The story is an ancient literary art which has its existence in literary civilizations and cultures of different peoples and tribes over times. Due to the love and desire of the Arabs to listen to stories, Allah Almighty revealed stories about the former nations in the Glorious Quran. The Holy Quran
addressed the Arabs in an appropriate manner according to their tendencies and natures of listening to historical news and different stories. The stories of Arabs before Islam were distinguished by the element of realism and characterized by lack of exaggeration and imagination.
The short story appeared in modern Arabic literature in Egypt and other Arab countries at the start of the twentieth century and was influenced by the short story in Western literature. Muhammad Taimur is thought to be the actual pioneer in the field of modern arabic short story, who wrote the first story under the title " راطقلا يف " whereas some other Egyptian writers like Taufiq ul-Hakim, Hussain Fawzi, Najib Mahfouz, Ihsan Abdul Quddus, Yousaf Idris and Dr. Taha Wadi etc have also put their contributions in the field of short stories.
Dr. Taha Wadi was a prominent Egyptian author and story writer. He has a major contribution to the writing of a variety of literary arts such as story, novel, biography/autobiography and criticism. In particular, he has a skill in writing short stories. He has eight story collections which consist of 98 short stories under various topics. He has described various issues in his short stories. In his creative works, two features i.e alienation(strangeness) and egyptianization seems to be overwhelming. Whereas, alienation is a key feature in the short stories of Taha Wadi.
I have selected the topic “Short Stories of Dr. Taha Wadi”(Technical Study) and want to review and analyse the picture of various issues of Egyptian socity drawn by this reputed writer in his arabic short stories.
Moreover, my thesis will also encompass various aspects of his life, his literary works and technical study of his short stories. My thesis is composed of two chapters in which each chapter is further divided into two sub chapters.
In the first sub chapter of chapter one in my thesis I will provide information about the life of Dr Taha Wadi and his literary contribution in Arabic literature, whereas the second sub chapter of chapter one will be furnished with information about his short stories collections. In chapter two, the first sub chapter will be about the various topics undertaken by the author in his stories collections, whereas in the second sub chapter of chapter two I will focus on the technical analysis of his short stories.
M Phil Scholar
Sultan e Room
الشواھد البلا غیۃ فی تفسیر "فتح المنان" لأبي محمد عبد الحق الحقانی (دراسة تحليلية)
Topic of PhD Dissertation
The rhetorical evidences in the exegesis of "Fath- ul-Manan" known as Tafseer-e-Haqqani by Abu Muhammad Abd ul-Haq al-Haqqani (Rhetorical Analysis Study)
This topic highlights personality of Allama Abu Muhammad Abd ul-Haq al-Haqqani Aldahlawee, one of the great scholars of subcontinent and his exegesis "Fath ul-Manan" which is a popular Quran Interpretation among all the Urdu speaking scholars particularly inside and outside of Pakistan and India as well. This book is in 8 volumes and full of with rhetorical evidences of Quran.
The researcher will discuss these rhetorical evidences of Quran under the methodology of descriptive approach and analytical study to show the level of rhetoric approach of the interpreter Allama Abu Muhammad Abd ul-Haq in his exegesis “Fath ul-Manan". During research, the researcher will also do his best try to know that which are methodologies and strategies have been adopted by the interpreter to interpret these rhetorical matters of Quran in urdu language...?
And moreover, did he succeed in dealing with these rhetorical aspects of Quran in illustrating their meaning for Urdu readers...? That is why I have selected the topic” The rhetorical evidences in the
exegesis of "Fath ul-Manan" known as Tafseer-e-Haqqani by Abu Muhammad Abd ul-Haq al-Haqqani” So I have divided this thesis into Abstract, Preface, three chapters, Bibliography and list of contents.
First chapter talks about the rhetorical evidences for the science of statements that means to elaborate the same meanings in different styles, ways and methods and it has three sub-chapters which deal with the styles of analogy and metaphor and metonymy.
Second chapter is about the science of meanings and it has three sub-chapters.
Third chapter deals with which called in Arabic Language “Elm-ul badee” which deals with various forms of literary text, and it point out the things like alliterative words and rhyming words, and it has two sub-chapters.
At the end it has some important outcomes of this thesis.
The book 《Bulugh Ul-Maram Min Adillat il-Ahkam》 written by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, who was great scholar of Islam in the field of Hadith, this book contains principals of modern evidences for legal provisions, it is a great work by Ibn Hajar and conceded a study syllabus in Arab world and other Islamic countries.
The researcher discussed the Morphological Study of the “Bulugh Ul-Maram” in this research.
This research contains introduction and preface and five parts in addition to conclusion and references. The researcher has employed descriptive analytical approach because it is the most suitable one.
This research deals with the morphological changes of Arabic words that have been used in the hadiths in this book. Mainly this research focus on verbs and the derivation and its types & structures and forms like tri-letter, quarter-letter and so on. On the other hand, it deals with the changes of morphological shapes.
In this research may be considered as a significant study in Arabic linguistics. It will also explain all types of verbs, and in terms of tenses, perfect and imperfect, imperative verbs, and as well as the verbs in terms of transitive and intransitive verbs mentioned in this book. At same time, the researcher address derivatives in the morphological study through the description of these derivatives and detailed buildings and study their respective work.
This research finally concluded with research results and some recommendations. The most important results:
1- Attention to the morphology because it studies condition structure of word.
2- Application of morphology in the Prophetic text for the purpose of analyzing its morphological and semantical aspects due to its noble status as the second source of Islamic religious text after the Holy Quran.
The researcher ended the thesis with different indexes and thanks to Allah first and last.
LI YI (Al-Yasa)
NUML – Islamabad
الشواهد الشعرية في تفسيري زاد المسير وفتح القدير (دراسة مقارنة على مستوى اللغة والنحو
The Poetic Citation in the Tafasir of Zad Al-maseer fi Ilmaltafseer and Fatih Al-Qadeer “Linguistic and Syntactical Comparative Study” of (Chapters: Al-Baqra and Aal -i- Imran)
The Holy Quran claims to be the World of God and such as to be inimitable by Mortals. The Holy Prophet regards the whole Quran in point of its being a happy synthesis of syntax and other sciences. So the manifold quality of Suras: Al-Baqara and Aal Imran has been the subject of the present research in the light of the past and contemporary study of Arabic linguistic and syntax , especially those related to the poetic verses of two commentators i.e. ; Imam Ibn Al-Jawzi and Imam Muhammad Ash-Shawkani . The Holy Quran, which is the last book of Almighty Allah and revealed for the guidance of the whole humanity till the doomsday, is indeed the most important and deserving book for a research scholar to carry out his research on it.
Learning of Arabic language is a basic tool for its understanding and the Arabic poetry has its major role in the learning process of this language. Arabic language helps the commentators مفسرونof the Holy Quran in defining the actual (commentators) lexical and contextual meaning of the difficult words occurred in the Holy Quran; Imam Ibn Al-Jawzi is one of those commentators who has very abundantly cited the Arabic poetry in his Tafsir. Similarly, Imam Muhammad ash-Shawkani is one of those commentators in later contemporary period that followed the same pattern in his Tafsir. Thereafter a detailed study has been undertaken to bring to focus the phenomenon of poetic verses during the commentary of Quranic chapters Al Baqara and Aal-i- Imran in its different and various aspects such as Syntax and linguistic.
Having a profound love for the Arabic poetry, the research carried out the comparative linguistic and study of Syntax of the poetic citation used by these two commentators delimiting the research work of two chapters Al Baqara and Aal-i-Imran of the Holy Quran.
الرومانسیۃ فی الادب الروائی عند یوسف السباغی دراسۃ تحلیلۃ نقدیۃ
يوسف سباعى كى ناول نگارى پر رومانوى اثرات
اُنيسويں صدى كى ابتداء كو جديد عربى ادب كا آغاز سمجھا جاتا ہے فرانس كے مصر پر قبضے كے بعد سے ہى عربوں اور بالخصوص مصريوں ميں بيدارى كى لہر پيدا ہوئى۔ فرانسيسى چھاپے خانے كى آمد نے كتابوں كے حصول كو آسان بنا ديا ۔ سياسى ہلچل اور غير ملكى قبضہ كے خلاف جدوجہد اور عوامى شعور كے نتيجہ ميں اخبارات اور رسائل كے لئے راہ ہموار ہوئى۔ تعليمى اور فوجى مقاصد كے لئے بھجوائے جانے والے طلبہ كى نثر اور شعر كى جديد روايتوں جيسے: افسانہ ، ناول، ڈرامہ ، كالم نگارى اور سفر ناموں وغيرہ سے واقفيت نے مصر ميں جديد عربى ادب كے قيام كے لئے ماحول كو سازگار بنانے ميں اہم كردار ادا كيا۔
جديد عربى ادب كى ابتداء يورپى نثر نگارى اور شاعرى كے عربى تراجم سے ہوئى، وقت گزرنے كے ساتھ ساتھ اس خيال نے زور پكڑا كہ مقامى ماحول سے ہى افسانہ اور ناول كے موضوعات تلاش كئے جائيں تاكہ مختلف معاشرتى اور سياسى رويوں كو اجاگر كيا جاسكے اس سلسلہ كا پہلا باقاعدہ عربى ناول "زينب" فرانس سے تعليم مكمل كرنے والے محمد حسين ہيكل كى كاوش ہے جو پہلى جنگِ عظيم كے لگ بھگ تحرير كيا گيا ۔
رومانوي تحريك كا آغاز اٹھارويں صدي كے اواخر ميں فرانس ميں ھوا جبكہ انيسويں صدي كے وسط تك رومانوي سوچ عروج پر پہنچ چكى تھى يہ ادبي تحريك اس دور كے صنعتى انقلاب ’طبقہ شرفاء اور وہاں كےدگرگوں سياسى اور معاشرتى حالات كےخلاف ايك زہني بغاوت تھى رومانوي فكر ميں خيالات اور جذبات كي قوت كو ہى حقيقى خيال كيا جاتا ہے بيسويں صدى ميں اگرچہ رومانوي تحريك كى شدت فرانس ميں دم توڑ چكى تھى ليكن بيسويں صدى كے وسط تك مصر ميں نہ صرف بادشاہت قائم تھى بلكہ بعد ميں آنے والى جمہوري حكومتيں بھى بد ترين آمريت كا نمونہ تھيں لہذا ماحول كي گھٹن ’ معاشرتى نا ہمواريوں اور طبقہ شرفاء كو دي جانے والى مراعات كے خلاف ماحول سازگار ہى رہا.بيسويں صدى ميں بين الاقوامى، علاقائى اور مقامى حالات ميں ہونے والى تبديليوں نے لكھنے والوں كے لئے نئے نئے موضوعات فراہم كئے۔ ان حالات ميں مصرى نثر نگارى ميں ايك نئے گروہ كا اضافہ ہوا يہ وہ ادباء تھے جو بنيادى طور پر مختلف شعبہ ہائے زندگى سے تعلق ركھتے تھے ليكن ان ميں فطرى طور پر موجود اديب نے حالات كے پيش نظر اپنا كردار ادا كرنا ضرورى سمجھا ۔ انہى ادباء ميں سے ايك قابلِ ذكر نام يوسف سباعى كا بھى ہے، جنكى ناول نگارى كو ميں نے "يوسف سباعى كى ناول نگارى پر رومانوى اثرات" كے عنوان سے پى ايچ ڈى كے مقالہ كا موضوع منتخب كيا ہے۔
يوسف سباعى كى شخصيت كے انتخاب كى كئى وجوہات ہيں جن ميں سے اہم ترين ان كى شخصيت ميں موجود تنوع اور جہد مسلسل ہے۔ ايك ادبى گھريلو ماحول ميں پرورش پانے والے سباعى نے اپنى عملى زندگى كا آغاز ايك فوجى افسر كى حيثيت سے كيا ۔ بريگيڈئير كے عہدے تك ترقى پانے كے بعد جب وہ ريٹائرڈ ہوئے تو ان كے افسانوں كے چند مجموعے اور كچھ ناول منظر عام پر آچكے تھے۔پھر صحافت كے ميدان ميں قدم ركھا تو كئى كامياب رسائل كا نہ صرف اجراء كيا بلكہ "اہرام" جيسے صفِ اول كے مصرى اخبار كے چيف ايڈيٹر بھى رہے۔ سياست كے ميدان ميں قسمت آزمائى كى تو مصر كے وزير ثقافت كا قلم دان سنبھالا۔
١٦ ناولوں اور افسانوں كے ٢٢ مجموعوں كے مصنف نے كالم نگارى كو بھى اظہار كا ذريعہ بنايا اور كالموں پر مشتمل ان كى كتابوں كى تعداد ٨ ہے ۔ يوسف سباعى نے ٣ ڈرامے بھى تحرير كئے اور بين الاقوامى اسفار كى روداد كو بھى ايك كتاب ميں سميٹا ہے۔ ١٩٧٨ ميں يوسف سباعى كو ٦١ سال كى عمر ميں قبرص كے دار الحكومت ميں اسوقت قاتلانہ حملہ كا نشانہ بنايا گيا جب وہ ايك بين الاقوامى كانفرنس ميں شريك تھے۔ يوں تمام عمر ملك وقوم كى خدمت كرنے والے شخص كى زندگى كا اختتام بھى وطن كى خاطر جان قربان كرنے پر ہوا كيونكہ اسوقت بھى يوسف سباعى مصر كے وزير ثقافت تھے۔ مجھے قوى اميد ہے كہ يوسف سباعى كى زندگى اور ناولوں كا مطالعہ عربى ادب كے طلبہ اور ناول نگارى سے دلچسپى ركھنے والوں كے لئے ايك مفيد مطالعہ ثابت ہوگا۔
NUML – Islamabad
It is fact that most of the Muslim poets in sub -continent had been impressed with Arabic Language. They incorporated Arabic words, sentences, proverbs and the words of Quran and Hadith frequently in their poetry, which greatly influenced the readers.
Among them one of the most important poets is Hafiz Muhammad Ibrahim Fani. He was born in 1954 in Swabi and died in 2014. He has more than 7 poetry Books, among them ازغي د تمنا (Thorns of hope), بيا دردونہ پہ خندا دي (The pain is laughing again), شاہندتخيل (Fiction Eagle), خو گيلي مي زرگي غواري (Reproach desired by heart) etc.
When we read his poetry, we see clear impact of Arabic Language on his poetry. In this research I have tried to explore that impact of Arabic Language on his poetry, so to achieve this goal
I have divided my topic into two chapters.
First Chapter: -In the first chapter, I introduced Hafiz Muhammad Ibrahim, his books and it has their sub-chapters.
Second Chapter: - In the Second chapter, I discussed about the impact of Arabic Language on the poetry of Hafiz Muhammad Ibrahim. It has also further three sub-chapters.
المسائل النحوية في تفسير القرطبي من سورتي البقرة وآل عمران (دراسة تحليلية نحوية)
The Ph. D dissertation entitled: Grammatical Issues in the Tafsir of qurtabi in (Syntactical and
analytical study) written by Salman Yousuf under
supervision of Dr. Nasreen Tahir.
The book qurtabi is a resource book of Qua’nic commentary, written by Al-Imam qurtabi. This tafsir is very reliable in understanding of Qur’anic words, their meanings and the significations of Qur’anic verses as well as the syntactical, rhetorical and pragmatic relation of all verses with each other.
I explained this tafsir, and discussed in detail the life of Al-Imam qurtabi, then I described the rules and grammar issues weather these are majroorat (used by sign of kasrah) marfooat (used by sign of rafah) or mansoobat (used by sign of fatha) associated by the great commentator Al-Imam qurtabi in his tafsir al jamia bahakham al Quran.
The Ph. D dissertation: Grammatical Issues in the Tafsir of Tafasir qurtabi in Sura al-Baqar al-mran(Syntactical and analytical study) consists of a preface, six chapters and a conclusion.
Faculty of languages
National University of Modern Languages
Date of submission of Ph. D thesis: _____________
Signature of supervisor: ______________________
المرأۃ فی روایات حنا مينة دراسة فنية Almara Fi Riwayat Hanna Maina (Dirassa Fanneya)
"In the Name Of Allah the Most Beneficent the Most Merciful"
Research proposal Submitted for the Approval of M.Phil Dissertation by Bakhtawar Tariq
Women in the Novels of the Writer Hanna Mina (1924-2018)
Hanna Mina (Arabic Named: حنا مينة) was a Great Arabic Writer of Modern Era born on 9 March 1924 A.D. He was a Syrian novelist described in Literature from the "Axis of Evil" as the country's "most prominent".
His early novels belong to the movement of social realism, and focus on class conflict; his later works contain "a more symbolic analysis of class differences. His writing on the suffering of ordinary people was partly inspired by his own experiences, alternately working as a stevedore, barber and journalist; his autobiographical short story, "On the Sacks", was published in 1976.
Several of his works are set during the period of the French Mandate of Syria, or in the period immediately following independence. Mina has authored about 40 novels, varying in imaginary value and narrative significance. But his achievement lies in the foundation he laid for this literary structure. For his collective works and novels, Mina was awarded the Arab Writer's Prize in 2005. He wrote several short stories, which brought him into literary circles, and he co-writing founded the Syrian Writers Federation in 1951 and later moved to become the editor in-chief of al-Inshaa.
Hanna slowly gaining fame and prestige and becoming of Syria's renowned writers, he never stopped reflecting on the harsh reality of his earlier life, which he considered as fuel for his novels. "Salah Fadl" as the greatest autobiography in Arab novel-writing, and the most abundant in brutal honesty and wealth of thought.
The novelist Hanna Mina is one of the novelists who were able to portray women through their social reality, which lived in a distinct literary form. Women take a large space for most of the works (Hanna Mina), including novels and long and short stories,
But its scope and importance in these novels was the largest and greatest, the novelist Hanna Mina has given the woman here a great positive role in taming this cruel and crude character into a world of passion, love, and vast, sublime spiritual feelings.
Hanna Mina applies not only to the mother, but also to the widow, the sister, the lover, the daughter and even the prostitute. I commented on it with a chapter on revolutionary women and women between reality and symbol.
Hanna Mina died on 21 August 2018 in Damascus, aged 94. In Syria, the culture ministry each year awards the Hanna Mina Prize for Literature.
Women in the Novels of Hanna Mina (Technical Studies)
I have divided my dissertation into the Abstract, Introduction, two chapters and list of contents.
First Chapter: Show Novels and Topic
Sub-Chapter 1: Topics of his Novels about Women
Sub-Chapter 2: Novel "a woman who does not know she is a woman"
Sub-Chapter 3: Novel "Fire between the fingers of a woman"
Sub-Chapter 4: Novel "The Eye-lid"
Second Chapter: Technical study of his Novels about Women
Sub-Chapter 1: Technical study for the Elements of his Novels
Sub-Chapter 2: Technical study of style & language
الاسماء الممدودة والمقصورة والمنقوصة (دراسة دلا لية في صحيح ا لبخاري) Al-Iasma' Al-Mamdudat Wal Maqsurat Wal Manqusa (Dirasaa Dalaliat Fi Sahih Al-Bukhari
Al Asma Almamdooeda Wl Maqsooera Wl Manqooesa (in Sahi Al Bukahari) A grammatical study
Praise to be Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, many Peace & Blessings on Our Prophet Mohammad the Noblest Prophet, on his Family and on all his companions.
I have selected the following title for my PhD dissertation “Al Asma Almamdooeda Wl Maqsooera Wl Manqooesa in Sahi Al Bukahari”.
I divided my topic into Tamheed and three chapters and each chapters have two sub chapters.
First chapter: Life of Imam Bukhari.
Second chapter: Method of Sahih Al – Bukhari.
First Chapter: Meaning of Asm al Mamdooeda linguistically and theoretically, then rules and types of Asm al Mamdooeda in different ways and explanation of Hadiths which have Asm al Mamdooeda words grammatically and conceptually.
Second Chapter: Meaning of Asm al Maqsooera linguistically and theoretically, then rules and types in different ways and explanation of Hadiths which have Asm al Maqsooera words grammaticaly and conceptually.
Third Chapter: Meaning of Asm al Manqooesa linguistically and theoretically, then rules and types in different ways and explanation of Hadiths which have Asm al Manqooesa words grammatically and conceptually.
“Amin Al-Rihani, A Novelist,
An Artistic Study Through His Novels”
Amin Al-Rihani (1876-1940), the Lebanese American writer, philosopher, and political activist in the first half of last century who devoted his life to bringing the East and the West together.
Amin Al-Rihani is generally regarded as the most prominent member of the ‘Lebanese-American’ or al-Mahjar school of modern literature and thought, which includes Kahlil Gibran and Mikhail Nuaimey. He also demonstrated great foresight in his choice of political and social issues upon which to concentrate, for these same issues were destined to have a continuing relevance in world affairs right up to the present day. He was both a Romantic and a Realist. On the one hand he firmly rejected the ills of society and was both a literary rebel and a lover of nature and of all things simple.
Rihani was in is mid-twenties when it became clear to him that the decay of Arab society was primarily due to ignorance and sectarian fanaticism, and that sweeping intellectual, spiritual, and material reform was needed. In his Arabic writings he warned his own people and his Arab brethren against the many dangers threatening them and the ambitions of other nations regarding their own integrity.
His most successful Arabic works in the various literary genres are as follows: Novels: The Muleteer and the Monk; The Chronicle of Repentance; Short story: The Lily of al-Ghour; Essays: A Rihani
Compendium; Extremism and Reform; Criticism: Literature and Art; Oriental an Occidental Profiles; History: A History of Modern Najd; The Disasters, Feisal the First; Poetry: A Voice Crying in the Valleys; Theater: The Loyalty of Time; Travel: Arab Monarchs ; Heart of Lebanon; Heart of Iraq; The Far Maghrib; The Light of Andalusia.
The most controversial of his works was Antom Ush-Shouraa (You Poets), in which he fiercely criticizes the woeful and spineless state of Arabic poetry. He made a highly significant contribution to the development of modern Arabic poetry through his early literary activity in the United States. He earned for himself the Arabic title of ‘Father of Prose Poetry’.
Kahlil Gibran was the first to recognize the debt owed to Rihani by his successors, indeed, Rihani and Gibran were the inspiration for every Arab writing in English after them. It is no exaggeration to say that these two men made the most important intellectual and literary contribution to the revitalization of Arab intellectual life in the first quarter of the 20th century.
Indeed, the Middle East of today, and students of its problems worldwide, still have much to learn from Amin Rihani.
أدب الرحلة بين أنيس منصور ومستنصر حسين تارر )دراسة أسلوبية مقارنة
of the PhD thesis entitled:
Literature of Travelling between
Anees Mansoor and Mustansar Husain Tararr
(A case study for comparison)
History keeps the record of man love for quest of knowledge. It Includes those journeys that man completed to know more and more about beauty of nature and many other things across the world. Such travellings -with the passage of time- got recorded and became an interesting literature as it speaks about history of nations, poetry, stories, story of certain cultures, observation of beautiful places, interaction with different people in a beautiful and touching way of eloquence and rhetoric.
Urdu language has got considerable impact of Arabic language, however it need to be studied that how, and to what extent Urdu literature of travelling got influenced by Arabic literature of travelling? And what can possibly be the points of similarities and differences?
The given proposal is about the two travelers; Anees Mansoor who wrote in Arabic and Mustansar Husain Tararr who wrote in Urdu. After the preface and introduction, the suggested pattern of chapter is in the following way:
1. Biography of the two writers.
Section 1: Biography of Anees Mansoor.
Section 2: Biography of Mustansar Husain tararr
2. Literary style of the two writers in Literature of Travelling.
Section 1: Technique of narrative and display in Literature of Travelling by Anees Mansoor.
Section 2: Technique of narrative and display in Literature of Travelling by Mustansar Husain tararr.
Section 3: Technique of Utilization of language in Literature of Travelling by Anees Mansoor.
Section 4: Technique of Utilization of language in Literature of Travelling by Mustansar Husain tararr.
3. Views of the Two Writers about West & Their Topics and Themes.
Section 1: Views of the Anees Mansoor about West.
Section 2: Views of the Mustansar Husain tararr about West.
Section 3: Topics & Themes of Anees Mansoor in his Literature of Travelling.
Section 4: Topics & Themes of Mustansar Husain tararr in his Literature of Travelling.
4. Points of similarities and differences.
Section 1: Points of similarities between the Literature of Travelling of Anees Mansoor & Mustansar Husain Tararr.
Section 2: Points of differences between the Literature of Travelling of Anees Mansoor & Mustansar Husain Tararr.
الشوا ھد الشعریۃ فی الز ھراوین فی زاد المسیر لا بن الجوزی Al-Shawahid Al-Shieria Fi Al-Zahrawayn Fi Zad Al-Masayr Le-Ibn Al-Jawzi
Poetic evidence in “Al Zahrawain Fi Tafseer Zad Al-Maseer Fi Elm Al-Tafseer” of Ibn al-Jawzi"
This research work encompassed a comprehensive overview about Ibn Al-Jawzi and the way he used the poetic evidence in his Tafseer “Zad Al-Maseer Fi Elm Al-Tafseer” for elaborating any difficult word in the said Tafseer. The method used for the research is descriptive and analytical. The review of the literature revealed that some great Quranic Interpreters like Tabari, Abi Habban and Al-Qurtabi, used this methodology of interpretation through poetic of evidence, however these studies already elaborated by some research scholars in different Universities of Morocco, Egypt, KSA and Pakistan. This study reviles that Ibn Al-Jawzi used a number of poetic verses for elaborating different difficult words. The research scholar analysed that how Ibn Al-Jawzi used these evidence, moreover the syntactical & morphological analysing gives a broad view of understanding to the reader. The scholar found that evidence from poetry is a very old scholarly Arabic tradition of hundreds of years used by a lot of religious and linguistic scholars to define meaning of a word or to clear its ambiguity. Ibn Al-Jawzi like his ancestors in the field of Quranic Tafseer also used the same pattern. In fact this research is helpful for all those scholars who want to do research on the primary sources of Arabic Language and to explore their methodologies.
Keywords: Ibn al-Jawzi, Al Zahrawain, Tafseer Zad Al-Maseer Fi Elm Al-Tafseer, Poetic evidence, interpretation, syntax, morphology, analytical study.
" ترجمة إنجلیز یة للمجموعة القصصية "مريم والحظ السعيد
Topic of PhD Dissertation
An English Translation of the collection
"Mariam and Good Luck"
This study is an attempt to analytically translate selections from the stories of Mariam Al Saady titled “Mariam and the Good Luck” to demonstrate the best style of translation used. The current study starts with the multiple definitions of translation, transformation of individual words, sentences, and meaning from Arabic (source) to English (target) languages. During the translation it is kept in mind that translation is a science, art, and skill therefore different techniques of translations are employed including the direct and indirect translation of particular text. Also, the history of translation theories is elaborated along with the different theories adopted by different translators and scholars along the history.
The current study utilizes the most important styles of translation presented by theorists such as Nida, Newmark, Catford, Vinay & Darbelnet while focusing on the seven translation procedures presented by Vinay & Darbelnet: borrowing, calque, literal translation, transposition, modulation, reformulation, and adaptation. In the practical part, researcher presented a translation of the selected parts from the various stories of ‘Mariam and the good luck’. It aims to illustrate that linguistically sound translation techniques should be avoided to produce a literal translation.
The researcher considers the culture of the source and target language, which requires a broad knowledge of both the cultures yet keeping him detached from his original culture to adapt to the culture of the source language. In this way the stories of ‘Mariam and the good luck’ are treated. It is observed that the author, Mariam Al Saady detaches herself and takes a broad and critical look at the world to present a new creative and brave work of art. It is discussed in detail how culture affects language and the vice versa.
It is concluded that the language is basic means of communication among the people of a community, as it determines their perception of the world and how they present themselves.
I have divided this thesis into Abstract, Preface, Four chapters, Bibliography and list of contents.
First Chapter: is about the Art of Translation including history, methods & types of Translation and it has three sub-chapters.
Second Chapter: is about the writer, her literary work and achievement along with the presentation of her most famous short-story book i.e. “Mariam and good luck”. It further has three sub-chapters.
Third Chapter: elaborates the culture, cultural hurdles during the translation and strategies to handle the problems, it has two sub-chapters.
Fourth Chapter: consists of analytical translation of selected parts from the book keeping in mind the techniques and methods of translation. Is has three sub-chapters.
المقاومة في شعر عبد الكريم الكرمي الفلسطيني وعبد الكريم آغا شورش الكاشميري (دراسة مقارنة)
Topic of PhD Dissertation
The Resistance in the Poetry of Abdul Karim Al Karmi and Abdul Karim Agha Shorsh Al Kashmiri
The title of this research effort originates from the word "resistance" which links this effort to resistance literature. Since "Resistance" has the status of the basic aspect of the research effort, so in the introduction, its types are explained by mentioning the literal and terminological meanings of "Muqawamah".
The title of the research effort culminated in "Darasat al-Maqarana", which highlights the aspect of the research that deals with comparative assessment. In order to highlight these two aspects, poems were selected from the poetry collections of two poets, which are related to resistance literature in any respect. Then these poems were organized under appropriate headings, such as patriotism, hope for a bright future, the glory of the past, mention of atrocities, the plight of the oppressed, awakening the global conscience, exposing the plots of the enemy, our nation. Awakening, condemnation of enemies, condemnation of fake journalists, glory of freedom struggle mujahideen and martyrs.
Under these titles, two great poets were selected for the purpose of describing the resistance literature, one of them is a Palestinian poet and the other is a Kashmiri poet, the name of the Palestinian is Abdul Karim Al-Karmi and the name of the Kashmiri is Abdul Karim Agha Shorush. The Palestinian poet is not only a representative of the Palestinian literature but of the entire Arab literature, similarly the Kashmiri poet is a representative of Kashmiri literature as well as Urdu literature, both of them have adopted resistance literature. The Palestinian and Kashmiri poets were chosen for this reason. That among the nations of the world who are engaged in shining the light of truth in the darkness of oppression and oppression, the Palestinians and Kashmiris are the most prominent among these nations, both are geographically and politically oppressed, both are victims of autocratic oppression. And both are resisting this oppression and oppression, and their writers and poets are waging jihad with their pens, and are raising their voice for the freedom of the oppressed society.
Before describing the resistance literature of the two poets, their living conditions and their literary services have been mentioned. It is clear from the comparative analysis of the poetry collections of the two poets that their themes are very similar, found between them. This similarity is actually similar in Arabic and Urdu literature. From their comparative analysis it is also known that the Arabic language has a deep influence on the Urdu language, the knowledge of Urdu language is based on all the Arabic terms.
This research effort is useful for all these researchers. Those who are engaged in research on resistance literature and comparative analysis, it will also be beneficial for those who want to be aware of colonial tactics and want to get out of their clutches.
An integrated approach has been adopted in this research effort which combines resistive, comparative, linguistic, descriptive, historical analysis. It deals with a comparative assessment between two great poets of two Islamic countries. And this work can serve as a means of introduction to Arab and non-Arab.