It is a matter of fact that the Holy Quran is characterized by rhetoric, eloquence and different subjects. This rhetoric and eloquence appears in the Jihad Verses also. So I selected the analytical, syntactic and rhetorical study for my PhD thesis. I will try to focus on these aspects keeping in view the three kinds of Rhetoric:
(4) Syntactic study of Jihad Verses.
Thesis based on five chapters.
First Chapter: talks about the introduction of Jihad and It have three sub-chapters.
Second Chapter: Is about the introduction of Kinds of Jihad and It have four sub-chapters.
Third Chapter: Is about the Analytic study of Jihad Verses and It have three sub-chapters.
Fourth Chapter: in it discussed the Syntactic study of Jihad Verses and it have three sub-chapters.
Fifth Chapter: Is about the Rhetorical study of Jihad Verses and It have of three sub-chapters
Arabic is a very rich and powerful language of the world. That is why Almighty Allah has chosen it for revealing His Last Book - the exquisite Holy Qur’an, which has attracted a large crowd to study and comprehend it from different angles. While some people have studied social and philosophical aspects of the Holy Qur’an; others have studied this Book from the perspective of language research. All these studies, no doubt, have exposed the glory of Qur’an.
For discovering the linguistic beauty of the Holy Qur’an, we must study Arabic language and grammar from numerous angles. One of these aspects is to study the relationship between the voice and consonants. This Study is an attempt to highlight this aspect of Arabic language by taking examples from the vocabulary of Qur’an, especially some Mo’tall verbs (ending with ا و and ي) which we find in Qur’an.
This is a very vast subject. For the sake of this brevity, we have kept ourselves confined in this Study to Surah Baqarah only. Change of Mo’tall verbs in Surah Baqarah has been discussed at length and an attempt has been made to find out the reasons for changes, replacement and elimination of the characters of Mo’tall verbs.
It has been proved that there is one consistent approach of verbal conjugations where the final consonant is a glide, instead of its absence in the deep structure of some morphological forms.
The studied Mo’tall verbs forms have been related to the tested processes in Surah Baqarah, sharing the same underlying phonological context.
Comparison between Al-Dur-Al-Masoon and Blaghat-Al-Quran
(Morphological and Syntactical analysis) (Chapter Aal-e-Imran)
As a matter of fact many a Muslim scholars had been compiling their Tafaseers on Morphological and Syntactical grounds.Just because complete understanding of Quranic verses impossible without the help of these two. So the researcher chose two books, one from old period and other from present time to compare their styles in dealing with Morphological and Syntactical Citations. I have divided my topic into Abstract, Preface, five chapters, Bibliography and list of contents.
First chapter will talk about Morphological and Syntactical Citations in TafaseerUlQuran and it has three sub-chapters and Second chapter will introduce Halabi, Shaikhly and their books and it has three sub-chapters and Third chapter will consist of Morphological and Syntactical Citations in Al-Dur-Al-Masoonand it has three sub-chapters and Fourth chapter will consist of Morphological and Syntactical Citations in Balaghat-Al-Quran and it has three sub-chapters and Fifth chapter will deal with comparison between Al-Dur-Al-Masoon and Balaghat-Al-Quranand it has three sub-chapters.
الھدایۃ والضلالۃ تشکیلا و مفھومافی ضوءالقرآن الکریم
Alhidya and Al Dhalala, Rhetorically and Morphologically in the Light of the Holy Quran")
The Almight Allah has revealed the Holy Quran for the guidance of humanity to spread the light of Hidaya and to eradicate the darkness of ignorance. It is also a wonderful source of rhetoric and eloquence.
I have selected the following title for my PhD dissertation "Alhidya and Al Dhalala, Rhetorically and Morphologically in the Light of the Holy Quran".
I have divided my topic into rive chapters and to several sub chapters.
First Chapter: Meanings of Al-Hidaya and its synonyms; consists of synonyms, literal and terminological meanings of Al-Hidaya, its kinds and rules, and the characteristics of the guided people in the light of the Holy Quran.
Second Chapter: This chapter includes the concept of al-Dhalala, its synonyms, its literal and terminological meanings, types and regulations, and the symptoms of the astrayed in the light of the teachings of the Holy Quran.
Third Chapter: It includes thematic analysis of the verses mentioning the concepts of Al-Hadiya and Al-Dhalala.
Fourth Chapter: It consists of terminological analysis of the verses regarding Al-Hidayah and Al-Dalala and their derivative mentioned in the Holy Quran.
Fifth Chapter: In this chapter, I have discussed the rhetorical analysis of the verses regarding the topic.
It is a matter of fact that the Holy Quran is characterized by rhetoric, eloquence and different Syntactic subjects. This rhetoric and eloquence appears in the Emani Verses also. So I selected the Analytical, Syntactic and Rhetorical study for my PhD thesis. I will try to focus on these aspects keeping in view the kinds of the Rhetoric: Syntactic study of Emani Verses.
Rhetorical study of Emani Verses.
I have divided my topic into five chapters:
First Chapter: Definition of Nida and five sub-chapters will be mentioned in it.
Second Chapter: Al-Nida in the light of Holy Quran It will consist of three sub-chapters.
Third Chapter: The Syntactic study of Emani Verses Stated in the Holy Quran and there will be five sub-chapters in it.
Fourth Chapter: it will discuss (Ilm-ul-Bayan) Rhetoric examples in the Emani Verses Stated in the Holy Quran and there will be three sub-chapters in it.
Fifth Chapter: it will Discuss (Ilm-ul-Maa'ni) of Emani Verses Stated in the Holy Quran and there will be three sub-chapters in it.
Sixth Chapter: it will Discuss (Ilm-ul-Badea) of Emani Verses Stated in the Holy Quran and there will be two sub-chapters in it.
In the end, conclusion, findings, recommendations and proposals will be presented.
Arabic Proverbs and their equivalants in Urdu
Proverbs or proverbial sayings express in few words a truth which relates to everybody experience, reality of things, feelings and beliefs. Proverbs are based on truth, advice and wisdom and they relate to everybody regardless of his class and education.
Proverbs are finest literature and have profound impact on the broad human life and they are in general use and express common ideas and beliefs. They are part of every language and culture. A proverb is very often found with the variations in many languages.
Arabic and Urdu Languages are rich with many proverbs that are having so much wisdom and knowledge and this study aims to compare those of Arabic and Urdu languages and will reveal how similar they are. It also address the impacts of Arabic language and culture on Urdu language and culture. Proverbs hold very high standing among all nations of the world because they reflect human life, wisdom and recap of their experiences. The fact is that the proverbs are the finest arts of literature and have profound impact on the broad humanitarian daily life of the every segment of the society. I have chosen this topic "Arabic proverbs and their equivalents in Urdu" for many reasons. It is of great importance to study proverbs who wants to know about different nations of the world. There is no doubt that such a deep study helps to know and understand the characteristics of the people, their wisdom, daily lives and experiences. The proverbs in Quran Kareem and Hadith Sharif have full of knowledge.
I have divided this thesis into Abstract, Preface, five chapters and list of contents. This thesis contains an introduction, five chapters, several sub chapters and the research summary. I have collected many Quranic and Prophetic proverbs which are being used in Urdu language and Many Quranic and Prophetic proverbs which are having different wording but giving the same meaning. This study in Arabic proverbs and their equivalents in Urdu languages is a comparative study where the First Chapter discusses in details the Definitions of proverbs and its Kinds whereas the second chapter deals with origin and significance of Proverbs in Arabic and Urdu literature. The proverbs which have similar meanings and different words in both the languages are discussed in details in the third chapter. Whereas the fourth chapter highlights the Arabic Language Proverbs which are now being used in Urdu language. As we know that Urdu literature has taken a lot of Arabic proverbs which are now being used in Urdu language. Fifth and last Chapter of this thesis compares and contrasts the style of Arabic and Urdu Proverbs.
بررسی و تحقیق در فکر و ھنر داستان نویسی سیمین دانشور
Semin Daneshver is known as the first famous contemporary novelist, fiction writer and translator of Persian language. She is the first feminist story writer of Iran as well who bore the courage to write among the male writers of her period. Atash-e Khamoush (The Quenched Fire) was the first collection of Persian short stories by Simin Daneshver published in 1948 whereas the first novel by her Suvashun (Mourners of Siavash) was published in 1969.Her other major works are: The Novels Sareban-e Sargardan (The Wandering Camel ride) and Jazire-ye Sargardani (The Wander Island), Collection of short stories: 1-Shahri Chon Behesht (A City as Paradise) 2- Be Ki Salam Konam? (To Whom Should I Say Hello?)3-Az parnide haye mohajir beporse (Ask the immigrant bird) 4- Intekhab (selection).Likewise her translations of Chekhov, Bernard Shaw, Hawthorne, Schnitzler and Saroyan had become a valuable addition to the collection of foreign works available in Persian.
This research is based upon the Structural analysis of her five collections of short stories according to the elements of short story such as Experience, Conflict, Plot, Theme and point of View, Characterization, Dialogues, Setting and Symbol. According to the aforementioned elements of short stories Simin Daneshver is a successful writer. Though her early work Aatise Khamoush was not so successful, but later Daneshver's prose style was considerably mature, closer to the language of the people and developed with a short, clear and concise sentence structure. Daneshver's stories reflect reality rather than fantasy. They contain themes such as child kidnapping, adultery, marriage, childbirth, sickness, death, treason, profiteering, illiteracy, ignorance, poverty and loneliness. The issues she deals with were the social problems of 1960s and 1970s in Iran which have immediacy and credibility for readers. She drew inspiration from the people around her.
Daneshver is also successful in creating the real, as well as the imaginary worlds of her characters. Hence, her feminist point of view remains the center of many works. Daneshver asserted her devotion to depict women's conditions of Iranian society in the short story Shahri Chon Behesht. Here she no longer dwells on the general characteristics of women; rather, she assumes a neutral position and avoids passing judgment on them; she merely portrays the women and their lives as she saw them. Her characters are able to speak for themselves and demonstrate where their major strengths and weaknesses lie. As a woman writer she wrote about the sensitivity of the Iranian woman. Her characters are quite real and she is close to her readers as she writes about the common everyday problems in simple and understandable language. In the light of the analysis of her works and writing art she is an eminent and successful writer and her thoughts are assets for future female writers.
The history of Arabic novel and short story writing dates back to the start of 20th century Egyptians played a big role in translating European literature specially novels, short stories and dramas to the Arab world before writing in these fields of literature.
Yousef Idrees, Egyptian literary figure, born in 1927, is known as a novelist, short story writer, dramatist and column writer. He wrote more than 100 short stories published in 13 books of him in addition of dozen of novels and 19 books of columns. He also wrote 8 dramas in Arabic Language.
This thesis is divided in three chapters. First Chapter "Yousef Idrees Life and Literary works" Has two sub-chapters. 1st sub-chapter discusses about his studies, participation in politics, his family life, his jobs, awards and medals which he got from different organizations.
2nd sub-chapter includes introduction of his literary works other than short stories such as novels, dramas etc.
Second Chapter "short story in the writings of Yousef Idrees" Has two sub-chapters.
1st sub-chapter is about history of short story writing in Arab world, its beginning in Egypt and its pioneers, elements of short story and the difference between novel and short story writing. 2nd sub-chapter is about introduction of his books of short stories. I mentioned all the stories of a book if the number of stories did not exceed 10 stories and if exceeded then I selected few of those stories of that book.
Third chapter "analytical and critical study of short story" has two sub-chapters.
1st sub-chapter is about his inspiration from "realism" and its impact on his writings and I mentioned certain examples from his literary works, I also mentioned his critical views about Egyptian society etc.
2nd sub-chapter is analytical studies of short story work in the light of its elements and in the end I mentioned my opinions and gave my recommendations after writing this thesis which took three years of research.
دراسۃ تقابلیۃ بین مناھج اللغۃ العربیۃ فی الجامعات الفیدرالیۃ والجامعات الدینیۃ الاھلیۃ
The curriculum development has a great influence on modern education system. In a research of curriculum of Arabic language from Arabic discipline, I will try to focus on following questions: What is the curriculum? What are the basis, history and components of curriculum? What are the differences between curricula of Arabic language that are taught in the religious universities and federal universities? What are the merits and demerits of these two curricula? What are the main suggestions for a model syllabus for universities in the light of this research?
I have segregated my thesis into three chapters: First chapter: About the introduction of curriculum which consist of two sub-chapters.
Second chapter: The curricula of Arabic language in the religious and federal universities which consist of two sub-chapters. Third chapter: Comparison between curricula of religious and federal universities of Arabic language which consist of three sub-chapters and one questionnaire.
Hadith Sharif is consider primary source of Arabic language. No one can deny its importance in Arabic language, literature and rhetoric, Sahi Muslim is consider as the second most authentic book of Hadith Nabvi after Shahi Bukhari. Shahi Muslim is the collection of Al-Ahadith collected by Imam Muslim (Muslim bin Alhajaj), who travelled widely to gather his colection of ahadith including to Saudia Arabia, Iraq, Syria and Egypt where he attended the lectures of some prominent scholars of his time i-e Ishaq bin Rahwih, Ahmad bin Hanbal and Ubaid ullah al Qaweri. He have great relation with Imam Bukahri.It is said that he collected about 300,000 Hadith from hundreds of narrators. He began the tiresome task of refining the collected material.Imam Muslim was very strict in examining the Hadith from all aspects. Thus he extracted approximately 4,000 for his book, which is divided into 54 books, containing a total of 12,000 narrations. And these saying og Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) are treasure of Arabic language and literature.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, an art that aims to improve the capability of writers or speakers to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.Rectoric is divided into three branches: ilm ul bayan ilm ul maa'ni ilm ul bade and these branches are divided into more sub branches. Metonamy and Metaphor are branches of ilm ul byan ela.
I have selected Analytical Study of Metonymies and Metaphors in Shahi Muslim" as this will help to common person to understand Ahadith and tradition of Arabs, because Rhetoric made text beautiful as well as difficult to understand to foreigners.so i tried to make an effort to pick it out and define these words to understand circumstances and situation of that time.
Briefly, my thesis consists of an introduction, three chapters and a final conclusion.
• First Chapter: Precise introduction of "Sahih Muslim" and its "Writer". The chapter consists of three sub chapters.
• Second Chapter: Precise introduction of Rhetoric and its branches. This Chapter has five sub chapters.
• Third Chapter: Metonymies and Metaphor in SAHIH MUSLIM. This chapter is divide into two sub chapters.
It is a common matter among many languages of the world that a language has an influence on one another, the same as phenomenon of linguistic borrowings is present in all languages and will be as long as different languages and contacts, direct or indirect, between their speakers exist. The term of "linguistic borrowing", according to linguists, means borrowing a word from a donor language, adaptation of this word and incorporating it into a recipient language.
Therefore, in Polish language we find 845 words which have been borrowed from Arabic and entered into Polish language indirectly through other languages, such as: French, Spanish or Turkish, or directly through contacts between Arabs and Poles. At first glance at history of Poland and the Arab world it seems there is no cultural or linguistic link between them, nevertheless, in Polish language there are many lexical borrowings from Arabic which have been incorporated since 14th century through trade contacts, wars and settlement of Tatars in Poland.
The research study which examines the link between these two languages is very rare due to Poles' lack of proficiency in Arabic, as well as Arabs' lack of proficiency in Polish. That is why, the need of creating a scientific research that describes the process of lexical borrowings from Arabic to Polish language, presents examples of such borrowings and explains the way of their entry into Polish, emerged in my mind. I believe that this research study titled "Arabic words used in Polish language (analytical and semantic study)" is going to be useful for Arab readers to make them realize the link between both languages, as well as it is going to be beneficial for linguists and researchers from both cultures and helpful for students of Arabic and Polish language in understanding the effect which Arabic had on forming Polish language. Linguists of Polish language do not take the issue of Arabic words used in Polish very often. The main Polish linguist who put a lot of effort into examining this topic in detail is Dr. Waclaw Przemyslaw Turek, the orientalist of Jagiellonski.
University in Cracow, Poland. He wrote few articles about the adaptation of words borrowed from Arabic and incorporated into Polish language and a dictionary called "Slownik zapoZyczen pochodzenia arabskiego w polszczyinie".
(Translation: Dictionary of Arabic loanwords used in Polish language) which is the main source of information on this particular topic in my research. This research study examines the words which have been borrowed from Arabic and are used till now in Polish language in an analytical and semantic way, presents the direct or indirect way of their entry into Polish, shows examples of lexical borrowings from Arabic into Polish with the indication of an Arabic origin word and explains the historical aspect of an adaptation of the borrowed word if known.
اسلوب التوکید فی الجزین الثامن والعسشرہین والتاسع والعسشرین من القران الکریم
Miracle is the necessity to verify ones claim of prophet hood.The prophacy of last messenger of Allah-Hazrat Mohamad (PBUH) is also reliant on several miracles. Holy Quran is the one of thoese miracles which were given to Holy Prophet (PBUH).This is the miracle which has the capability of proving his prophecy till the end of this world. No one could bring reponse against the opened challenge of the Holy Quran.This element proves the uniqueness of his Holy Book and that all are its contents are based on righteousness .Allah Almighty has adopted various approaches in the Book.Each approach is adopted for a specific purpose .One of these approaches is the “Emphatic Approach”. Emphatic Approach is the device through which a speaker makes his statement strong and sturdy.
In this research paper I have tried to start point out in volume 28 and 29 where the Allah Almighty has adopted Emphatic Approach to strengthen his statements, by identifying such kind of verses we will be able to think about the significance Of the teachings revealed in them. After knowing the wroth of such verses we can enlighten people with the teachings of Quran in an affective way
Kharijites is a general term describing various Muslims who, while initially supporting the authority of the Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib, the son-in-Law and causing of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad PBUH, then later rejected his leadership. They first emerged in late 7th century, they considered the caliphate of abu Bakr and Umar to be rightly guided but believed that Utman ibn Affan had deviated from the path of Justice and truth in the last days of his caliphate, and hence was liable to be killed or displaced. They also believed that Ali ibn Abi Talib committed a grave sin when he agreed on the arbirtration with Muawiyah, in the Battle of Siffin, Ali acceded to Muawiyah's suggestion to stop the fighting and resort to negotiation, a large portion of Ali's troops(who later became the first Kharijites) refused to concede to that agreement, and they considered that Ali had breached a Qur'anic verse which states that The decision is only for Allah (Qur;an 6:57).
The Subject of Kharijites have significant importance In Arabic literature because towards the life so there opinion and belief can be seen from there poetry, and in this these the focus was given to literary approach and contribution of kharijites.
(Analytic, Syntactic and Rhetorical Study of Emani Verses Stated in the Holy Quran)
It is a matter of fact that the Holy Quran is characterized by rhetoric, eloquence and different Syntactic subjects. This rhetoric and eloquence appears in the Emani Verses also. So I selected the Analytical, Syntactic and Rhetorical study for my PhD thesis. I will try to focus on these aspects keeping in view the kinds of the Rhetoric: Syntactic study of Emani Verses. Rhetorical study of Emani Verses.
I have divided my topic into five chapters: First Chapter: Definition of Nida and five sub-chapters will be mentioned in it. Second Chapter: Al-Nida in the light of Holy Quran It will consist of three sub-chapters. Third Chapter: The Syntactic study of Emani Verses Stated in the Holy Quran and there will be five sub-chapters in it. Fourth Chapter: it will discuss (Ilm-ul-Bayan) Rhetoric examples in the Emani Verses Stated in the Holy Quran and there will be three sub-chapters in it. Fifth Chapter: it will Discuss (Ilm-ul-Maa’ni) of Emani Verses Stated in the Holy Quran and there will be three sub-chapters in it.
Sixth Chapter: it will Discuss (Ilm-ul-Badea) of Emani Verses Stated in the Holy Quran and there will be two sub-chapters in it. In the end, conclusion, findings, recommendations and proposals will be presented.