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شفیق انجم کے افسانوں میں جبر(Determinism)اورتنہائی (Solitude)کے عناصر: تجزیاتی مطالعہ Dr. Shafique Anjum has been described by leading literary critics as a representative modern novelist and his fiction has been described as a spokesman for the solitude and determinism of the individual in contemporary life. Literary personalities like Shams-ur-Rehman Farooqi, Dr. Rashid Amjad and Prof. Ahmad Javed called him (Shafiq Anjum) a fiction writer who illustrates the problems and pains of modern life. Critics have repeatedly pointed out the elements of determinism and solitude in Shafique Anjum's fiction. In this thesis, Shafique Anjum's fiction has been examined in the same context. Existencialism is a philosophy of life according to which man is independent in his individuality and narrative. In simple words, what is man according to this theory? The philosophy of loses its status because the statement of this theory is that man is the first reality. The existence of which is unambiguous and does not require any preconceived notions to prove its existence, so existential thinkers place the "individual" above the collective life. Every individual is free and responsible for his own actions. With this responsibility of choice, every individual becomes a victim of mental anxiety and mountains of troubles fall on him. His actions are within the realm of time and space. As a result of their actions, they face destruction, death, determinism, and solitude. We can see the reflection of existential elements in Shafique Anjum's fictions. An elemental study of the elements of determinism and solitude in fiction. Dr. Shafique Anjum has done his best to write about contemporary life and its problems. In his fictions, the echoes of the pains and related tragedies of modern life are prominent. In particular, he has made the solitude and determinism of the individual the subject in contemporary life He has also documented various forms of determinism and human helplessness. It was necessary to bring out a research work focusing on these aspects so that the contemporary meaning of Shafique Anjum could be better understood.
مزاحمتی رویے اور شاعری:گلگت بلتستان کی اردو شاعری میں مزاحمت کے سیاسی و سماجی زاویوں کا مطالعہ Resistance is not a new phenomenon. It has always been a topic of Urdu’s literary works. That’s why, during the last few decades resistance literature has become very popular in Urdu. In Gilgit-Baltistan’s Urdu poetry, there are different dimensions and angles of resistance. This thesis consists of a study of political and social angles of resistance in Urdu poetry of Gilgit-Baltistan. This thesis consist of five chapters: the first chapter consist of introduction of theme, key term of study ,background ,its scope, research questions, objectives, introduction of resistance ,political and social angles of resistance, short review of resistance in Urdu poetry and short review of literature background of Gilgit-Baltistan. Second chapter consist of an introduction of selected Urdu poets of Gilgit region and different angles of political and social angles of resistance in their Urdu poetry has been discussed with example. In third chapter introduction of selected Urdu poets of Baltistan region and political and social angles of resistance in their Urdu poetry were also been discussed with example. The fourth chapter consist of comparative study between Gilgit and Baltistan Urdu poetry. Whereas the fifth chapter includes overall review, findings of the study and d recommendation of research.
مجید امجد کی شاعری میں بصری تمثال کی کارفرمائی: تجزیاتی مطالعہ This research paper studies a literary observation of the visual imagery inputs in Majeed Amjad,s Poetry. In this research paper the researcher explain that choosing images especially visual images provoke the reader, both abstract and concrete, required knowing how to balance and weave both to create a strong, impact full poem. This research also pertains to the question that how visual imagery makes a poem more effective to the readers. This research paper has been divided into five chapters. In first chapter the researcher defines the literary form of images, effects of imagery in poetry and also define the different type of imagery and its types are defines briefly. Explains in second chapter light imagery and its effects on Majeed Amjad’s Poetry. This chapter can also define how different type of light imagery makes Majeed Amjad’s Poetry more effective and also explains the diversity of light imagery in Majeed Amjads Poetry. In Third Chapter explained the definition of colour imagery and different types of colour imagery and also defines and analysis the metaphorical and symbolic meaning of coloursin Poetry. It also explained that now the diversity of colour effects Majeed Amjad’s Poetry. Four chapter definces the difination of animated image and its types and also analysis the diversity of animated image in Majeed Amjad’s Poetry. It also analysis causes and effects of animated Imagery in Majeed Amjad’s Poetry. In the fifth chapter the causes, effects and proportions of visual imagery in Majeed Amjad’s Poetry as a whole have been studied. The discussion has been concluded in the fifth chapter and findings results are presented, recommendations have been made to solve the problem as well as for further study.
وجودیت اور افسانہ:مظہرالاسلام اوراحمد جاویدکے منتخب افسانوں کا تقابلی مطالعہ The title of my research is Existentialism and the Comparative Study of Selected Fictions of Mazhar ul Islam and Ahmad Javed. The movement of Existentialism in Urdu Literature started since 60 decades. Existentialism is associated with the problems of men. There are two world wars in the prospect of existentialism. Adventure and industrial development are also the causes of existentialism. Urdu fiction also accepted the effects of existentialism. The fictions that are written in the decades of 60 and 70 must include the effects of existential elements. Mazhur ul Islam and Ahmed Javaid both are also fiction writers of these decades. The existential elements are also found in their fictions. The object of this research is to acknowledge the theoretical views of existence.To inspect the contribution of existential elements in the fictions of both Mazhur Ul Islam and Ahmed Javed.To comparative study of the existential element of both these fiction writers. The base of this researach is Exsistenlisam; therefore the western and eastern views of exisitence and the opinions of different critics are being discussed. To overview the existential element of selected fiction writers in the perspective of eastern and western existence and the comparision are made based on similarities and dissimilarities in existential elements. The documentary research methodology has been adopted. For the references of existentialism the critical articles, critical books have been studied. The selected fiction of representative authors has been acquired. The critical essays on the fiction of Ahmed Javed and Mazhur Ul Islam were also included in the research. My Research consists of five chapters. The first chapter deals with Existentialism and its perspective.The movement of Western and Eastern Existentialism is being discussed. And the views of various critics have been presented, along with existential elements being divided into two parts, positive and negative aspects of existential elements being discussed. The Second Chapter is contains two parts. Within first part, I discussed optimistic components from selected short stories of Mazhar ul Islam, under Existentialism. The second part contains an analysis of pessimistic components. The Third chapter contains two parts. Within first part, I discussed optimistic components from selected short stories of Ahmad Javed, under Existentialism. The second part contains an analysis of pessimistic components. The fourth chapter contains the comparative study of both fiction writers from their selected short stories under Existentialism. I have also analyzed the similarities and dissimilarities of optimistic and pessimistic Existential components. Chapter five contains findings and recommendations.
تجزیہ ادب کے جدید تناظر: انتظار حسین کے افسانوں کا مابعد نو آبادیاتی مطالعہ Post-colonial studies is a modern critical perspective. It is an alternate narrative to the colonial narrative. Which has deep roots in local civilization and cultural wisdom. This narrative is a struggle to eliminate colonial influence in various ways. The demise of colonies in the subcontinent was a human tragedy that not only claimed millions of lives but also led to a sharp decline in moral and social values. This tragedy has often been the subject of Urdu fiction. Intezar Hussain is one of the fiction writers who saw this tragedy in a post-colonial context. In his fictions, not only the division but also the economic, political, social and cultural issues of the newly independent country seem to be connected with the colonial era. This thesis is a post-colonial study of Intezar Hussain's fiction. This study analyzes Intezar Hussain's short stories with three references. The first aspect is the post-colonial critical study of topics. It highlights how the problems and imbalances in Intezar Hussain's social, political, economic and cultural myths are portrayed in the context of post-colonialism. The second research aspect is the post-colonial study of the characters. This part of the study seeks to find out how the characters in Intezar Hussain’s short stories reject the colonial narrative and retrieve local culture by establishing a distinct identity from the characters in colonial fiction. It also elaborate that how Intezar Hussain's characters, despite being drawn from myths, legends and local culture, convey the full message of modern post-colonial thought. The third aspect is the post-colonial study of Intezar Hussain's style of fiction. This research study examines the characteristics of the post-colonial style and evaluates the post-colonial style in the short stories of Intezar Hussain.It shows that how his post-colonial style determines the standard post-colonial style by sorting through stories, myths, religious scriptures, mystical philosophies, indigenous language of India, indigenous names and local linguistic attitudes.
چیخوف اور غلام عباس کے منتخب افسانوی کرداروں کا تقابلی مطالعہ Fiction is shorter than a novel or a story and the author has to convey his message to the reader in a very few words and scenes, therefore more artistic skills are required for characterization in fiction. Since fiction is based on real life, so it should not only be closer to reality but reflect the external as well as internal conditions of this character of the society. This is possible only with live and dynamic characters. Chekhove is a famous nineteenth century Russian writer whose innovations and uniqueness have been followed by the following writers. In urdu literature, Ghulam Abbas adopted more unique way than the other writers and his innovation and individuality brought progressive fiction to its peak. He also wrote fiction in imitation of Chekove, that’s why similarities are found in the diction of two authors. In this research we’ll compare the key characters of Chekove’s fiction and Ghulam Abbas’ fiction. Keeping in mind what they are talking about and what extend they are able to convey and how successfully the reader grapes their expression and the author’ s desired vision to reader.
ادب اور سیاسی شعور:انوار احمد کی نثر میں پاکستانی سیاسی منظر نامے کی پیشکش کا مطالعہ This research thesis is titled “Analytical study of political elements in Anwar Ahmed prose’’.The purpose of this research is to analyze the political elements in Anwar Ahmed’ s fictional and nonfictional prose.Anwar Ahmed prose has been selected for this which a book of sketches of Anwar Ahmed in which he has written sketches of different personalities and also his three books have been Anwar Ahmed has explained the positive and negative political elements and whether the nature of political elements in his sketches and fictions is different or same. The political system of any country is influenced by its morals ,culture ,customs and attitudes.if we look at the political history of Pakistan ,the shadow of military dictatorship has been cast four times in the 70 year political history of Pakistan..there were some positive and some negative effects on the society that thrived under this oppressive and exploitative system. The purpose of this research is explain the relationship between literature and politics,then analysis of the negative and positive political elements in Anwar Ahmed’s prose.And further the similarties and differences in Anwar Ahmed ‘s fictions and sketches. There is a deep relation between literature and is natural for literature to be influenced by the national and revolutionary politics of its country.For the research paper,I have adopted the documentary and historical method. Also,accessed critical articles on Anwar Ahmed in contemporary literary journals and analysis and commentary on him. In the first chapter introduces the research title and explains the basic topics.The second chapter discusses the positive elements in Anwar Ahmed prose.In the third chapter,a study of negative political elements in Anwar Ahmed ,prose.
تجزیہِ ادب کے جدید تناظرات: ہومی کے بھابھا کے نظریات کے تناظر میں نذیراحمد کے منتخب ناولوں کا مابعد نو آبادیاتی مطالعہ Postcolonial discourse in the 1980s triggered new debates and theories in literature and criticism. Among these' ambivalence ' cultural differences' hybridity,' stereotype and mimicry gained currency. the originator of these concepts is Homi k Bhabha. he studied the texts of those countries that had liberated themselves from the grasp of the colonizers through the lens of postcolonialism. According to him the scholar of these ideas belonged to the colonial setup. their texts can be analyzed from a postcolonial perspective or writers who have lived in the colonial setup ' or those who fought against it. so ' in their texts, these ideas and experiences can be found. The colonial setup and situation arise because of dualism. it gives birth to the two worlds. one is colonizers while the second is aboriginals colonized the world. the status quo of these two worlds sprouts of each other. in other words colonizers exist because of the colonized and vice versa. nevertheless, the new ideas ' beliefs ' manners and customs or culture imposed upon the colonized are usually accepted without any resistance. in this regard ' Homi k Bhabha discovered these ideas in the texts of the colonized. This relationship between the colonizers and colonized is not only of harmony and resistance' but also consists of ambivalence ' cultural difference ' hybridity and mimicry. The colonizers never want to completely mimic the victors or to get privileges just like them. on the other hand,' the colonizers want the colonized nation to accept the rulers' way of life ' to some extent. the ideas of post-colonialism can be found in deputy Nazeer Ahmed's compositions ' especially his novel "Ibn Ul Waqt" which deals with ambivalence ' cultural difference ' hybridity and mimicry. Two other novels "Mirat- Ul- Uroos" and "Binat-Un- Nash" also possess ambivalence's theory. thus ' the researcher has found in these three novels of Deputy Nazeer Ahmed the concepts of Homi k Bhabha. Thus the prescribed research focuses on the analysis of ambivalence ' cultural difference ' hybridity and mimicry in the three selected novels.
تاریخیت ،مباحث اور اطلاق:مختار مسعود کی اردو نثرکا سماجی اور ثقافتی مطالعہ Mukhtar Masood is a well-known prose writer of Urdu language and literature. He has authored four books. This study has been conducted on those books. This thesis has been divided into four chapters. The Proposed research article Histricism, its perspectives and applications” covers social and cultural domains of Urdu prose of Mukhtar Masood. His writings reflect the prevailing and ever changing political dilemma and variation in the mirror of history. He as a historian not only abridged the events but as a writer.He also described them in his won analytical and historical terms. Histricism is primarily an intellectual thought that summarises the allied text of cultural awareness, political, social, and historical cognizance, modern cognition and social behavior. Modren historical transformation leads to the development and expension of human consciousness. A writer like Mukhtar Masood pays close attention to its surrounding and ultimately puts them into words. In the proposed research paper, the writings of Mukhtar Masood have beem studied, surveyed and critically analyzed.
معاصر ادبی روایت کا مطالعہ:ڈاکٹر علی یاسر کی تخلیقی و تنقیدی جہات کا تجزیہ The topic my thesis addresses the study of contemporary literature; the study and analysis of the writings of Dr.Ali Yasir. In contemporary literature poets and writers have taken into account the loneliness of the modern man and the tragedies of life, the ever-changing meanings of life and death, the feelings of a meaningless life, the advantages and disadvantages of the mechanical life and so on. Doctor Ali Yasir has shown his skills in portraying the changes in anecdotes of the modern world .He made a noticeable place among the young writers. He contributed in an energizing way to the modern literature. This thesis includes all his published and unpublished work. The published books of Ali yasir namely "Irada" Ghazal btaye gi" "urdu ghazal mai tasaver-e- fana –o-baqa ."Quliyat Manzoor Arif : tehqeeq-o-tadween are included in this thesis. In addition to this; his scripts, poetry from different magazines, essays and translations are also included. Kaleem-ud-din Ahmed has written once, “there are two main topics of discussion in literary criticism: The first is: what is written? And secondly, how is it written?” The research design of this study is Qualitative using textual analysis as a research method; on the backend Interviews, conferences, seminars, research papers, analytical work on poetry is also cited as was needed. Ali Yasir is among prominent contemporary writers and this thesis would be covering the work of Ali Yasir to the utmost with study and analysis to bring it to the place it justified in the Urdu literature.
عطاءالحق قاسمی کی نثر میں پنجابی اور انگریزی لفظیات کا مطالعہ (فنی اور ثقافتی تناظر میں) Ata-ul-Haq Qasimi is a multi-faceted personality. While he is a very good poet, he also has a prominent name in prose. Ata-ul-Haq Qasmi is best known for his prose, columnist, correspondent and playwright. In the research Thesis I look at, the topic of Punjabi vocabulary in the context of Attaul Haq Qasmi's prose is in the context of art and cultural. The linguistic diversity in Urdu literature is also due to the linguistic cultural background of the authors. The linguistic partnerships of Urdu and Punjabi have a history of more than a thousand years. Therefore, any author has any particular cultural and artistic background. He is not only an interpreter of his own culture, but is also expressive in the form of style in his writings. Its language and cultural context are distinguished by its style. The combination of Punjabi language vocabulary on Urdu language and literature can be seen in two different contexts. Here we will look at Ataul Haq Qasmi's columns, journals and readings in a technical and critical context and review and critique them. Columns have a specific literary language. Similarly, itineraries have their own special language and dramas have their own particular color. We will review all three of his essays, both technical and cultural. The cultural context is related to the author's linguistic and cultural background. Any author is not only an interpreter of his or her culture, but his language, his uniqueness, and his distinctiveness from other cultural groups are an important symbol. For example, the personal, cultural experience of Urdu writers from Lahore or Peshawar is different from the Urdu literature of Lucknow and Delhi and the major part of this disagreement is with the mother tongue or regional language. There are also effects of Punjabi vocabulary. What is the effect of English language on Urdu literature, since English is the second most spoken language in the world and in our literature, the influence of English words is often seen in the prose of most writers, especially Ataul Haq Qasmi. Therefore, this study will consist of an overview of the use of these words in a technical and cultural context.
انتظار حسین کی افسانہ نگاری میں وجودی عناصر کا تحقیقی و تنقیدی مطالعہ Intezar Hussain's name is of fundamental importance to twentieth-century novelists and fiction writers due to its unique abstract, symbolic, mythological and allegorical style. Intezar Hussain made the external and internal problems of the individual the subject of his writings in the twentieth century. The article under review contains a research and critical review of the existential elements in the fictions of Intezar Hussain. The first chapter includes the explanation of the philosophy of existentialism. An attempt has been made to present the views of various Western and Eastern thinkers on the philosophy of existentialism in a straightforward manner. In addition, a brief overview of Intezar Hussain's fiction has been presented. The second chapter reviews the negative elements of existentialism in Intezar Hussain's fiction. After the partition in the nineteenth century, political, social and societal conditions and internal disturbances badly affected the entry of the individual. As a result, the individual suffered from various conditions at the internal level. These conditions include anguish, emptiness, fear of death, disgust and boredom, etc., which have been made the subject of discussion in this chapter. In the third chapter, the positive attitudes of the individual are described in the light of Intezar Hussain's myths. And how the individual struggles with life with determination and courage in the most absurd and difficult situations of life. Existential philosophy was transmitted to our literature through the West, gaining immense popularity among our writers and poets in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Various writers translated the works of Western thinkers as well as their influences accepted. Kafka's name is at the forefront of these thinkers. Kafka's writings were highly appreciated by our writers and many writers like Nasir Abbas Nayyar Asim Butt and Intezar Hussain accepted the effects of Kafkaism. Chapter fourth examines the effects of Kafka's writings on Intezar Hussain's fictions. Fifth chapter,which is the last one , is about overall review on the philosophy of existentialism and existential elements in Intezar Hussain’s fictions at the end of chapter,research findings abd further recommendations have been explaind.
ناول"انواسی"کےسماجی ،ثقافتی اور سیاسی تناظرات: تجزیاتی مطالعہ This piece of research is analytical study of writing of Hafiz Khan novel Anwasi .Anwasi is the description of waseb of the area of Adam Wahn and Bahawalpur . This novel is the narration of the culture, history and society of Bahawalpur.This thesis was aimed to review with detail to know more about the quality of subject and the novel overall. This research depicted the writer’s view of history and narration of a past incident.This study has tried to analyse the different aspects of Hafiz Khan writing and it will add more literature of hafiz khan.In this research author try to elaborate the cultre of Bahawalpur and Adam Wahan by analyzing writing of Hafiz khan. This novel is detailed narration political, social and cultural aspects of Bahawalpur. Data was collected from all those books, novels, digests which are published on Muhammad Hafiz Khan. In this study researcher tried to find and help the reader to understand it’s plot, characters and story. It is concluded in this study that how brutally colonial power ruined the socioeconomic and political system of a society for their vested interests. This novel is narration of historical facts actually. This thesis shows the new face of this novel and its writer views. The overall view of discussion depicts the suppression of women. At the end of this study research results, suggestions and recommendation are given.
انیس ناگی کے ناول "پتلیاں" کا وجودیت کے تناظر میں تنقیدی جائزہ In urdu novel writing ,where many names are worth mentioning because of their uniqueness in literary work ,the name of Anis Nagi holds great significance .He has not only upheld the tradition of novel writing but also secluded the realities of society through his simple and easy description. Anis Nagy's name is also credible in that case because he wrote boldly on aspects of society .All the characters in the novel are just like puppets whose thread is in the hands of merciless time. It is the story of Mr. Jamil who is depressed due to the behaviours of his offsprings and his own intellecual conflicts. The special reference of this novel is the presentation of existientialism elements . The research at hands would give us the suasion of existentialism of east and west.The documentary approach have been adopted in this research article. "In " PUTLIYAN " there is a strong implaceability of fate, almost a desire to submit to fate. Fighting and struggling against fate either prove abortive or is never accomplished.there is no coming to terms with life's idiosyncsies.There is a pessimism and a cynicism of life reflected throughout the novel he has uncovered the difficult realities of family life, the contradictory attitudes of family members and the various layers of psychological conflict. Anees Nagi set a new tradition of presenting existentialism elements in his novels.The critical approach related to pyschological state and style have been applied in Anees Nagi's novel “PUTLIYAN” keeping in view the backdrop of existentialism so that aformentioned distinction could be brought forward.