Allah has bestowed the honor of His viceroy ship and exalted the man upon other creations. Man is created only and only to worship Allah. The world is a place of trial in which man has been given a choice between obedience of Allah and fellowship of Satan. The line of prophet hood was created to provide guidance to all mankind. Majority of Ummahs of prophets opted for shirk and became troublesome for people in social life. They were destroyed by Allah because of their consistency in wrong believes and social evils.
Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) has been sent as last Prophet and Quran is the last book for human kind, till the Day of Judgment. Man's success in this world, in the grave and the world hereafter is conditioned by the obedience of Allah and following the path of Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H). We can achieve Allah's willingness and benevolence by adopting a way of our lives which is enjoined by Allah. Whereas shirk and disobedience invites Allah's displeasure, wrath and curse which incur disgrace in this world and eternal loss in the next world. Shirk and disobedience of Allah were the main features of the nations which were suffered by Azab in this world. Such Punishments from Allah were always according to certain rules. Lives and cities of those nations were destroyed but on the other hand the nations who persist in Allah remain intact by this wrath. They achieved Allah's benevolence and comfort in the worldly life.
The Holy Quran explains those rules and principles at length according to which Allah punished nations and also gives their detailed histories. In the thesis under consideration, these rules and principles have been extracted from Holy Quran and are applied on the nations which were destroyed by Azab. By understanding these rules and principles, the Muslims can avoid Allah's wrath and get His willingness and benevolence.
Moreover problems of Present days can only be overcome and resolved by learning from the previous nations and correcting our own actions in the light of Quran and Sunnah which consequently will bring prosperity, comfort and peace in this world and an honorable position among other nations of the world.
Almost every 5th person in this world is follower of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Within a century after the Prophet, the muslims became the masters of an empire extending from the shores of the atlantic Ocean to the Confines of China, an empire greater than that of Rome at its Zenith. The muslims not only produced an empire but a culture as well. The muslims, heirs of the ancient civilization obsorved and assimilated the main features of the Greeco-Roman culture, and subsequently acted as a medium for transmitting to medieval Europe many of those intellectural influences which ultimately resulted in the awakening of the western world and in setting it on the road towards its modern renaissance. No people in the middle Ages contributed to human progress so much as did the muslims. Between the 9th and the 12th centuries more works, philosophical, medical, historical, religious, astronomical and geographical were produced through medium of Arabic than through another language.
My dissertation is about economic ups and downs of this community, the muslims, in different periods of the history. The muslim world has 57 independent countries, 1.5 billion population out of 6.5 billion of the word, (23% of the world), out of 103 million km Area of the world the muslim world covers 30.51 mk (22.80%). It produces more than three quarters of the world's rubber and jute, two thirds of its oil, two thirds of all palm oil, two thirds of its spice, half of the tin and phosphate, vast number of gas reserves, large quantity of world cotton, tea, cofee, wool, uranium, manganese, cobalt and many other commodities and minerals. But unfortunately its GDP is hardly 2300 billion dollar out of world's 44384 billion dollar, The only 5% of world's GDP. In this dissertation I have discussed th oconomic decline of the Muslim world particularly and it’s political, social intellectual an educational downfal in general, and tried my best to explore the reasons.
This Thesis consists of ten chapters first of all I endeavoured to throw light on Islamic economic system and other systems. The background of the muslim Ummas' economic system is discussed in the second chapter. In the thirc I have discussed in detail the zenith of the Muslims prosperity and development and its factors i.e. research, education and intellectuality, political stability, quality of good governance and strong defence etc. In chapter 4, the causes of decline are discussed in which the top most are educational backwardness, abolition of Ijtehad, absence of brotherhood, disinterest in modern research and blind imitation of the west. In the fifth chapter, economic development and great achievements of advanced countries are discussed. Basic factors (education research etc.) of their development and prosperity have also been discussed.
In the 6th chapter the causes of economic decline and destruction of the muslim world are also discussed. The involvement of Europe, America, Jews and Hind-and their policies in the Muslim world are also discussion. The part played by UNO, world bank and IMF etc. in the destruction of the muslim world is also viewed. I have also written about the part played by the muslims in their own devastation. At the end I have suggested some possible soluations to get rid of this economic destruction. If this research is studied and taken seriously, it will enable us to know the causes of economic backwardness of the muslim word and secrets of prosperity and development of the western world. The thesis will also help us to know how to come out from the economic blind alley
تہذیب و تمدن کے خاندانی قوانین پر اثرات کا علمی و تنقیدی جائزہ
The family is an Institution found in all human societies. It is accepted that the normal family is a co residential which consists of a married couple and their children. In this research project, my aim is to explore the cultural and civilization impacts on the family laws with specific reference to the unjust/unfair exploitation of women for many years. The subject carries great importance for me because it provides me an opportunity to understand the great social problem and also give me a chance to suggest appropriate material to resolve this particular issue. It is an established fact that sex doesn't determine the social status of a person rather than social, political and economic values and practically shape the identity of a person.
In this research work I have explored the family laws of Greek, Roman, Judeo, Christian and Islamic Civilization I have detected their short comings that how, where, and why these laws get influenced by the cultural and traditional norms of different civilizations. Thus leading to the formulation of such incomprehensive family laws which place the women at a valuable position country to the above mention situation.
Islam provides us comprehensive code of family law but in Islamic Civilizations, the Islamic Laws were not properly implemented and where it is implemented the influence of culture and civilization changes its real spirit.
Although there are some family laws fixed for all nations but in spite of it due to cultural effects on these law, these law are being ignored specially in the case of women. I have highlighted these points in detail in my thesis.
Thesis is composed of seven chapters, which consists of Introduction, recommendations, contents, objectives and goals. Bibliography (original and secondary sources), result of the research and proposals are placed at the end of the Thesis.
First Chapter is titled as introduction of Islam and it consists of five sub-chapters and endnotes. I have described the different aspects of Islam according to the Quran, Hadith and opinions of different scholars (Jurisprudents). I have also described the view point of Imam Abu Hanifa regarding 'man (Faith) and Islam in the light of Teachings of Quran and Hadith. The arena of Islam, Economic affairs of Islam, Law of inheritance, Dawaah and Management of Islamic State has also been described in this chapter. The importance of the policy of Islam for maintaining the security of life, wealth and property of the people has also been highlighted in this chapter.
Second Chapter is titled as Definition of Jihad, legality of Jihad, Merits and its classification and it consists of three sub-chapters and endnotes. In this Chapter, I have discussed under which condition, the Jihad, Qital (Killing) is permitted according to the Shariah and the opinion of Islamic Scholars (jurisprudents) has also been highlighted.
Third Chapter is titled as Objectives of Jihad Conditions of jihad and its arena. It consists of four sub-chapters and endnotes. The scenario of Jihad, its appeal to the people, relation between Iman and Jihad, its objectives, and the strategy of Prophet's Wars have been discussed in this Chapter.
Fourth Chapter is titled as Suicide, Extremism and Fundamentalism - In the light of Islam. It consists of three sub-chapters and endnotes. In this chapter, I have discussed comparatively religious fanaticism, committing suicide and suicide attack in the name of war and Jihad. After discussing these aspects, I have proved that Islam is a moderate religion.
Fifth Chapter is titled as Introduction to Terrorism and it consists of four sub-chapters and endnotes. In this Chapter, I have clarified the difference between Jihad and Terrorism, Origin of Jihad and its gradual development and comparison of Jihad and Crusade.
Sixth Chapter is titled as Terrorism, its classification, reasons behind terrorism, its influence on Muslim World. It consists of five sub-chapters and endnotes. In this Chapter statistics of terrorist attacks, functions of different terrorist groups, relation of different intelligence groups behind the terrorist groups and their evil tendencies, have been discussed.
Seventh Chapter is titled a Comparison of Jihad and Terrorism. It consists of four sub-chapters and endnotes. Examples of toleration during/after Holy War and the fair and kind treatment extended to the enemies have been described in detail. The highhanderness of the enemines and the cruel behaviour have also been highlighted.
In the end recommendations have been made to the Government Organizations and Departments for implementation of the findings of the Research Study.
حدود و قصاص میں عورت کی گواہی وضعی قانون اور شریعت اسلامی کی روشنی میں: تقابلی جائزہ
Thesis contains four Chapters:
I: The Status of Woman in various Civilizations and Religion: Greek, Romans, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Pre- Islamic period. Status of Woman in the Light of Quran and Hadith and in Islamic History. Woman and Sheria Laws: Personality of Woman, Her Completion as Human being her Duties and rights Responsibilities, Equality in issue of inheritance.
II Difference of Shariat and Enacted Laws, famous Enacted Laws of the world.
III: Woman and her evidence: Definition of Evidence of Woman in Sharia, and Enacted Law. (Comparison with Act 1872 and 1984) Mental Capability of woman. The Evidence of woman Alone and Along with the men Analysis of the Views of the Jurist Regarding the Evidence of Woman Qualification of Evidence in the eyes of Jurist and their Argumentations. Natural Supremacy of man on Woman in Evidence.
IV: The Status of Woman's Evidence in Huddod and Qisas in Enacted Laws. Definition of Hudood and Qisas in Sharia Law and Enacted Law. (Caparison with Hudood Laws 1979) Evidence of Woman in Hudood and Qisas Critical Analysis of Evidence of Woman in Hudood and Qisas by Commentators Jurists and Modern Researchers and Comparison with Enacted Law.
حضرت عائشہ صدیقہ کی شخصیت اور فقہی مسائل میں ان کی آراء:تحقیقی اور تحلیلی جائزہ
The dissertation has been undertaken on Hazrat Ayesha Siddiqua's personality and her views regarding issues of fiqh (a study based on research and resolution).
It is a compilation including the case, four chapters, research results, and Bibliography (original and secondary sources).
Under the heading of case , an introduction to research on the subject, the need for work on the subject, the problem of the research subject, Hypothesis of the research, the objectives of the research, survey of the research topic in the light of previous studies, the ways and means of research and a synopsis have been presented.
In Chapter I the life of Hazrat Ayesha Siddiqua R.A, her different activities, her journey to knowledge, her religious bent of mind and the prevailing conditions and achievements have been discussed.
Chapter II presents a brief introduction of her students and provides answers to objections raised by Orientalists.
Chapter III introduction of Fiqh, significance of Fiqh in the light of the Teaching of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. History of Fiqh and Hazrat Ayesha Siddiquas's principles of observation of Fiqh.
In Chapter IV a research has been undertaken of Ummul Momineen.
Hazrat Ayesha Siddiqua's traditions of Fiqh which Taharat, Worship, Issues of Nikah and Divorce, Morality and Politics have been discussed. In the results of the research the answers has been given to the questions raised in the case. Moreover correct duties established in the case have been identified
الہامی مذاہب میں مشترکہ اقدار: قرآن کریم اور کتاب مقدس کے تناظر میں علمی جائزہ
Man is the voice vicegerent of ALLAH on the earth. The purpose of his creation is to worship and the welfare of the creature. For this purpose ALLAH sent prophets. The teachings of divine religions are revealed by ALLAH. Norms are the asset of life for the welfare of the nation. The prophets also impart the teachings to the followers of divine that they should do for the wellbeing of humanity. They should spread the message of virtue and forbid from evil. It was the mutual teaching of all the prophets. The purpose of this debate is the followers of divine religion should spread peace by abiding by the teachings of the prophets. This work consists four chapters, findings/suggestions and list of rich bibliography. Introductions, statement of problems, hypotheses, objectives of research, review, of literature and survey of the previous work have been added in prefix.
Chapter1: It consists the history of Jews, Christianity and Islam, religious assets and the life history of the prophets.
Chapter2: This chapter deals with mutual beliefs, social issues and ethics.
Chapter3: In this chapter the concept of worship, salvation, importance, purpose and kind are mentioned.
Chapter4: It consists a debate on mutual laws of divine religion and the concept of reward and punishment.
Each chapter enclosed with references and descriptive notes of its.
رسول اللہ اور خلفائے راشدین کے اجتہادی فیصلے: عصر حاضر کے تناظر میں تحقیقی جائزہ
Ijtihad has played a vital role to bring compatibility between society and Islamic law, its expansion, development, and changing needs of society.This Principle has provided solution to various political, social, economical and other problems during the times of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and his Pious Caliphs. Significance of ljtihad cannot be denied. Change and evolution are the basic to human life and problems and solutions all come with it. The existence of nations lies in their response to the emerging problems while stagnancy brings an end to them. Islam doesn't keep narrow view regarding human life, rather removes obstacles in its way to development. The Quran says, this day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you and have chosen for you Islama as your religion.(5:3) ljtihad is the alternate method in case if no clear instructions and guidance are mentioned in basic sources of Shariah, Quran, and Sunnah, to find solutions to the problems. It keeps the stream of life flowing, repels stagnancy and provides other ways to maintain evolution i.e. Qiyaas, Istedlal and lstihsan etc. All these are the indirect offshoots of ljtihad.
The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) himself, many times practiced ljtihad regarding matters rising in newly establiShed Islamic State & the Ummah. Many of his decisions were ratified and corrected by revelation to him as well. This research - work has been focused on the decisions and Judgments delivered by the Holy Prophet (SAW) and his Pious Caliphs on the basis of ljtihad. Moreover, I have tried to deduce and infer the principles for an Up-dated ljthad which is need of the hour for the Muslim Ummah in Particular. The practice of ljtihad continued since time of Mohammad (SAW) till date. In contemporary times the shape is different but the spirit is same either by an individual or by institutions in 20th century. It proves the flexibility and compatibility of Islamic laws with ever-changing world. It is the sphere which proves Islam as a religion for every caste, creed, and nation and for all the times.
صوبہ سرحد میں مراکز افتاء کا قیام، معاشرتی خدمات، اثرات اور اصلاحی تجاویز
This thesis is mainly descriptive. It highlights the services and contributions rendered by the Muftis of NWFP (presently Khyber Pk) in the field of Islamic Jurisprudence. Their gigantic work which they have contributed in Jurisprudence striving for the excellent solution of the present day's problems, has been analyzed extensively and intensively. This work consists of five chapters, findings/suggestions and list of rich bibliography. Introductions, statement of problems, hypotheses, objectives of research, review of Literature and survey of the previous work have been added in the prefix.
Chapter 01: It consists of profile of area, includes history of the area, its geography and political setup before and after the independence. History of establishment of Fatwa centers in NWFP etc have been discussed briefly but knowingly. In the third part the form and procedures of giving fatwa are mentioned as they use to do it at mosques and at their homes. Mahabat Khan and Qasim Ali Khan mosques were famous for this exercise which later on transformed into separate fatwa centers.
Chapter 02: It deals with the exact definition of the word "Fatwa", its history, rules\principles and the significance of fatwa in the light of Holy Quran. Criteria, status of Muftis, and other related issues are also highlighted in this chapter.
Chapter 03: Renowned Muftis of NWFP and their contributions are main theme of this Chapter. The pre and post independence period personalities for fatwas are discussed. In pre independence period Mufti Abdul Rahim Popalzai, Mufti Midrar Ullah, Mufti Abdul Karim Kolachi, Mulana Alauddin, Mulana Hammd Ullah Jan etc were well known for it. After independence Jamiah Haqqania emerged as the center for training and learning as well as center for issuing fatwa. All prominent muftis and centers of today have their roots in Jamiah Haqqania.
This Chapter also deals with Muftis and fatwa centers and their sound political role .The most important of all was the fatwa endorsing Pakistan's independence. Another major fatwa of political significance was of getting or seeking independence from the British. The fatwa declaring war against USSR as jihad was given by Mufti Muhammad Farid of Jamiah Haqqania which had the most powerful political impact and resulted in disintegration of USSR. This was definitely the most important fatwa of the 20th century. Chapter three also highlights the contribution of three important Muftis and Fatwa contents which played a significant political role.
Chapter 04: It deals with critical review of the work done in NWFP regarding Fatwas. In this chapter, a thorough and well documented evaluation of Fatwa is presented in detail.
Chapter 05: This chapter overviews the impact of Fatwas on society. The Muftis and fatwa centers have contributed a lot in the society. They spread awareness among people, supported them to seek liberty and independence, but still some damages were also caused, as few so called muftis, for worldly advantages and privileges issued fatwas which caused material, physical and financial losses to the people. In this chapter the suggestions to prevent such events in future are also given.
Each chapter contains references and descriptive notes of its own.
پاکستان میں مروج زرعی نظام اسلام کے تناظر میں تحقیقی و تنقیدی جائزہ
Agricultural system of any country plays a pivotal role in its survival as well as its development. A huge percentage of raw materials are obtained through this most important sector for other economic sectors systems such as industry, energy, food, etc. In today's world, various economic/religious systems are in use, but exact and precise solutions and just distribution of resources is not found anywhere. Every knowledgeable person knows that Islam is the only religion that offers reasonable solution to complete humanity and every field of life. Pakistan came into being in the name of Allah and to implement the systems of Islam. So it is the utmost requirement for the survival and development of the country that an agricultural system whose agricultural statutes and regulations are based upon the Islamic values and philosophies and where 80% of population is affiliated with agriculture.
After emergence of Pakistan, unfortunately, the same faction of "Jagirdars" and "Zamindars" occupy the ruling class of the country and tried to run the same system which depicts the British unjust and cruel state of mind. Consequences of this unjust system can now be seen everywhere in the country. Because of this feudal system and unfair structure, agricultural development is not found anywhere; distribution of water resources has become a national problem; imposition of agricultural tax is a dilemma, etc. So the need of the time is that we have to develop and implement such agricultural strategy which not only strengthen our prevailing feeble agricultural system but also make it alive upto the level that really stand our country into the line of developed countries. So we have to put into practice the system of Islam.
The said thesis is being presented to serve the same purpose. In the thesis, the undersigned has narrated the agricultural systems before Islam, how human beings knew about the soil and the blessing found underneath the earth. Then agricultural system in the era of Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H. and four Caliphs has been discussed. The revolutionary steps taken by Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H in the field of agriculture are of great importance, as a result of these measures, huge pieces of land were made useful. In the Chapter-III, I have thrashed out the rulings regarding land-lordship and strategies to colonize the lands. In this chapter, there is also a comaprison between the Islamic system and contemporary system. In the next chapters, the undersigned has also referred to the opinions of Islamic Jurisprudence.
The importance of irrigation in agricultural system and Islmaic approach towards irrigation has also been outlined. Through these paragraphs, there is an effort to resolve the disputed issue of distribution of water in the country. Background of agricultural system of Sub-continent of Indo-Pak and its impacts on Pakistani agricultural system are talked about. In addition, there is a detailed discussion in the thesis regarding Islamic System of Agricultural Levies and Prevailing Laws of Agricultural Taxes in Pakistan. In the end, recent financial position of Pakistan and comparison between different taxpayer groups of agricultural land; feasibility of imposition of taxes on agricultural income; suggestions regarding reforms in agricultural system of Pakistan are also discussed in detail in the thesis.
A Critical study of Selected Works of Orientalists on Sirah
With the death of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) the enemies of Islam had started their intrigues to create obstacles against the fast growing and spreading message of Islam or Quran and Sunnah. In eighth century the Christian missionaries were seriously apprehended from the great successes and victories of the Muslim in European countries. They, thus, tried their best to oppose Islam and Muhammad (S.A.W) through their unscientific and polemical writings (e.g. the writings of Johan of Demascus) and their military or warlike activities (e.g. long-duration Crusades of 11th to 13th centuries). But they did not succeed to destroy the Muslims and Islam in medieval times. In the 17th and 18'1' century, the period of renaissance, the trend of scientific study on Sirah from original sources started but could not promote with true spirit of seeking real knowledge. During this period, thus, a dangerous Orientalism had taken place, which caused British and French Colonialism and afterwards the imperialism.
This confrontation between the East (especially the Muslims or Arab countries) and the West continued and aggravated even in 20th century when America appeared on the map of the world. Now, beyond any doubt, the Orientalism was definitely meant for seeking of knowledge of the Islamic sciences and of Muslim countries for the purpose of gaining power, domination and possessions of Muslim countries and their economic resources especially the oil-resources of the Arab world. The most important Orientalists promoting the power-based scholarship are Huntington, Bernard Lewis, Berger, Fukuyama etc.
The pure scientific era of research i.e. the 20th century was expected to give the right direction to the Orientalists' research on Sirah. But, the works of the Orientalists are still creating the hatred and enmity between the two civilizations such as the tricky and dangerous works of W. Montgomery Watt have been serving the same purpose. Although, he presents an attractive rhetoric in his works but the medieval style of unscientific research is still continuing in the form of modern scientific research which does not provide objective study but a purely religiously biased study on Sirah. This dissertation aims at contributing towards scientific point of view and to review the studies by the Orientalists.
This world is a temporary abode where the humans are deemed as social beings. Allah Almighty has also endowed the humans with intellect and reason which has made conflict and difference of opinion inevitable among communities. In order, to resolve conflicts and guide the people to the right path prophets were sent from time to time but, the evil blood remained warm and changes were made to the divine scriptures that resulted in the formation of three major world religions. Such ideological conflicts have existed since the times of the Holy Prophet Muhammad SAW. During his lifetime the Holy Prophet left no stone unturned to guide the people to the right way i.e. Islam.
He even invited them to dialogues."SAY: 0, People of the book! come to common terms as between us and you : That we worship none but God"(2). In the same vein, the holy Quran argues "To you be your way and to me mine"(3)"to us our deeds and to you yours"(4). Unlike the past, the Modern world is rapidly changing and is fast turning in to a global village but the tragedy remains unsolved. None of the major religions are ready to accept changes to their basic principles and modes of thinking. Coupled with this are factors that can prove fatal and lead the humans astray. In such a critical scenario it is high time to work for global peace and harmony and to look for ways and means that ensure mutual understanding, tolerance, respect for humanity and above all respect for all religions. This grand goal can be achieved through interfaith dialogues and by seeking /combining all the common features among all the major religions. Such efforts can prove a panacea for all the major social evils including fundamentalism and terrorism.
This research work is an attempt to find out the similar features and to bridge the gap among religions. The work is also an endeavor to sketch and envisage a world where happiness, peace, tolerance and mutual respect reign.
علماے اندلس کی علم رسم قرآنی میں خدمات پانچویں صدی ہجری تک: تحقیقی و تنقیدی جائزہ
Andalusia (Spain) had been an Islamic centre of knowledge and literature for a long period of time in the Islamic history. Muslims, not only worked and researched a lot in all fields, but also endeavored and have done monumentous efforts in the fields of Quranic Orthography (ilmu-rasam). Their efforts are buried in the books of history, out of sight and waiting for our attention. It is miracle of Quran that it is safe from amendments, modifications, and alterations; so it is also its miracle that its orthography is safe from modifications, and alterations. I have made a humble attempt in this dissertation, to elaborate the history of Quranic Orthography (ilmu-rasam) and have addressed the suspicions raised by orient lists, regarding efforts of Islamic scholars of Andalusia in this field.
This dissertation mainly consists of an introduction of dissertation, and five chapters. Further the introduction introduces the advent of Islam in Spain; analysis of a short history of Quranic Orthography, a need and pattern, fundamental question of research and also includes analysis on the previous efforts made on the subject and further outlines/synopsis of dissertation. The First Chapter deals with the efforts of scholars of Andalusia relating to Quranic Orthography in the first and second century.
The second Chapter deals with the efforts of scholars of Andalusia relating to Quranic Orthography in the Third Century. The Third Chapter deals with the efforts of scholars of Andalusia relating to Quranic Orthography in the Fourth Century. The Fourth Chapter deals with the efforts of scholars of Andalusia relating to Quranic Orthography in the Fifth Century. The Fifth Chapter consists of evaluation of the efforts of scholars of Andalusia relating to Quranic Orthography in the First five centuries.
The conclusion consists of the outcomes of Research, bibliography of Primary and secondary sources