period of over a century. This genre was introduced into Urdu literature from the West and it gradually gained popularity. Novel is throughout the world most popular literature genre. The extent of its popularity can be gauged from the fact that most of Nobel Prize laureates in literature have been novel writers. Unlike West, no serious research work has been undertaken on novel in Urdu. Some literary critics have on individual basis did some research on some aspects of novel like its technique, shape, form and manner but still there insider need of thoroughgoing and exhaustive research on some vital aspects of novel such as how in an Urdu novel a novelists gives description of a phenomenon, how does he arranges sequence of incidents and events and how does it all impact a listener or a reader. In aforementioned field we don’t come across any good research oriented book. Considering the lack of serious research I undertook the task of tracing and subjecting to a thorough and detailed research the Description in Urdu novel from time of Deputy Nazir Ahmed till the year 2002. Description in Urdu novel in different ages was achieved through various techniques and means. In terms of description it underwent change in gradual phases as years passed by. Explanation of different ways of description needs a fuller research. This research paper has been written keeping in perspective the trajectory of Urdu novel in terms of description over a period of one century. This will open the way for new experiments in Urdu novel. To achieve the same goals and objectives this research paper has been arranged in various chapters. In chapter 1, description in literature has been defined technically and its various forms and shapes been subjected to fuller analysis. In addition, detail has been provided as to how description started in Urdu novel in the first place and how over time it took on various forms. Likewise it is also discussed in what manner description in novel differs from description in other genres of literature. In chapter 2, gives a thorough analysis of description in Urdu novel from the beginning till 1900.The tradition of fictional literature of 2nd half of 19th century has been given a brief treatment. In chapter 3, an analysis of description in Urdu novel has been presented from 1900 to 1947. Further brief introduction is given of the tradition of Urdu novel in 2nd half of 20th century. In chapter 4, a detailed analysis of various descriptive techniques in Urdu novel has been offered from period 1947 till 1971, the year of fall of East Pakistan. Furthermore, the impact of riots of Partition of Indian Subcontinent on Urdu novel has been traced. In chapter 5, analysis of description in Urdu novel from period of 1971 to 2002 is offered and attempt made to keep track of factors and reasons which caused the changes in descriptive techniques. In chapter 6, an overall analysis, recommendations and conclusions have been offered from all the ideas discussed in preceding chapters of research paper.
پاکستانی اسفار پر مبنی اردو سفرنامے: تحقیقی و تنقیدی جائزہ Travelogues written about Journeys of Pakistan: A Critical Study Travelogue is one of the popular non fictional genres of literature. Although it is much popular in the readers but not much attention has been paid by the critics and researchers, as compared to other fiction and non-fictional prose, to evaluate it critically. This work is a critical and historical study of Urdu travelogue with special reference to the travelogues written about Pakistan. The thesis comprises of six chapters. In the first chapter essentials of travelogue and its historic background is discussed briefly. It also includes different parameters of critical study of the genre like literary, cultural and religious aspects. An overview of the history of Urdu travelogue writing is also the part of the chapter. In the second chapter critically study of the travelogues is undertaken. This chapter includes the Urdu travelogues written by famous writers. This chapter is the most important one in the sense that these writers are well known and have their unique style of writing. In the third chapter study of the travelogues written by other people who are not famous for their writings but are important personalities with some other reference. This chapter discusses how these people feel and write and how they are different from professional writers. In the fourth chapter travelogue written about Pakistan by the foreigner in Urdu language are discussed. Most of them are not professional writers but they have written these travelogues in an interesting way. In the fifth chapter Urdu translations of the travelogues written about Pakistan in some other language are discussed. This is also an important chapter because it shows some different point of view because most of the writers do not belong to Pakistan and have their own mindset. In the last chapter the discussion has been summarized and some findings are presented.
پاکستان میں اردو غزل کے موضوعات کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ: 1960 یا حال Thematic Study of the Urdu Ghazal of Pakistani Era: From 1960 onwards Ghazal has been the most popular and powerful genre of Urdu poetry. It has a rich tradition and valuable references of the history of the Indian sub-continent can be seen in its verses. Much has been written on the classical poetry and its critical appreciation with all important aspects has been the priority of most of our critics. However, the ghazal of twentieth century in general and the ghazal of Pakistani era in specific requires more importance. Some works are there on the Pakistani ghazal but most of those are with stylistic approach and thematic study of the Pakistani ghazal was still less preferred area. This work is an attempt to cover the same. The work comprises of eight chapters. In the first chapter basics of ghazal and the relationship between ghazal and its themes has been discussed with various angles. In the second chapter tradition of Urdu ghazal has been discussed briefly with special reference to its themes and topics. It starts from beginning of ghazal in Urdu and covers all the periods till sixth decade of the twentieth century. In the third chapter thematic study of the Urdu ghazal of seventh decade of the twentieth has been done. Political and socio-economic situation of the country has been discussed to understand the background of thematic changes. In the fourth chapter ghazal of eighth decade, in the fifth chapter ghazal of ninth decade and in the sixth chapter ghazal of last decade of the twentieth century has been discussed in the same manner. In the seventh chapter changing themes of Urdu ghazal of first decade of twenty first century has been discussed with reference to contemporary political and social situation of the country. The discussion has been concluded in the last chapter.
ادبی متن کا انگریزی سے اردو ترجمہ: فن، معیار، مسائل Translation of Literary Text from English to Urdu : Art, Standards and Problems Translation is a way to bridge the gap of linguistic and cultural differences not only between two languages but two nations and two civilizations. It brings new themes, new style and new taste to the language and enriches it with fresh feeling. Its importance has been rather more increased in the contemporary situation of knowledge exploration and dialogue between civilizations. It is amazing that no single book has been written on the problems of the translation with theoretical approach. Some articles, although very valuable, has been written by the Urdu scholars and some of them are compiled by the different writers, some theoretical discussions are also there in applied works of translation, but there is no book which has been written on the art of translation in Urdu. The work under consideration is an attempt to fulfill this gap. As mentioned in the topic of the thesis, the work is about the theory, techniques and problems of translation from English to Urdu with special reference to literary texts. The work comprises of five chapters. In the first chapter basics of translation, its types, techniques, general problems, linguistic barriers, cultural barriers etc. has been discussed. In the same chapter a brief history of translation both in West and in the Indian sub-continent has been discussed. Second chapter discusses the problems associated with the translation of poetry. Different aspects such as linguistic, cultural, personal etc. has been discussed. Problems of translation of fictional prose with its various genres has been discussed in the third chapter. And problems faced by the translators while translating non-fictional prose with its literary genre has been the topic of discussion in the fourth chapter. The discussion has been concluded in the fifth chapter and findings, results are presented and recommendations have been made to solve the problem as well as for further study.
پاکستانی ناولوں کا ہیئتی، اسلوبیاتی اور ماجرائی مطالعہ: 1947 تا 2000 Present study comprises of following six chapters. First chapter consists of basic study of 'Form, style of novel and MAJRA'. It has been strived to define form, style and MAJRA. This is a foundation stone of present thesis. It determines a specific direction of the light of researchers' opinions. The topic of second chapter is 'Tradition of Urdu Novel in Pre-Partition Era — A Background Study'. In this chapter a number of novels from beginning to partition have been studied in the perspective of form, style and MAJRA. Furthermore, impacts of different literary movements on Urdu novels have also been analyzed. In the third chapter, analytical study of various novels from establishment of Pakistan to 1960 has been presented. Post-partition phase gave birth to circumstances of political upheaval and riots which stirred ideological and structural experiments in Urdu novel. Some renowned novels have been studied generally and 'ESE BULANDEE ESE PASTEE', `NAGRE NAGRE PHERA MUSAFIR', `KHUDA KE BASTE', `KHOON-E-JIGR HONE TAK' AND `AAG KA DAREA' have been specially studied on the basis of form, style and MAJRA. Fourth chapter consists of different novels written from 1960 to 1980. Partition, riots, political disturbance, large scale migration and martial law shattered foundations of entire society. Likewise social and cultural problems also metamorphosed. With the advent of these radical changes, literature as a delicate genre also changed along with bent of mind. These social changes personified in novel in new style, form and plot, thus, a number of novels have been studied specially focusing on form, style and MAJRA. In fifth chapter, selected novels from 1980 to 2000 have been critically analyzed. This era revealed Decca Falls, sectarian conflicts, linguistic and ethnic biases, advancement of media, bloodshed, frustration in youth, deterioration of peace and tranquility, political crises, mutilation of values and such other issues as well as bitter realities of life. All above mentioned facts are evident in topic, form, style and MAJRA. All these features have been studied and analyzed minutely in this chapter. Presently study is concerned with significant novels of 1980s like 'BASTE', `JANAM KUDNLE', `DEWAR KE PEECHE' and `KHUSHEO KA BAGH'. Sixth chapter presents overall analysis of selected novels ranging from partition to 2000 with perspective of form, style and MAJRA. Moreover, logical conclusions and recommendations have been presented.
پاکستان میں غیر افسانوی اردو نثر کا اسلوبیاتی مطالعہ This research paper has predominantly discussed stylistic trends of 'Non Fiction Prose' in Urdu Literature since the inception of Pakistan. Non-Fiction is prose writing that presents and explains ideas or that tells about real people, places, objects, or events. Autobiographies, biographies, essays, reports, letters, memos and newspaper articles are all types of nonfiction. For the purpose of research I choose autobiography, humorous writing, personal essays, travelogues, sketch writing and literary columns. I tried to explore who are trend setters in 'non-fiction prose' and how their styles contributed sufficiently in innovation and novelty of the Urdu language and literature. This dissertation tried to answer three research questions: what innovative and novel styles in nonfiction prose are introduced in Urdu literature since the dawn of Pakistan? What are major reasons and background circumstances responsible for development of new styles and approaches of nonfiction prose? Who are prominent trend setters in different kinds of nonfiction prose and how their styles have affected Urdu language in modern times? For objectives research this dissertation in divided into eight (8) chapters. In first chapter research topic has been dealt in detail. Non fictional prose, any literary work that is based mainly on facts, even though it may contain fictional elements. Defining nonfictional prose literature is an immensely challenging task. I explained 'what is the difference in fiction and non-fiction prose'?, 'What are different elements of prose? What is style and major elements of style and what are the main elements? It has been found out that styles and elements of styles in nonfiction and fiction are the same, however their use depends upon the selection of genre. Nonfictional prose genres is very new to Pakistan and therefore this chapter sets the pace that how this new genre has flourished in new styles. This research is mainly limited to the study of the stylistic approach of the prominent writers after the birth of Pakistan, which has been discussed in later chapters. In next (6) chapters I explored elements of nonfiction prose in field of autobiography, humorous writings, personal essays, travelogues, sketch writing and literary columns by selecting the original works of the prominent writers in their respective fields. This is the first ever research to study the styles and approaches of the trendsetter writers of Urdu literature. It has been found out that the writers of the Non-fiction prose not only produced master pieces of prose in Non-fiction but also sets new styles of writing.