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LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION OF GENDER: A FEMINIST CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF ELEMENTARY LEVEL ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS IN KPK The dominant socio-cultural ideologies embedded in the spoken and written discourses affect a human’s psyche and eventually become a part of his/her character.These ideologies are maintained and propagated through different discourses, for example, discourses taking place inside the confinements of the homes, discourses generating at workplace and the discourses obsessing electronic and print media, etc. Textbooks too are used as a medium to perpetuate, propagate and maintain the established socio-cultural ideologies of a society. In this regard, the present research is carried out to analyze textbooks’ discourse from feminist standpoint. The prime objective is to examine the linguistic description of each gender group in the elementary level English textbooks, being produced by provincial Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Textbook Board. Using a combined and modified model of three different kinds of models of critical discourse analysis- Fairclough’s Model of CDA, Porecca’s Model for CDA analysis and Michael Halliday’s Model of Transitivity Analysis- the researcher analyses the language of the short stories, essays and language proficiency units of the said textbooks for gender depiction. The key areas are ‘Interactional Control’, ‘Omission in Texts’, ‘Firstness’, ‘Metaphors’, ‘Generic Constructions’, ‘Adjectives’, ‘Verbs’, and ‘Nouns’ in the texts, in order to know what gender ideologies are embedded in the texts and what is their significance in the gender construction of both sex groups. The findings reveal that though a few texts are gender sensitive, most of the texts carry gender biased elements. The linguistic items disclose that one gender group is given edge over other, through various techniques like omission, control, firstness, dominance, active roles, etc. They depict men in a positive and women in a less positive way. It is recommended that the relevant authorities attend to the issue and take steps for a more gender-sensitive syllabus in future. The researcher also urges future researchers to analyze textbooks of other levels suggested in the last section of the research study.
Modalities in The Teaching of Writing in English in Pakistan The study touches upon different approaches to writing in English, with special emphasis on the older student in a social and educational setting where English is still used much, but where deficiencies abound. It endeavours to develop a theoretical matrix for writing, and then suggests ways of teaching writing appropriate for advanced students in Pakistan.
The Teaching of Stylistics at The Post-Graduate Level in Pakistan Universities Stylistics as an offshoot of both literature and language is a comparatively new subject. As such it has strong links with the disciplines, both of literature and language and it also serves to unite the two, through its very existence. As a subject it has so far been kept in the background and it is necessary to highlight its importance and bring it to the forefront; The present study seeks to attempt this by bringing to light the various institutions in Pakistan where Stylistics is being taught and through a comparative analysis to highlight the problems encountered by students/teachers of Stylistics and in so doing to recommend alternatives.
Structuralism and The Contemporary Paradigm of Teaching Literature in Pakistan Four tensions define the researcher's approach to the problem of teaching English literature in Pakistan. These are generated by the differences between the society that has produced this literature on one side and the society that is trying to make some use out of it on the other, together with the general displacement of literature as the touchstone of social wisdom by science. The researcher has tested some of the old assumptions about literature, the reasons traditionally adduced for teaching it and the supposed benefits of doing so. Possibilities for rationalizing the objectives, processes and methods of teaching it in Pakistan are also explored, and the researcher has offered some recommendations at the end of the thesis.
The Teaching of Stylistics at The Post-Graduate Level : A NUML Case Study Stylistics as an offshoot of both literature and language is a comparatively new subject. As such it has strong links with the disciplines, both of literature and language and it also serves to unite the two, through its very existence. As a subject it has so far been kept in the background and it is necessary to highlight its importance and bring it to the forefront; The present study seeks to attempt this by bringing to light the various institutions in Pakistan where Stylistics is being taught and through a comparative analysis to highlight the problems encountered by students/teachers of Stylistics and in so doing to recommend alternatives.
Corpus-Based Genre Analysis: Computer Science Research Article Introductions Conventional definitions of genres, based on the notions of specific conventions such as of content (theme, setting etc.) and form (structure and style) have been disputed. Some scholars do not believe in the rigid rules of inclusion and exclusion of texts in a particular genre as they can be recognized intutively as instances of repetition and difference because of their 'family resemblences' among texts. Swales (1990) prefers the psycholinguistic concept of `prototypicality'. Genres usually go through phases or cycles of popularity as the crucial ideological concerns of the time in which they are popular are embodied in the generic conventions. The popular genre of research article, amongst the research and academic community, is undergoing a continuous evolution. Many scholars have attempted to explore this complex process of writing research article. The list is long, to name some: Berkenkotter and Huckin (1995); Montgomery (1996); Salager-Meyer (1998); Atkinson (1999); Valle (1999); Gross et al. (2002). The work of these scholars includes research articles from different disciplines. However, such scholarly work in the field of Computer science is limited. Cooper (1985), Posteguille (1999) and Anthony (1999) studies are either too broad or too narrow. As compared to these works, the present study addresses the issue at a greater length and is more in depth. The increasing use of computer led text corpora containing millions of words inspired the utilization of the corpus-based techniques for the present research. A corpus of 56 Research articles was created electronically. These articles were taken from five different journals of IEEE, the leading Computer society of the world. Wordsmith tools such as word frequency list, key word, collocation and concordance were applied to the corpus. Secondly, Swales (2004) CARS model was applied for the rhetorical analysis. Lexico-erammaticl analysis was done in terms of the rhetorical objectives of writing Introductions. The findings of the research as discussed in Chapter four focus on the syntactic and lexical patterns evident in the data. Theses include interesting N-grams (three and four word clusters); voice of the author (very different from the authors of other disciplines) and passivization of verbs. These stylistic excursions make an initial contribution to our understanding of Computer science research articles Introductions. The last three chapters of the dissertation constitute the heart of the discoursal analysis of the 56 Introductions in the corpus. These examine the structural-rhetorical features of the moves and steps involved, and the possible linkages between form and function. A revised CARS model has been suggested for writing Introductions of computer science research articles. Some recommendations have been put forward. The dissertation concludes with a note on the pedagogical relevance of the study.
Reading and Writing Skills for Advanced Students of Business Business English is relatively a new subject in Pakistan. Research in this area at the doctorate level is virtually non-existent. This research investigated and analyzed the teaching-learning situation of Business English at the undergraduate level in Pakistan. The study focused on reading and writing skills in Business English teaching (BET). It was an exploratory study with ex post facto design. The study established theoretical framework for Business English as a Discourse and English for occupational purposes (EOP). The theoretical framework also discussed communication in general and Business or organizational communication in particular. The input to this research comprised empirical data collected through a questionnaire survey from a sample comprising 13 course administrators in the educational institutions, 23 practitioners of Business English, and 316 learners of Business English. There were 13 professional education institutions in 7 cities selected for the sample. The data collected was analyzed through the SPSS (release 12.0) program by looking at average, maximum, minimum, and SD. Results of statistical analysis were interpreted independently. A contrastive study of practitioners and learners' responses tested 32 hypotheses about BET by using independent sample t-test. The study presented a set of recommendations based on inferences for effective BET. The recommendations aimed at equipping the learners with written communication skills to meet with the field challenges.
Socio-Cultural and Psychological Frames of Reference in Developing Second Language Reading Skills in Pakistan face the challenges of the modern world, whereas Pakistani learners lack functional competency at advance level of second language reading. Basic bottleneck is the ignorance of the factors involved in reading and inappropriate teaching skills. Difficulty in reading relates to the mental faculty of learning, motivation, perception, reasoning and problem solving of learners. Pragmatic factors generated by socio- cultural and situational elements also play a vital role. The research done in the field indicates that there are external as well a internal forces working while second language teaching and learning takes place, therefore, if these factors are ignored while planning lessons the desired results can not be achieved. Assumptions about psychological processes have always been present in decisions about course content and teaching strategies often without the teacher being aware of them. It is commonly observed that many English language teachers in Pakistan are trained to be ignorant; to rely on the opinions of others instead of their own. There are two major implications for a language teacher, one is related to “teaching skills” and the second to “understanding” the process involved in it. The research done in the field confirms that essential element in literacy instruction is “the teacher” and that literacy is not accomplished through the “external controls” of prescribed programmes. To solve the problem we need to run professional development programs and cultivate the culture of “action research” in our educational institutions by acknowledging and improving the socio-cultural status of teachers
Management of Large Size English Language Teaching Classes: A Study at High School Level in District Abbottabad, Pakistan This thesis was aimed to investigate the problems being faced by the teachers, the students and the institutions’ administrators i.e., principals, headmasters, headmistresses, etc. in the management of large size English language teaching classes at high school level in Abbottabad. The study focused on the adoption of appropriate methods, approaches and techniques to manage the classes of large size. The purpose of the study was to examine the type and gravity of the problems being faced by the subjects and suggest the use of appropriate methods, techniques and approaches. The study was conducted in seventy Government Higher Secondary and High Schools in District Abbottabad. Non-participatory observation was conducted to carry out analysis and synthesis of the problems and their solutions. The research was both qualitative as well as quantitative. Three questionnaires were developed in consultations with the subjects who were part of the population but not part of the sample; one for the teachers, one for the students and one for the administrators. These questionnaires served as reliable instruments for study. All the subjects responded positively and showed 100% participation. The obtained data were analysed through chi- square which is a non- parametric test of significance for analysing the nominal data. The results of this study showed multifarious and multidimensional problems being faced in the management of large size English language teaching classes; which included as; the teachers having not attended any pre-service training course, non existence of any special training for the teachers to manage large size ELT classes, discipline, lack of proper teaching aids, school administration’ indifferent attitude, unsuitable curriculum, impossibility of checking of home assignments, faulty examination system, etc. Maintenance of discipline, teachers pre-service/ in-service training, individual attention especially to weak students, effective evaluation system, adoption of modern teaching aids, enhancement of STT, etc were recommended to manage the ELT classes of large size. The researcher gave some recommendations for future research as well.
Nature Imagery In Al-Qur'an The Qur'an abounds in nature imagery. Most of this nature imagery pertains to the earth with more than 461 explicit references. The earth image, employed literally as well as figuratively, occurs in diverse contexts to reinforce some major themes in the Qur'an such as Allah's Sole Sovereignty, Man's Vicegerency, Doomsday, Resurrection, etc. The earth, like every other object of nature, emerges as a sign of Allah. The personified earth presents for man a model of submission to the will of Allah. The present research aims at presenting an overview of the earth image in the Qur'an from a multi-dimensional perspective. Forms and style of earth imagery, along with general attributes and functions of nature imagery in Al-Qur'an, have also been touched upon.
A Study of English Language Learning as An Element Affecting The Social Capital of The People of Pakistan This research has been a means to look into Pakistani society and to explore how social capital is being generated through schools. The main inspiration for this work was French sociologist, Pierre Bourdieu's research on language and the creation of social capital. Bourdieu (1992) has used the term habitus to describe certain dispositions which incline individuals to act in certain ways — ways that are explicitly articulated in language. He has also used it as a tool to identify the social 'space of individuals in which a piece of language occurs and embraces the whole activity of the speaker or participant in a setting' (1971). This research aimed to find out how social capital is structured and how is it being affected through education in Pakistani society; to explore how parental perception of social capital coincides with the conceptualization of social capital; and to investigate how the language of education in schools is seen as influencing the formation of social capital. The correlation between social capital, education and the language of schooling was investigated through a detailed library research. The theoretical analysis was then transferred to a questionnaire which was administered on parents of secondary school children to find out their perceptions about the medium of education they chose for their children. The research was carried out in Karachi. The questionnaire was administered to parents of children in the final two years of secondary education, aged 14-16 years. Twelve students were selected at random from each single-sex and 24 (12 girls and 12 boys) from each co-ed school. Half the students were asked to have the questionnaire filled in at home by their mother and half by their father. There was a 100% response rate though of course the use of pupils as intermediaries is open to challenge. The questionnaire was translated into Urdu for the convenience of parents. The scale helped to validate the three main dimensions of social capital (structural, relational and cognitive) and to identify which dimension was being affected through schooling more. The following conclusions were drawn from the data collected: 1. Social capital created in schools affects about 10% of the habitus of individuals. 2. Secondary schools in Pakistan are perceived by parents as a means to build structural and relational social capital more than cognitive social capital. 3. Though Urdu is the national language, there are no Urdu medium schools in the metropolitan city of Karachi in the high-cost profit category. 4. Language of instruction has a stronger effect on social capital than the gender of schooling. The medium of education significantly influences the social capital of individuals in Pakistan
Political and sociocultural factors in language loss: A study of language shift in North Pakistan When a language dies, a whole history often dies with it. The phenomenon is worthy of the closest study possible. There is always a feeling of regret with the passing of languages, yet the processes of change must also be recognized and understood. There is a complex web of political, social, economic and cultural factors responsible for the phenomenon. North Pakistan is a land of geographic and ethnic diversity, one of the most multilingual places on earth. This study is designed to investigate the political and sociological causes of language loss in general. It is a study of language shift in North Pakistan. For this study three dying languages of Northern Pakistan were selected, Palula spoken in Kalcutuk, Yadgha spoken in Lutkoh valley and Domaki spoken in Mominabad, Hunza. Information was collected through observations, interviews, questionnaires, wordlists and texts for transcription. Data collected through these tools were then statistically analyzed and discussed. It was found out that the political and sociocultural causes for language loss were not the same for all the languages; they varied from language to language. Therefore it was concluded that the causes of language loss fall into both general and specific categories. General causes of language loss are usually the same for all languages, irrespective of geographic boundaries and linguistic variables, but specific causes of language loss are different for different languages according to their social, geographic and linguistic features.
Language Hybridization in Pakistan as Socio-Cultural Phenomenon: An Analysis of Code-mixed Linguistic Patterns Code mixing is an interesting phenomenon in bilingual societies. The social aspects of code mixing which include various factors ranging from the setting, addressee, and addresser to the prestige attached to a language, and its socio-historical background, determine the linguistic choices in the process of code mixing; reciprocally the linguistic choices for code mixing reflect the socio-cultural environment. Code mixing leads to language hybridization that in turn gives birth to the issues of language maintenance, shift, and desertion. All these phenomena have significant socio-cultural implications in the context of globalization and emergence of English as an international language in the recent decades that has challenged the survival of regional and national languages of many countries. As far as Pakistan is concerned these phenomena are a familiar and well-known feature of the present day linguistic scenario that is clearly reflected in the media as well. In this context the present research aims at the study of language hybridization and code mixing of English in Urdu in the country. To analyze the linguistic, socio- cultural and attitudinal dimensions of code mixing, this research quantitatively and qualitatively analyzes the code-mixed linguistic patterns used by the speakers in TV programs i.e. talk shows and discussion panels. Data is categorized under various lexical/ structural categories to study the processes employed, to examine the frequency of occurrence in different lexical and structural categories, and to investigate linguistic and social constraints involved. The linguistic data is further explored to trace the socio-cultural implications of code mixing and language hybridization. Structurally the dissertation is divided into nine chapters. After presenting the background of research, review of the relevant literature, description of the research methodology, and issues of bilingualism in international and national scenario, the data is quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed and interpreted under three broad categories, Insertion, Hybridization and Synthesis respectively. At the end the limitations of the study, and the contributions of this research are discussed.
Bilingualism as Teaching Aid in a Language Class: L1 as a Facilitator in Teaching/Learning Process of L2 at Intermediate/Certificate Level This study is an investigation into the contribution of bilingualism to learning English as a foreign language; and the limited and judicious use of mother tongue in EFL classroom does not reduce students’ communicative ability but can assist in teaching learning process. It proposes an explanation for this, based on the historical development of bilingualism over time that has remained the dominant practice in English language classes in Pakistan. Moreover, it seeks to understand whether teachers and the learners who do have another language draw on it in ways relevant to the teaching of English, and to suggest reasons why learners’ and teachers’ languages are disregarded in the teaching and learning process. In doing so, the dissertation draws on key bodies of literature in bilingualism, second language acquisition and critical studies in an attempt to provide a framework for considering the research questions. The study employed a qualitative, interpretive research design involving questionnaires, classroom observations and semi-structured interviews. The data chapter analyzed the students and the teachers’ expressed responses and beliefs about the role of learners’ first language(s) (L1) in the EFL class. The findings of the study in general are that bilingualism as a resource in teaching aids and facilitates in learning L2. There are differences between bilingual and monolingual teachers in that the former have much richer resources on which to draw. There are added insights which come from circumstantial or elective bilingual experience, from being a non-native English speaker, and from formal and informal learning experience. These propositions are discussed in the light of the writings of critical theorists to give a wider perspective on bilingualism as a teaching aid. It is suggested that bilingualism as a teaching aid should become a legitimate topic for discussion and further research.