(بنو عباس کے عہد عروج(132تا247ھ)میں محدثین کی خدمات(تاریخی و تجزیاتی مطالعہ
Hadith is the second source of legislation in Islam and its significance has
been felt since the beginning up to its evolution. Moreover, the discipline acquired
greater attention in the era of Companions (may God be pleased with them) which
continued till the codification of Hadith. On one hand, Hadith has been shown interest
from a number of perspectives such as: theological, legal and missionary and at the
same time the discipline of Hadith saw its pinnacle. It started from oral transmission
and small codices however, the foundations of this discipline were set during
Umayyad rule which later on acquired a scholarly form in the prime time of Abassid
rule (132 AH to 247AH). During this golden era research went underway in different
sub-disciplines – research into the textual content of Hadith, chains of transmission,
biographies of narrators, Interpretation of rare and difficult terms and implicit
weaknesses in Hadith among many.
This project aims to promote a broader understanding of Hadith scholars and their
scholarly work during Abassid rule (132 AH to 247AH). Thus, it carries the title "The
services of Hadith scholars during the pinnacle of Abassid rule. It includes the
Chapter One"The historical perspective of Abbasid dynasty" draws a circle
around the political background of Abbasid dynasty and detailed introduction of
caliphs. In addition, it describes the religious and political sects of that era.
Chapter two, "Introduction to famous Hadith scholars during Abbasid
dynasty" describes the propagation of Hadith disciplines.
Chapter three, "The various centers of Hadith scholarship" describes the
various centers of Hadith Scholarship besides; their importance and scholarly nature.
Moreover, Arab and non-Arab centers have also been distinguished. The chapter
concludes on the scholarly activities of these centers.
Chapter four," Contribution of Hadith Scholars" discusses the first and second
generation of successors of Companions (may God be pleased with them) and their
academic contribution to Hadith. The four major legal schools and their services
regarding Hadith have been discussed.
Chapter five," Hadith disciplines during Abbasid dynasty" describes various
disciplines that deal with textual content of Hadith and its chains of transmission. The
branches of the discipline of Hadith have also been discussed. The heretic sects who
deny the legal consequences of Hadith also come under discussion.
معاشی ترقی کا اسلامی تصور (عصر حاضر کے تناظر میں تحقیقی جائزہ)
My Topic is as under:
The Concept of Economic Development in the light of Islam.
Islam is the complete code of life. It covers all parts of human’s life .It gives
a complete direction.Therefore, Islam is called “A Complete Religion”.If we study
about the history of all over the world’s Nation, so we will know that Economics have
a big hand in the reasons of ups and downs and successful and unsuccessful of the
nations. In the present age, those countries which are economically stable called
“Developed Countries”.Economics and its study have an important position in Islam.
Quran and Sunnah give us much information about economics because economics is
the major and basic part of human’s matters.This is the reason that the economic
prosperity were taken into consideration during the reign of Prophethood (Ahd-eRisalat) and was focused by the Prophet,s )SAW( descendants,particularly during the
reigns of Hazrat Umer Farooq(R.A) and Hazrat Usman (RA).In the present work, the
concept of Islamic economic prosperity is explored and the fundamatal aspects of
economic prosperity are highlited that cause substancial growth of economy under
Islamic law.This is not only considered during Farooqi and usmani reigns, but those
eras are given importance as well that lead to the economic prosperity under Islamic
preachings. The opinions of Muslims and non Muslims economists are highlighted as
well and also qualitative approach was employed in this research.The scholars have
concluded the hallmark of economic prosperity during prophethood and khilafat as to
be the grandeur of moral values.Common well fare of public was given importance
and natural resources were used abundantly.In the current research work, the
negativities of Capitalism and feudalism are coped with the best possible ways. In the
present scenario,especially in Pakistan the ethicl economical values must be improved
and the shortcomings of capitalism and feudalism must be eradicated. It is the only
way to achieve the zenith of economic growth.
(اسلام اور یہودیت میں خواتین کا حقِ وراثت (تقابلی جائزہ
WOMEN’S RIGHT OF INHERITANCE IN ISLAM AND JUDAISM
Islam is a complete code of life, which has multiple characteristics.
Among numerous specialties, the Law of Inheritance includes a specific
attribute, in which a woman has been provided her rights, along with the
man.Islam has elevated women out of depths and provided her honor and selfrespect. Islam has given number of rights to women and amongst them; the
right of Inheritance is one of great significance. In the Jewish religion the
woman has been deprived of inheritance. In the presence of son, the daughter
will not get anything. Islam has given the ideal rights to the woman that no
civilization or religion could ever give to her.
The division of inheritance is a significant obligation; however, the
negligence on its provisions is unfortunately prevailing in modern times. There
are excessive numbers denying this significant obligation in the society and on
the other hand, Western flag bearers of women rights, criticize on Islamic law
of inheritance. Though this criticism is totally baseless and kibosh. In this
thesis, the while giving comparative narration of Islamic versus and Judaism
law of inheritance has elaborated reasons and consequences of deprivation of
women’s to their rights of inheritance.
The thesis has been divided in to four chapters
1. First chapter consists of introduction, terms and conditions of the law of
2. Second chapter comprises the comprehensive comparison of women’s rights
of heir ship in light of teachings of the Holy Quran and the Holy Scriptures of
3. Third chapter relates to the reasons and repercussions, in case of depriving
women’s from their rights of inheritance.
4. Fourth chapter discuss with the criticism related to women’s right of
heritage. Comprehensive replies have been responded to the narrative of Social
and Orientalists criticisms.
In the end, the essence of the narratives have been presented that Islam is the
definite religion that has liberated women from old prevailing vicious circle and
enchanted her at par with man to safeguard her rights. Therefore, it has been
recommended that teaching of Islamic laws of inheritance needs to be
propagated in the society.
(تفسیر تیسیر القرآن اور تفہیم القرآن میں سیاسی مسائل (تقابلی جائزہ
Islam is the final religion of Allah Almighty and it is meant to guide
all the people of all the times till the Day of Judgment. Islam has taken all
the needs and changes of the time and conditions into consideration and it
gives basic principles, in the light of which the time to time needs and
changes are addresses. Islam is not a kind of religion which promotes
isolation or asks its followers to live indifferent to others.
The world has changed very rapidly and to a great extent in about
last one hundred years. These changes have influenced the Muslim world
as well and Muslim scholars have highlighted Islamic values in term of
the new developments. The structure and the characteristics of state and
government has remained one of the most vital subjects of all times.
Modern day scholars have also highlighted the structure and the
characteristics of state and government having various approaches.
This research contains a comparative study of the political thought
of Mūlānā Abū Al ‘Alā Mūdūdī and Mūlānā ‘Abdul Raḥmān Kilānī. The
study has given a detailed comparison of between the opinions of both the
scholars in terms of structure of a modern day welfare state and its vital
features. The study has compared and analyzed the thoughts of both the
authors of two different interpretations of the Holy Book on various
related issue such as Caliphate and its diverse kinds, prerequisites for a
Caliph, modern day politics, the state responsibilities, the value and status
of vote, democracy and Theo-democracy, monarchy and communism etc.
Similarities and dissimilarities were found in the opinion of the two
scholars. This research dissertation ends with few findings, results and
(تفسیر معارف القرآن اور تفسیر الکوثر کے مو ضوعاتِ نکاح و طلاق (تقابلی مطا لعہ
Islamic system gives an ample importance to the Domestic and
Internal (family) system, so the interpreters (Mufassireen) also
give a great value to this system in their exegesis (tafaseer). Mufti
M. Shafi and Sheikh Mohsin Ali Najafi are also among those
exegetists (Mufassireen) who have deliberated this domestic
(Family) system in their interpretations of the Holy Quran; which
consist of ten volumes named as “Maa’rif-ul-Quran" and
"Alkauthar fi Tafseer-ul- Quran”.
This research work aims at discussing different aspects of family
system regarding Nikah and Talaq (Divorce) in opinion of the
both above mentioned exegetists.
The translation of the Quranic verses presented in this thesis has
been taken from Blagh-e-Quran of Sheikh Mohsin Ali Najafi.
The thesis consists of four chapters; the first chapter comprises
of introductory discussion, which has a brief introductory review
of the interpreter (mufassir) and exegesis (tafseer). The second
chapter deals with the discussion of Nikah. The Third chapter
shares out the confab of Divorce (talaq). In the last and fourth
chapter a comparative discussion regarding Nikah and Divorce,
end summary and recommendations have been presented
Economic issues are under discussion all over the world because there is
scarcity of sources while necessities are countless. Muslims and non Muslim
scholars have related the economy with the survival of human being on the
surface of earth.
Followers of world’s religions have put their best in solving the
economic problems but no religious person has ever succeeded in doing so
because every religion except Islam promotes asceticism. Instead of this Islam
has motivated its followers to earn wealth and it has clarified the concept of
“Halaal” and “Haraam”.
Women, in every civilization, have always been working with men for
the sake of earning. Many of its examples can be found in pre Islamic history
and in Islamic history as well. Examples of Eve, Maryam and daughters of
Shoaib as can be put forward in this regard.
Islam has assigned men for earning however women are also allowed to
do so when there is compulsion. This is the reason we find various women
taking part in economic activities. They worked in trade, agriculture,
gardening, cattling, education, cloth industry, lather industry, warfare, medical
treatment and fosterage.
There have been serious attempts to provide rights to women on legal
grounds. Constitution of 1956, 1962 and 1973 have been designed according to
this. Instead of making laws, women are facing financial problems.
Women try to do job in order to tackle with financial problems but they
face problems during jobs too. They are facing following problems
1. Scarcity of medical facilities
2. Gender discrimination in salaries.
3. Sexual harassment from bosses and land lords.
4. Lack of education
5. Lack of trainings
6. Lack of cooperation from family.
7. Scarcity of sources
8. Lack of communication
9. Tough timings of job
10. Unavailability of transportation
11. Unavailability of baby day care centers (for working mothers)
This thesis deals with the issues faced by working women in Pakistan.
The research contains authentic data taken from reliable sources and it’s been
analyzed in the light of Quran and Sunnah.
(قران حکیم بطور ماخذ سیرتِ طیبہ (تحقیقی و تجزیاتی جائزہ
The thesis has composed on the topic: “Quran Hakeem, source of
Seerat e Tayyebah” (An analytical study)
The Holy Qur'an is the original and most accurate and authentic source of
the noble life of beloved Prophet. The Qur'an serves as the source of character
in two ways. A. It mentions several events of the blessed life of Prophet, Ghazwat
and predicts certain other upcoming events. There are descriptions and short
B. Qur'an contains all the teachings practically implemented by the Holy
Prophet. Similarly, some of the objections and their responses to contemporary
non-Muslims has mentioned. Therefore, Qur'an gives some detailed information
about the Sirat-e-Tayyeba, and through short hints. It identifies the origin of the
events in the Quran and convince us to know its details. The study of the life of
Holy Prophet is must for every Muslims and non-Muslims, who wishes to know,
understand and practice Islam.
For the Muslims, the need and importance of study the Seerah is because Allah
Almighty has declared his Personality as the best role model in Quran and has
commanded the believes to follow his lifestyle, so it is not possible to practice
his way of living without having the knowledge about his life.
It means that it is mandatory for us to follow the character of Holy Prophet
(SAW).Therefore, the Holy Prophet (SAW) ordered the Muslims to learn and
follow His (SAW) teachings and His (SAW) personality.
So, until we are not aware of the manners of the Holy Prophet (SAW), we can
neither understand the Holy Quran nor can we offer worship in a good way. As
the life of the Holy Prophet (SAW) is the only way to get the love and to obey
Allah Almighty. In addition, there is not any way to obey Allah without the
obedience of the Holy Prophet (SAW)
In short, every part of His (SAW) is the practice of Holy Quran. If we
read Quran attentively beside the acquisition of knowledge, the character and
importance of the Holder of Quran comes forward transparently. Therefore, one
of the scopes of this study is that with the understanding of the Holy Quran, the
personality and stature of the wonder of Quran can understood. People criticized
the events mentioned in the book of seerah; they are of the view that the events
mentioned in these books are not accurate.
The life of Holy Prophet (SAW) mentioned and adopted from the Holy
Quran is authentic more than all the books written by man. As only, the one
clause about the life of the Holy Prophet (SAW) mentioned in the Holy Quran
has saved. The Holy Quran is enough to tell the world that, who is the bringer,
in which era He (SAW) come, in which land was He (SAW) born who were his
friends and family members? What kind of people they were? What kind of life
did he spend? How did he treated people and how did people treat him? What
kind of family life he had? How did he spend his days and nights? What
sacrifices did he present to promote the oneness of Allah the Almighty?)
(برصغیر پاک و ہند میں اسلامی تصوف پر ہندہ مت کے اثرات (تحقیقی جائزہ
A Researched Critique of Hindu Influence on Islamic Sufism in
The distinctive feature of universality of Islam offers solution to all
the problems faced by human race. Islam not only encompasses
comprehendsively laws regarding peace, politics, war and state affair
but it also addresses man's spiritual needs and caters the related issues in
the most appropriate manner. Islamic jurists tried to deal with day to day
issues logically; a group of Muhaddiseen (Scholars of Hadith) has been
there to preserve Ahadiths. Similarly the discipline that has been
working from day one, to purge man's innate evil desires and focus
moral aspect, is named as Tassawuf. Tassawuf, in reality, is a process of
cleansing and purification of heart and mind, under spiritual principles,
that is in conformity with the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah. This exercise of
Sufiya (Spiritualists) has been in practice since long. But unfortunately,
some of the disapproved rituals were added to the discipline of
Spiritualism which does not belong to Tassawuf and Islam in itself.
These false practices strengthen gradually among the Muslims due to the
close proximity with Hindus and later on, accidently became an
undesired feature of Tassawuf.
The topic that has been discussed in this research is that these
illegitimate rituals have been added to Tassawuf are the impact of Hindu
philosophy. This influence has been analyzed and researched. The
method that I have chosen for the research is “Qualitative Method”.
This has been proved after a brief review of literature that Tassauf e
Haqiqi (Real or True Spiritualism) is the cleansing of inner soul
(Nafs), restraining from ignoble deeds and the attainment of virtues
(Fazails). Many a non Islamic practices or beliefs present in Tassawuf
whose eradication is vital. For example; Due to living with Hindus, the
Muslims too, started considering Suffiya as the masters or controller ofIX
metaphysical forces. The characteristics which are specific for Allah
Almighty were assigned to Suffiya.
Many Hindu customs exist in Islam due to living closely with Hindus
and labeled as part of Tassawuf as meditation in forests for a long time,
was a practice of Hindu Pundits. Metempsychosis, Omnipotent and
different festivals is the result of co-existence with Hindus. Beside this
many more such other misconceptions have been discussed in this
research. I would recommend in the light of the discussion to exempt
Tassawuf from these wrong beliefs and bring it back to its original form
as it changes character and morals of the society in the past; now
Tassawuf is a need
(انسانی معاشرہ اور توہم پر ستی (اسباب، اثرات اور تدارک)
The thesis comprises four chapters, tables of contents and bibliography. The
preface includes introduction of the subject, its importance, the fundamental
questions, targets and objectives of the research, hypotheses, literature review and
The subject matter is divided into four chapters:
The first chapter tells what society and its evolution are, meaning of superstition
and its kinds. Also, it discusses the ruling of shariah on superstition. It is indicated
that both the ancient and the modern societies have some common values and
concepts. A society is known by its ethical, cultural and social values. These values
influence each other. Islamic society was established on the foundation of faith, ethics
and the natural principles which are necessary to create balance in life. Superstition
is a human and social problem. Bad omen is forbidden but good omen is taken but
without adopting the traits of superstition and the behavior which goes against the
behavior of trust in Allah.
The second chapter gives a brief description on the world religions and
discusses the practices and beliefs based on superstitions in Judaism, Christianity
from Semitic religions and Hinduism and Buddhism from non- Semitic religions. It
has been highlighted that religion either a revealed one or not, a big portion of it is
consisted of social practices and rituals in addition to belief and worship. When
society gets corrupted its first cracks appeared at first in the superstitious practices
and then in beliefs, ethics and religious deeds.
In the third chapter an overview is made to learn about religious and
psychological factors of superstitions. It is concluded that fault in the understanding
of the belief in monotheism, predestination, trust in Allah and His fear, lack of
remembrance of Allah, ignorance and blind following lead to superstition and mental
problems. To explain these factors, quotes from Quran and Hadith are given.
Moreover, psychological imbalance which is effected by internal and external factors
and also, family and financial issues give birth to the immoderate behavior is human
begins which ultimately lead to superstitions.
The fourth chapter opens with the strategy to get rid of superstitions in the light
of Islamic thoughts so as to make the remedial measures viable in the light of Islamic
principles to remove superstitions. It is suggested that through Islamic teachings and
training, thinking positive, ethical cooperation, ethical purification of media and
maintaining of law and order to ensure the sense of safety and positive changes in the
environment can help get rid of superstitions from society.VI
(پاکستان میں عوامی سطح پر قرآن فہمی کی خدمات (منتخب اداروں کے تناظر میں
This study is primarily aimed to focus and identify the role played by some
peculiar institutions in disseminating the basic message of Holy Quran at grass
root level. Since no theory can be inclusive in nature, therefore, there is a dire
need to construct a discourse theoratical and practical which highlights the
importance institutions vis-a-vis Holy Quran.
Secondly, one can forsee the impact of major and minor institutions in the
current social order of the society. Therefore a cross pollination of ideas must
occur between this discourse and the previous theories.
Primarily it will solve two problems. Firstly, It will be helpful in creating
new trends contours in understanding the Holy Quran coupled with its
dissemination at cellular level.
Secondly, a process of reverse engineering can be started by rectifying the
previous mistakes made by the institutions vis-a-vis the Holy Quran.
Along with this practical study and research of the institutions, this study
also highlights the importance of dissemination the basic message of Holy Quran
at grass root level.
Thirdly this study also proposes the possible and feasible steps, activities
and programs for dissemination of the basic message of Holy Quran through
Government, private instutions and on personal level.
Thus, this study covers the importance of the research topic, work done
on it in the past, ongoing contributions by the institutions and work required in
(محکمہ جنگلی حیات (پنجاب) میں تحفظ حیوانات وشکار کے اقدامات و قوانین (اسلامی تناظر میں جائزہ
Islam is a perfect religion and a complete code of conduct.It contains guidance for all
professions of life.From the ancient time man has been hunting animals for food and
other necessities.Before Islam there were no laws on animal protection and hunting.Islam
after its advent not only gave all living beings their rights but also made animals an
ummah like human beings.Islam allows us to hunt animals conditionally for food and
other necessities. In the Quran and Hadith and books of Fiqah we have detailed rules and
regulations regarding the protection of animals and hunting.
All countries have established permanent departments in the areas related to human
life,so that the sector can devolp and help in human welfare.Institutions related to
wildlife have also been established in the world,who are working to ensure wildlife
protection, prevention of trafficking and poaching.If this Department is strong, wildlife is
protected and the environment is kept clean.The Punjab wildlife department also enacted
laws on wildlife conservation and hunting,some of them are in accordance with Islamic
laws while some other laws are also contrary to Shariah principles.
In this association, analyais of acts and initiatives of wildlife department punjab
regarding protection of animal and hunting in Islamic prospective considerd as the topic
of the Mphil research study.In this study the introduction,history and objectives of the
wildlife department punjab are covered.In addition,the introduction of hunting,Shariah
rules and terms are explained.At the same time the methods of hunting by means of
tricks and conventional devices are discussed from a Shariah point of view.Then the
initiatives and acts of Animal protection and hunting by department are described.And
finaly the initiatives and acts of the department were compared with the Shariah
principles and rules and an attempt has been made to offer a solution.
(اسلامی ریاست کے انتظام و انصرام میں جوان صحابہ کا کردار (عصر حاضر میں اس سے استفادہ
State is an inevitable part of human society. Without a state, survival of a
society, its collective values, security, peace and discipline are
impossible. State came into being to fulfill these basic needs of a society.
Religion has been played a vital role in shaping human society. Every
religion supports a peaceful society and state. Islam is a complete code of
life. It guides us in every fields of life. Islam also provides a complete
guidance for human collective values.
Young people are a valuable asset of a state. A state cannot flourish without
young people's cooperation. They play an important role in state
development. The rise and fall of a nation are in the hands of young people.
Basically, youth is a time in a person's life when he is physically strong,
mentally sound and energetic. Therefore, Islam lays emphasis on treating
them well. The senses, the consciousness and intellect work well.
Most of the early companions of Prophet ( )صلى الله عليه وسلمwere young. Majority of them
were between ten to thirty six. They, with Prophet, brought a revolution,
which is still alive and will remain till the end of this world.
The title of this research
‘‘The role of Young companions of Prophet( )صلى الله عليه وسلمin management
of Islamic State.’’
This thesis explores the role of young companions of Holy Prophet ( )صلى الله عليه وسلمin
executive, judicial and defensive development of Islamic state.The method
used in collecting and analyzing data is qualitative and descriptive.
The purpose of this research is to encourage Pakistani young generation
to realize their responsibilities. In this way they can play a significant role
to prosperous Pakistan and Islam.
Keywords: Islamic state, Young companions, executive, judiciary,
(کنفیوشس ازم اور اسلام (اخلاقی اور سیاسی تعلیمات کا موازنہ
It is indispensable to comprehend commandments including belief on God’s absolute
power, conception of universe and humans, their problems and solutions, morality,
historical perspective of religion, comparative religious studies, and the idea of life
hereafter. Considering the above mentioned elements, if we study Confucianism, it can be
agreed that Confucius never claimed to be a Prophet. Additionally, there are a few ground
rules of religion that are missing in his teachings as they fails to answer absolute authority
of God, concept of heavens and creation of human specie and universe. Contrary to this, a
number of religious aspects are evident in Confucianism such as political issues and its
remedies, and morality in historical context, however after-life narrative is absent in it. The
fundamental purpose of Confucius’s teachings is to reform individuals socially and make
them strong on the ladder of morality. He had the same rationale for family systems, that
healthy marital relationships would contribute towards the harmonization of the society
which would in result positively affect the functing of the state. Moreover, he also
emphasized on inculcating values in child development and respecting elder ones. If we
compare Confucianism with Islam, the later qualifies on the fundamentals of a religion.
Islam provides explanation of God, life after death, humananity, universe, morality and
rituals. If this debate is taken into account, it is imperative to conclude that Confucianism is
a mere philosophy whose roots were already existed in the Chinese culture. Though like
Islam, Confucianism stresses upon the notion of tolerance and forgiveness. However, this
very discourse cannot be used to either label Confucianism as a religion or to consider it as
a religion. The only commonality in Islam and Confucianism exists in the theme of
tolerance, family system and marital relationships.
The thesis consists of four chapters. First chapter explains origin, believes, thoughts,
liturtue and analysis of scholars about Confucius.It has been compared to Islam with the
teachings of society, principles of society, and justice in political studies of Confucianism
in Chapter II.In Chapter III, the moral teachings of Confucianism, which include the social
status of the ruler, husband, wife and children. Also, the relationship between relatives and
the social relations of the people while keeping all these notions related to Islam. The last
chapter covers the conclusions of Confucianism and the political and the moral teachings of
Islam. Also, the differences and similarities between both the philosophies. At the end of
the Thesis, summary findings and recommendations are mentioned.
(پاکستانی آئین و قانون اور غیرمسلم شہریوں کے حقوق وفرائض(معاہدات ِنبویہ کی روشنی میں
Islam is the intimate religion which provides complete and preeminent
code of life for humanity. Islam undoubtedly determines the rules,
procedures and limitations for the state, of which a man is the citizen, and its
co-editorial system (legislation, judiciary, administration).
Allah has bestowed The Holy Prophet with the crown of Mercy for
whole world. The Holy Prophet not only considered the rights of every
person living in the state of Islam, but also committed some contracts with
non-Muslims to ensure their rights and obligations.
Since the state of Pakistan came into existence in the name of Islam, it
is important that the rights and duties of every citizen in general and nonMuslims in specific who live in the state should also be clarified in
accordance with Islamic teachings in the light of contracts of The Holy
Prophet in order to promote the religious harmony.
Although the rights of non-Muslim community in the constitution of
Pakistan have been stated very clearly, however, sometimes they are
confronted with grave problems in Pakistani society. The rights which are
permitted to Muslims to establish their mosques and institutions in Europe
and America are also permitted to non-Muslims in the constitution and
legislation of Pakistan. However, due to its distinctive difference in the
practical situation, their rights and obligations in the light of the contracts of
The Holy Prophet have been described with a detailed analysis in this
In this research,
"The rights and obligations of non-Muslim citizens with
respect to the Constitution of Pakistan" (In the light of the
contracts of Prophet Muhammad SAW)
rights of non-Muslims in a modern Islamic society of Pakistan with respect
to the contracts of Muhammadan Era as an everlasting source as a major
necessity of the national situation have been highlighted. Because of
ignorance/lack of knowledge about the contracts, heart reckoning incidents
are taking place in our society, which have raised numerous questions
regarding the Islamic teachings. These contemporary issues have been
discussed as the major themes within this article.