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پی ٹی وی کےطویل دورانیے کے اُردو ڈراموں میں عورتوں کے سماجی مسائل کی عکاسی(1964ء تا 2000ء) The study entitled “Reflection of the social problems of women in the long Urdu dramas of PTV” aims at focusing of the serious social problems of Pakistani women. This is an evaluative critical analysis of those Pakistani long Urdu dramas which have pointed out the problems of Pakistani women. This study cover the analysis of those selected Urdu dramas of PTV only which have been on air in past. This investigation is an actual review of the given selected dreams for studying the elements of harsh attitude of families and society towards the innocent women. The procedure of this study cover live dramas, libraries, internet, published and published script etc. Although, this society cannot exist without women, yet their social status is very low and she is victim to very critical imbalance in her rights. This study reveals what reflection has been realized in the Long Urdu Dramas of PTV. The main purpose of this study is to scratch the mentioned role of women and their difficult lives. It presumes that women is often victimized in domestic violence where her rights are mostly denied in our Pakistan society. Urdu Literature has been in rising sologans for the liberty of women from the peters of injustice and cruelty. Beside victimization and violence and violence, her sexual abuses and harassment areat peak in this cruel society .This research_ based study hypothesizes that women have been not given their right place in our society and it investigates about such elements in PTV dramas. This study is equally beneficial for the awareness of women, families and societies. This study is important for writers and viewers to focus on the family and social rights of women in Pakistan. This research is an evaluative attempt to guide the masses regarding the cruelty a woman faces in Pakistan society .The organization of this study is of five chapter’s research format. Chapter one consist of introduction to research and its basics, chapter two of, reflection of the social problems of women in the long Urdu dramas of PTV, chapter three of inside, home status of Women in the Long dramas of PTV, chapter four of, the Financial status of Women in the Long Urdu dramas of PTV and chapter five of, the overall Evaluation, Results and Recommendations. This research study recommends equal laws and rights of women as a safeguarded by the constitution of Pakistan.
"اسلام اینڈ دی ویسٹ" کا ترجمہ اور تنقیدی جائزہ (اردو و انگریزی میں ما بعد جدید تنقید کے حوالے سے) Jacques Derrida and his work is not a strange name for the scholars of literary and critical theory. He is often regarded as the patron in chief of the postmodern school of thought. “Islam and The West” is one of the last intellectual debates he took part in. Which not only reflects his personal idea of an IslamoWesteren world but of a common future for both to achieve a better world. The book is not only prominent for its postmodern and deconstructive approach but also for its unique perspective on globalization. It can be labeled as a postmodern testament against xenophobia, populism and the contemporary politics of hate and division, in the heyday of taking sides and warring factions fed upon theories such as clash of civilizations. It was inevitable to shed light and introduce such a high profile discussion to the the serious Urdu readers. This project was basically founded on this postmodern idea, that we should not only translate the text of the other but to examine it critically and weigh in the philosophical, historical, civic and social consequences of such textual interpretations. This translation would add fresh blood into the substance starving veins of Post modern and Post-colonial Urdu criticism. The research methodology was based upon principles of documentary and historical methods throughout the translation and critical study of this text, I’ve consulted every possible documentary source in reach to authenticate and examine the language and terminology used in this text, in order to understand crux of the debate and grasp the ideas of the interlocutors. Sometimes, I also put the facts into historical perspective to comprehend their stances better, and even dug into the political aspects when I felt it necessary to decipher any word or the linguistic sign into the very idea of what he wanted to convey. I found out some quite astonishing results at the end of my research; in contrast to the image generally made up by some academic writers and translators, Derrida was hugely influenced by the Marxist school. Another surprising thing was his admiration and association with his native home and country of origin, Algeria, which he left behind in his youth years. Third and the most remarkable one was his openness to initiate or engage in a debate with religious entities, based upon his principle of “speech addressed to the other, acknowledged and accepted in its alterity” An inspiring fact about his personality, which I noticed repeatedly throughout my research, is that, he was a man of scholastic excellence with much flexibility and dynamism, and was finished with the evolutionary traits. He ever appeared open to change his stance if provided with enough substantial evidence by the other. There is a plenty to learn from his behavior in this regard. Especially when he talks of secularity with its arch rivals, the clergymen, without offending them in any possible way. Same is his attitude with any other cast, creed and colour or ethnicity. It is pleasure for the senses to see him articulating the arguments into an inspiring dialogue, and how skillfully he advocates the importance of aheterogenous society, the virtues of democracy, peaceful coexistence and communal harmony to those who appear innately biased against these values. The very least I could say, is that, it’s the purest essence of this dialogue, and the true spirit of the critical discourse as well
احمد فراؔز کی شاعری کافنی مطالعہ: بدیع و بیان کے تناظر میں Ahmed Faraz is considered one of the most popular Urdu poets of the last half of 20th century. He is critically acclaimed for simplicity to his style of writing. The figurative language of his poetry has its own identity. There is found a new and novel world of figurative language in Faraz's poetry which provides the reader or the listener with aesthetic sense. His similes and metaphors are rich with apparent and literal qualities. These poetic tools include human emotions and feelings to the poetry in an artistic manner. He is popular for his romantic and progressive poetry. Most of the research work has been done on his personality and his thoughts but the esthetics of his poetry hasn’t been touched so far. Little has been done on the characteristics of his poetry. Ahmed Faraz's poetic tradition is full of poetic devices and figurative language. By looking at the similes, metaphors, metonymies and innuendoes used in his poetry the researcher came to the conclusion that the use of figurative language made his poetry more likeable and popular. The poetic devices that he used in his poetry along with the figurative language took his poetry to the heights of fame but are often overlooked when analyzing his thoughts.
اُردو سفر نامے میں مذہبی عناصر: تجزیاتی مطالعہ (۱۹۴۷ء سے ۲۰۰۰ ء تک) This research thesis contains half-century travelogues of the twentieth century. Travel and religion have a deep connection with both the outward and the inward human. Likewise, every religion has its own unique identity, both outward and inward. The synagogue identifies the followers of that religion. The journey of a human being begins with his creation. While spiritual travel is also related to prehistory, this thesis is a combination of major elements like travel and religion.In Islam, where religion is termed as “travel is source of victory”. Similarly, other religions and civilizations have a special meaning for travel. And especially when religious matters are driven in the background of travel, it becomes a form of travel worship. For example, if Muslims go for Hajj, then their journey is worship. Hindus likewise consider salvation as a journey to Gangotri. Jerusalem is a means of salvation for the Jews. In this thesis, all the travelogues that have been written in the above mentioned period have been made subject research. Content available to benefit from a convenient and well-researched source is divided into three periods. First period contains 1947 to 1960. Second period covers next twenty years. Similarly, the last 20-year period has been made part of the third period.The thesis contains five Chapters. The first chapter consists of an introduction and a theoretical discussion. After setting the scope of the research in the first chapter, the second, third, and fourth chapters identified the religious elements of the correspondents' journals. Thousands of travels by hundreds of authors have come to the fair during this time span of half a century. Obviously not all travel journals could be discussed in this short research project. So the authors and their journals were chosen in which the religious elements were somehow in their full swing and religious impression. Since the scope of religious matters has been set out in Chapter I, The remaining three chapters, therefore, focus on identifying the religious elements keeping in mind the style of the reporter so as to avoid repetition. Finally, the findings of the entire thesis are presented in the form of a trial. There will certainly be room for expansion and improvement .
اردو نسائی زبان ومحاورہ (۱۸۵۷ء تا ۱۹۰۰ء):تجزیاتی مطالعہ (لسانی ، ادبی اور ثقافتی تناظرات) In Urdu language, we find that on the back of Feminine language discrimination, these are the distinct factors: the life style of the Indian women, lack of education, religious cults, rites and rituals, whims and whimsicalities, omens, charms and incantations and the veil culture that excludes them from public life and social intermixing. Moreover, in Indian culture, we find different and varied sections and factions of womenfolk such as maids, prostitutes, whors, and keeps on one hand and on the other, we see the ladies of elite class and of high ups who have altogether different life style , culture and mind set. The Concept of “Pitiwarta”is a Hindu custom but unfortunately, it is also in vogue in Muslims. Its details can be read in the book of Moulana Ashraf Thanvi titled “ Behishti Zaiver.” In Urdu Feminine Language , there are thousands of references about the day to day activities and engagements. In Feminine Language, we find various proverbs associated to house hold matters, songs of rainy season, Hina custom in weddings called myrtle rubbing, songs on the departure of the bride, and the words of rebuke, reproach , joke and taunt. In the First chapter of this thesis , the proverbs, maxims, idioms, discriminative phrases, basic identifications, riddles, metaphors, allusions and allegories are discussed pre 1857. In the first part of the Second Chapter, the specialization, particularities and bisection of Feminine Language pre 1857 are discussed in the light of the Lexicon and grammatical rules. In the Second Part, the light has been thrown on the idioms and proverbs of Feminine Language from the books such as Farhang- e- Asfia, Lughat- un- Nisa, Insha-e-Hadi -un- Nisa, Makhzan - ul- Mahawera, and from Amir- ul- Lughat. The Third Chapter deals with the proverbs and phrases about Feminine Language from the earlier period of Urdu novels. The writings of earliest novelists such as Ratan Nath Sarshar, Abdul Halim Sharar, Deputy Nazir Ahmed and Hadi Ruswa are critically and elaborately examined. The books titled “Rasoom - e -Delhi aur Gozashta Lucknow”, and “ The Letters of Wajid Ali Shah”, and their impact on the Feminine Language has been examined in Chapter Four. In a nutshell, this dissertation deals with the Feminine Language from 1857 AD to 1900 AD and throws ample light on the earlier period writings in connection with the common, literary and cultural back ground and aspects associated and adhered to womenfolk.
ادب کے عصری تناظرات: انور زاہدی کے افسانوں کی فکر اور اسلوب کا مطالعہ In the mythological legacy or tradition, it is believed from ages that the writers are physicians of their societies. It is debatable whether or not writers should be considered doctors. However, it can be said with degree of certainty that the writers having actual medical background are truly the salt of earth because there might not be any better training for the writer’s profession than that of spending time in medicine. Mr. Anwar Zahidi, the physician turned author is one such person. With an inherited love for literature, Zahidi is a full-time hospital physician. He is known to have written with truth, compassion, and devotion. Thus perhaps quite predictably his writing has earned him several awards. Being a Medical Doctor, Zahidi has an added advantage and that is his ability to feel what others feel, and simultaneously to view it with detachment. This uniqueness of taking a calm, dispassionate view of the situation gives him greatest strength as writer. Likewise all the practicing doctors, Mr. Zahidi is privileged to witness landmarks of life such as illness, ageing, bereavement, death are acted out in countless different families and lives . This is the reason he is no short of the inspiration for character and story. And it is no exaggeration to say that he portrays his characters with the objectivity of a scientist and a physician combined with the sensitivity and psychological understanding of an artist. Another notable feature that makes Zahidi prominent among his contemporaries is the striking use of metaphors to create and convey subtle nuance of meanings. In addition, the economy of carefully chosen words, sensory details, lots of references of abandoned cities, and the beautiful flow of language all make his work an interesting read, indeed Dr. Zaidi's fiction work depicts the socio-political environment in the third world where injustice, corruption, nepotism, massacre and hate reigns. So, he keeps his readers profoundly affected by his stories. The readers feel emotionally associated with the familiar characters due to their relevance in day to day life. The first chapter of my thesis provides some insight to the current trend in literature. The second chapter sheds light on the intellectual background and literary worth of Zaidi's work especially in the context of current literary practices. The third chapter discusses the writing style and literary devices implied by the by famous physician-turned-author in his four fictions i.e, “Azab-e-Shehrpanah”, “Mosam Jang Ka, Kahani Mohabat Ki “,“ Mandir Wali Gali”, and Bioscope Din” The last chapter gives an over-all view of fiction-writing abilities of Dr. Zahidi.
وجودیت کے مشرقی اور مغربی تناظرات: سید ماجد شاہ کے افسانوں کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ The topic of my thesis is Eastern and Western Perspectives of Existence, Analysis of Syed Majid Shah's Fictions.The study of the history and literature of that period gives us an idea of the existential problems of the people of that age.To analyze the existential problems of the individual of the present age, I have chosen two collections of fiction by Syed Majid Shah, "Qaaf " and "Ray". There are two main topics were discussed in the thesis. One is the background and perspectives of Existence and the other is the analysis of the existential elements in the fiction of Syed Majid Shah. The research design of this study is qualitative using textual analysis as a research method: on the backend, interviews, research papers, analytical work on Existence and fiction is also cited was needed. Syed Majid Shah is among contemporary writer and this thesis would be covering the work of Syed Majid Shah utmost with study and analysis to bring it to the place it justified in Urdu literature.
ادب اورتصوف:چالیس چراغ عشق کے اور دشت ِسوس کا تقابلی مطالعہ I have divided my research into four chapters entitled "Literature and Sufism: A Comparative Study of the Forty Rules of Love and Dasht-e-Soos". In the first chapter, after the introduction of the subject, the introduction of comparative study and information regarding Sufism are presented. In addition to discussing different theories of Sufism, the boundaries and periods of Sufism have been presented. Thoughts regarding Sufism and Islam have been presented. Information regarding Sufism and Maulana Rom has been presented. Sufism and Shams Tabriz has been discussed. In the second chapter, Elf Shafaq is introduced. The meeting of Maulana Rome and Shams Tabriz is mentioned. In this chapter, the nature of Maulana Rome is discussed with reference to the essence of Sufism. Some events from the life of Ella and A. Aziz Zahara are mentioned with reference to how the first step of the love is formed in to real love(Sufism). In the last part of the chapter, it is proved that the whole world becomes a link in the love of a Sufi. Chapter 3 introduces Jamila Hashmi. In this chapter Hussain Mansoor Hallaj's early education and from the conditions of early life to the complete life of Hussain Mansoor Hallaj is presented. Hussain Bin Mansoor Hallaj, Abbas's making this a personal matter and then torturing Hussain bin Mansoor Hallaj in various ways has been examined in detail in this chapter. The hanging of Hussain bin Mansour Hallaj is mentioned in the last part of the chapter. Chapter IV compares “Forty Rules of Love” and “Dasht-e-Sus” and examines the commonalities and differences in the novels.
ڈاکٹر تبسم کاشمیری کی تحقیق وتنقید کا مطالعہ (نوتاریخیت کے تناظر میں) “New Historicism” is the form of literary theory, which evolved in the early 1980‟. Its goal is to recoganise the literature, and the literature through its cultural background. Stephen Greenblatt coined the term „New Historicism‟, based on the philosophy of Michel Foucault. This theory follows that 1950‟s area of history of the ideas which cites to itself as a formation of “cultural poetics”. New Historicism concedes not only that a task of literature is influenced by its writer‟s ages and situations. But the critic‟s response to that task is also influenced by his milieu prejudices and beliefs. It also represents a sustained negociation of those complicated textual political and cultural forces that intervene between the present and past, now and then. New Historicism embraces and acknowledges the idea thath as the time changes, so will our understanding of great literature. To a new historicist, literature is not the record of a single mind, but the end period of a particular moment. New Historicists look at the literature alongside other cultural products of a particular historical periods to illustrate how concepts, attitudes, and ideologies operated across a broader cultural spectrum that is not exclusively literary. In addition to analyzing the impact of historicists also acknowledge that their own criticism contains biases derive from their historical position and ideology. Because it is impossible to escape one‟s own historicity. Dr Tabassum Kashmiri is a distinguished critic, Researcher and Literary Historian. He has authored a lot of books on Reseach and Criticism.His book on history is „„The History of Urdu Literature (From Beginning to 1857)‟‟, which was published in 2003.This book has an important place in literary historiography.This thesis explains the A study of Dr. Tabassum Kashmiri's research and criticism in the context of New Historicism.
مقتدر سماجی طبقات کےاستحصالی رویے:معاصراردوناول میں افسر شاہی کی قباحتوں کی عکاسی کا مابعد نو آبادیاتی مطالعہ Bureaucracy in Pakistan,is basically a product of the colonial system.Before the partition of India,British officers and employees of the British Empire and the East India Company began to exploit the natives.They did this through the ‘facilitators’,bureaucracy may be considered as one of those. Pakistani society is also struggling with this system and the remnants of the British. Literature tells the story of the relationship between life and society,economic and material development,class society,politics and its necessity.Literature has been called the mirror of society.Novel,due to its relatively direct narration,is closer to life as compared to other genres of literature and its scope is wider . Contemporary novelists have artistically expressed the contemporary problems, issues, corruptions found in the society,misbehavior,political and social exploitation and individual and collective miseries. The research ia a study of the depiction of bureaucratic evils in contemporary Urdu novels regarding the exploitative attitudes of the dominant social classes.Three novels have been selected for this study including Muhammad Hafeez Khan’s ‘Mantara’ (2021) and ‘Kariknath’ (2020) and Khalid Fateh Muhammad’s ‘Pari’ (2006).
پاکستانی اردو ناول میں معلّم کے کردار کی پیشکش کا مطالعہ راجہ گدھ، دیوار کے پیچھے، جنم کنڈلی اور آدھے ادھورے خواب کے خصوصی حوالے سے A novel does not cover a single person or event, but a society as a whole. The various characters in a novel reflect the thinking of their creator. The writing under review also includes four different novels; Bano Qudsia's "Raja Gadh", Fahim Azmi's "Janam Kundli", Shahid Siddiqui's "Aadhy Adhooray Khawb" and Anis Nagi's "Dewar K Peechy" through which an attempt has been made to analyse the thoughts of four worldly-known novelists. This literature discusses the background of the four novels in three important aspects. In the aforementioned four novels, the lead role ,being a teacher, has been critically analyzed as a friend, a philosopher and a leader. The essay also discusses the process of education and other factors influencing it. The teachers, characterized in the four novels, and their teaching methods have also been examined in the light of the opinions of various educators. Different examples, from these four novels, have been selected and examined while keeping in view the significance of Philosophy and its impact from the perspective of a teacher. Likewise, an attempt has been made to examine the role of the teacher as a friend through this article. Thirdly, in the context of these four novels, a teacher has been made a part of the analysis as a leader, and meanwhile, teacher has been portrayed as a philosopher as well. The dissertation is divided into five chapters. The first chapter discuses the role of the teacher and that how a teacher should look like. There is also a comprehensive talk over the education system in Islam. At the start of the second chapter, the meaning and concept of philosophy has been presented in a rational manner. After that, the importance of philosophy in education and its cause and effect has been discussed. In this chapter, the aim of Philosophy has also been discussed foregoing in view the pro and anti-human aspects of it; and the ideal qualities of a teacher, as a Philosopher, have also been covered through this writing. The four novels have also been discussed with reference to a teacher being a philosopher and finally the selected novels have presented a comprehensive and comparative study of a teacher as Philosopher. The third chapter covers the study of the character of the teacher as a leader in the above cited novels and then in this regard the four novels are made part of a separate discussion as well and in the end of that chapter, the role of teacher as a leader has also been examined in comparison and as a whole. The fourth chapter includes the study of the character of a teacher, as a friend, through selected novels. In this chapter, the four novels have been covered omprehensively to find out that how a teacher as a friend influences his students and the society. Under chapter five, a comprehensive and comparative overview of the novels under discussion have been presented keeping in view the characters of the novels in the capacity of a friend, a philosophers and a leader.
فورگراؤنڈنگ اور ادب:منتخب اردو ناولوں میں لسانی تصرف The research is divided into three chapters.First chapter is the introduction of Foregrounding and the authors has been presented.Along with this, the different methods of using language in some other novels of Urdu literature have been clarified.In the second chapter, the linguistic feature in the novel “Aag ka Drya” have been examined.The author has created a flavor in the novel by the unique use of language and expression, which is the prominent feature of her style.The third chapter examines the forms of foregrounding in the Urdu novel “ Bahao”. Language and expression have been examined. In the second and third chapters, mainly the stylistic analysis of the novels has been done. Stylistic study or review refers to the study of the literary style of any genre of literature. It means that whenever a piece of literature is created, the writer creates his/her own style using a distinct and unique method.The purpose can be anything for the writer.It can be said that highlighting the sings and symbols that the writer has embedded in his art work through descriptive method is stylistic analysis.Foregrounding is the technique of creating a style in which language is presented in such a way that is separated from ordinary everyday language. They come under Foregrounding. These resources include many poetic points which create attractiveness and impact in the prose. The analysis of style is presented as how the writers have created the prose style from the poetic resources. In Urdu literature, no stylistic analysis has been done at the level of novel or fiction. Most of the analysis that have been so for include the language and styles of poetry. In prose, Bedi, Abul Kalam Azad, Niaz Fatehpuri and Rashid Ahmed Siddiqui’s style has been reviewed. Stylistic analysis or review not only highlights the linguistic characteristics of the work of art, but also brings the author’s style and the uniqueness of the work of art to the reader. In addition, stylistic analysis differences between artists, eras, work of art and groups can also be estimated.
شاعری اور عروض: آہنگ و صوت کے تناظر میں گلگت بلتستان کی اردو شاعری کا مطالعہ Prosody is the primary yardstick for evaluation of poetry. Its significance has been unanimously upheld in Urdu poetic tradition. In Gilgit-Baltistan, Urdu poetry has been profusely produced since the last half century. However, no research has ventured to explicate its artistic, aesthetic and intellectual aspects to date. This thesis has endeavored to examine and assess the prosodic nuances employed by selected Urdu poets of Gilgit-Baltistan. This thesis comprises five chapters:  First chapter introduces the subject matter, provides key terms, background literature and existing scholarship on the topic, significance of the research undertaken, research questions and objectives, as well as introduction of prosody and its brief history.  The second chapter introduces the readers to the region of Gilgit, encapsulates the beginning and evolution of poetic tradition in Gilgit,and introduces Urdu poets of the region followed by a detailed prosodic study of their poetic publications.  The third chapter presents introduction to Baltistan region, the beginning and development of the tradition of Urdu poetry in the locale, introduction to the poets and an exhaustive study of their published poetic volumes with respect to prosodic standards.  The fourth chapter entails a comparison of prosodic tendencies, deviations, and shortcomings of the poets of Gilgit-Baltistan, along with the similarities and differences therein.  The fifth and last chapter covers the overview, findings and recommendations.
مزاحمت کے اظہاریے: شہناز شورو کے افسانوں میں نسائی مزاحمت کے عناصر کا مطالعہ The subject of my M.Phil dissertation is "Expressions of Resistance: Elements of Feminine Resistance in Shahnaz Shoro's Fiction".A society is a group of individuals who live on the principle that they have common interests. In common parlance, a group of all human beings is called a society. The standard and appropriate environment has some meaning in the individual life and also in the collective life of the whole society but when man does not get the standard environment he examines his surroundings and thinks about the factors. There are obstacles that stand in the way of this environment and it is this division that fosters the attitude of resistance within the conscious and sensitive human being. If one studies the history of sociology, one can see that exploitation and oppression are being tortured in various forms. Writers have played a vital role against the forces of oppression and exploitation. Shahnaz Shoro is a well known short story writer. There is resistance in their myths. His two legendary collections are "People, Word and Coming" and "Falling Sorrow "My dissertation defines resistance and discusses and describes the historical background of feminist resistance and Shahnaz Shoro's fiction describes social and elements of resistance, economic system inequality and class system and resistance of cultural elements values and customs