Social Realism and Critique: Comparison of short stories by Lu Xun and Ghulam Abbas
In recent years, with the increasing influence of China towards the international phenomenon and the gradual advancement in the international constructive strategies under the “Belt and Route” cooperation initiatives in Pakistan, increasing the wish of the masses to understand comparative literary and social realities of both nations. For the present study, the researcher (I) selected short stories of two contemporary writers; Lu Xun and Ghulam Abbas whose eras are same and their literary works almost started at the same time period. Moreover, they both struggled for social betterment and its uprising. As a bilingual learner, the author combines the exploratory experience of comparative literature. Lu Xun is considered as a founder and originator of modern Chinese literature. Through his writings, he strived to change the spiritual dimensions of his nation and enlightened a new innovative hope in the mind of people. At the same time (before partition), Pakistan remained under British colonial power, for which we see its glimpse in the Urdu literature. Many literary movements and writers played their roles for social betterment in different ways.
Ghulam Abbas like his counterpart Lu Xun, is not a revolutionary writer. He just addressed the society and man in his short stories. He strives for the social betterment and discusses social issues in his writings smoothly and rhythmically. He made “double standard and hypocrisy of society” topic for his short stories.
The selected short stories of both the writers revolve around society and social phenomenon. A specific social phenomenon is focused in each short story of both the writers. Under the prevalent regional bilateral cooperation made it more necessary to promote understanding of mutual comparative literature for further enhancement into the people to people contact of both nations.
This dissertation is divided into five chapters.
The first chapter includes introduction, background of the research explaining the significance and importance of the research, research objectives, research ideas and the framework of the thesis.
The second chapter includes brief introduction of the research work already done on the works of both the writers in descriptive style i.e review of the literature.
The third chapter includes brief introduction of both the contemporary writers by giving a thematic connection of their writings, investigation and general literary analysis of selected short stories of the writers under the basic literary elements (setting, characterization, plot and structure, narrative point of view, conflict, climax, theme and the writing style of the authors) on which short stories of two writers are literary analyzed.
The fourth chapter carried out thematic comparison in descriptive style under societal perspective that how the writers’ works influenced the society socially，politically, economically and morally. And does the story’s character still exist in this modern society, and, moreover does the society take the same influence from the short stories still or not?
The fifth chapter includes summarizing the entire research study, put forward the innovative thoughts in the research and the future prospects for future researcher to research from innovative angles. And in the end references and bibliography is included in the research thesis.
Problems faced by Chinese students in learning Urdu Script; Case study at Urdu department of International Islamic university Islamabad and National University of Modern Languages
Recently global diversity of culture is on the peak and cultural emergence between Pakistan and china due to CPEC Road and Belt Initiative also enhance the importance of language learner along with other factors. With the increasing strength of students to learn Urdu and Chinese languages in academia, researchers are trying to find out the basic problems of learning language script faced by the students. The background of this research is that researcher is a Chinese language teacher and she has had day to day interaction with Chinese students who are learning Urdu Language, they often have problems in learning Urdu script. The purpose of this research is to identify the problems faced by Chinese students in Urdu script and how to overcome this problem. Researcher selects five students each from International Islamic and National University of Modern Language as a case study group and also uses Interview & observation methods for data collection. Researcher also conducts a group interview with the Urdu department teachers of both universities for their valuable teaching inputs to overcome this problem of Urdu script.
Key words: Chinese students; Case study; Urdu Script; National University of Modern Languages; International Islamic University Islamabad