برصغیر میں صوفیاء کی تعلیمات کا تنقیدی جائزہ اور ان کی روشنی ميں عصر حاضر کے مسائل کا حل
The word "Sofia" is plural of word "Sufi". Sufi means, a man who uses a simple dress and he is an emblem of simplicity, contentment. He avoids all kinds of useless activities. Sufies, lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam. These poius personalities worked in the Sub-continent for advancement, development and glory of Islam. The field which gives us the knowledge about the lives of sufies is called Mysticism. So In this thesis, general introduction of Mysticism, its meaning in light of Quran-o-Hadith, information and teachings of Naqshbandia, Qadria, Chishtia, Sohrwardia will be discussed proving that their teachings were not other than islamic Shariah.
The sufies and their companions acted upon the teachings of Islam and also preached them to public. They worked to abolish all customs, traditions and practices against the Islam. They laid down the foundation of an islamic society in which there will be no place for Terrorism, Sectarsim, Dishonesty, Societal Partiality, Narcotics and all other losable activities. The lessons of these sufies were to construct the society with Unity, Brotherhood, Modesty, Public Service, Patience, Prayer, Humbleness, Learning of Education, Good dealings with others and Charity. Major problems faced to islamic society presently and their solutions in the light of Sufies's teachings will be described.
The Qur'anic Knowledge from Scientific Perspective
'Knowledge is power', said Francis Bacon. And yet Muslims, by and large, hold the general notion that empirical science is secular, and therefore below Islam.
This thesis seeks to fundamentally negate the constructed disconnect between empirical science and the Quran. Rather, this study, through employing historical evidence, establishes that it was the pre-Qur'anic era in which man tumbled over and fumbled around in search of knowledge and only succeeded in getting together the basic tools. Moreover, it was only after the advent of the Quran that the pursuit of knowledge became a legitimate and highly desired activity. Indeed Qur'anic revelations encouraged and ushered in an age of empirical and reason-based knowledge.
The Qur'anic knowledge constitutes two streams: the transcendental (spiritual) and temporal (secular), which complement each other in a wholesome and holistic manner. In fact, the Ayat of the Divine Book (the Qur'an) and the Created Book (the Cosmos) complement each other for wholesome and holistic knowledge. The sense-perception-reason approach to secular knowledge had inspired Muslims in the earlier pristine era of Islam to achieve the zenith of scientific knowledge.
The study highlights that the period from the 2nd through the 7th centuries hijrah (8th — 13th centuries AD) constitutes the Golden Age of the Muslim era, the time when science flourished in all fields of knowledge. It was, in fact, the Muslim science which when transmitted to Europe, then miring in Dark Age, triggered there the Age of Enlightenment and Reason (the scientific revolution).
Thus, the findings of the research study demonstrate that Islam is perfectly compatible with science and delinking the two, Islam and science, is the cause of Muslim decadence. The Qur'an emphasizes reason and reflection. The Qur'anic text refers to the natural physical phenomena for a reflection and its teachings are, in fact, rooted in agriculture — a vital biological science.
The study establishes that the current dilemma faced by Muslims is due to abandoning reason and instead following the path of ritualistic Islam. They relegated the temporal and secular sciences, while on the other hand the West made progress by leaps and bounds. Thus, the hypothesis proposed is upheld.
In the present research the reasearcher has evaluated the revival of Islamic Values and education system of Pakistan. The study starts with the introduction Concept, meaning, needs, importance, objectives and limitations of values in terms of basic terminology in the first chapter. There is detailed discussion about values according to the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
It has been tried to know the background of educational history of Pakistan, objectives of educational policies and basic elements of education system of Pakistan and their character for revival of Islamic values in 2nd chapter. In 3rd chapter, researcher has tried to explain the causes of absence of Islamic values in different educational institutions and levels. Evolution of education in Pakistan, and discussion about difficulties in revival of Islamic values in 4th Chapter has been discussed. Ethical, spiritual, political, social and economical effects of Islamic values are discussed in 5th chapter. The last chapter concludes with the whole reasearch with suggestions. Islamic values are basic elements for an Islamic (Muslim) society. They have a universal role in every field of life.
The researcher has also tried to evaluate the role of public and private educational system affiliated with foreign institutions in the revival of Islamic values. There is no remarkable contribution in the above-mentioned institution to the revival of Islamic values. Curricula of public and private institutions are different from one another. The present research demands, from the very beginning that there is dire need to reorganize and restructure the educational system in Pakistan under the Islamic educational policies and values.
امیر کبیر سید علی ہمدانی المروف شاہ یمدان : ہمہ گیر شخصیت، تصانیف، کشمیر میں دعوت و تبلیغ اور سیاسی افکار کا تخقیقی جائزہ
Ameer Kabir Sayyed Ali Hamadani popularly known as Hazrat Shah-e-Hamadan was born on 12th Rajab ul Marajab 714 Hijri, 22 October 1314 in Hamadan, a famous city in Iran. He was a great and famous spiritual leader. He died at the age of 7 2 years, on 6th Zul Haja 786 Hijri i.e. 19-1-1385 at village "Nokot" Pakhly area in District Mansehra, Pakistan and was burried at Kolab (Tajkastan). His father Sayyed Shahabuddin was a pious man and Governor of Hamadan. His mother Sayyeda Fatima, was also a Pious lady. The uncle of Shah-e-Hamadan, Sayyed Allauddin Samanani, Sheikh Taqi-ud-din Dosti and Sheikh Mehmood Mazdaqani educated Shah-e-Hamadan. He was a good writer also and wrote 170 Books, Pamphlets and Leaflets, on various religious topics. Most of these are in Persian and are lying in British Library London in the Shape of Manuscripts. In Pakistan few books are available in the market.
In the thesis, besides the life story of Shah-e-Hamadan and his preaching, I have discussed in detail the literarture he has produced and his political thoughts. So for no body has elaburated these important services of Shah-e-Hamadan.
علم کلام کی تشکیل نو استاد شہید مرتضٰی مطہری کی افکار کی روشنی میں
To get salvation in this world and in the world hereafter depends upon the belief in the doctrines of life presented by God Almighty. And to have access to these prescribed doctrines, one must be acquainted with Ilm-e-Kalam as it asserts true beliefs and rejects wrong ones. To understand Ilm-e-Kalam it is necessary to study the scholars of this field.
Ustad Shaheed Murtaza Mutahari is one of the renowed philosophers, whose outstanding work in the form of numerous lectures and books proves his greatness and genius. So the given topic is the study of llm-e-Kalam in the light of Ustad Shaheed Murtaza Mutahari's thoughts. The thesis has been divided into six chapters. First chapter deals with the introduction of limitations of Mantiq (logic), the philosophy and its problems, and Ilm-e-Kalam and its evolution respectively. Second chapter analyses in detail the different branches of Kalam. Third chapter deals with the introduction of Shaheed Murtaza Mutahari, his education and his position as a scholar of Ilm-e-Kalam. Chapter four presents the views of Ustad Shaeed Murtaza Mutahari about Ilm-e-Kalam in detail.
Chapter five shows how Ustad Shaheed Murtaza Mutahari has presented Islamic Doctrines related to various topics and Mutakalimeen.
In chapter six Ustad Shaheed Murtaza Mutahari is compared to a few classic renowed scholars and to some modern ones to highlight his role in reconstruction of Ilm-e-Kalam.
At the end, conclusions and suggestions are presented.
بین الاقوامی سطح پر مسسلم اور غیر مسلم کے تعلقات کا جاۂزہ (قران و سنت کی روشنی میں)
The peaceful regulation of international relations between human societies, particularly among the states, has been a difficult task from the very beginning. From time immemorial, jurists and philosophers have been trying to develop legal and/or moral principles that could be effective in controlling the use of force and in regulating relations between rulers and states in accordance with principles of justice and fair play. Islam is not only international but universal in its message and approach, and the Muslim community has performed its universal role from the very beginning. The first calls made by the Prophet of Islam (pbuh) were addressed to humanity rather than to any particular group of people.
We never find that the Quran or the Prophet (pbuh), in his recolded sayings, speak exclusively to the Arabs, the Iranians, or other ethnic or linguistic entities. People are addressed either as 0 mankind or 0 children of Adam. Many verses and important discourses in the Quran open with one of these phrases, particularly in the Makkan surahs (chapters). This shows that contrary to the notion of some western writers the approach and message of the Quran was universal and pan-human from the beginning of revelation in Makkah. Not only does Islam respect the diversity of nations, it also recognizes that other religious beliefs and ideologies exist side by side with it. Recent Muslim jurists have placed special focus on this feature.
The Quran is perhaps the only Divine Book in the history of religions that has acknowledged the existence of other religions. It refers to the People of the Book, the Christians, the Jews, the Sabians, idolators, atheists, etc. It guides Muslims in how they should conduct themselves with those among these followers of other beliefs who enter into agreements with them, those who prefer to stay away from any kind of relationship, those who wish to remain neutral, and those who wish to enter into a hostile relationship.
The fact that these various categories have been mentioned in the Quran and that high moral standards have been declared for Muslims to deal with each of them indicates that the Quran not only contemplates a variety of international relationships but has also taken care of possible avenues of interaction and intercourse between Muslims and non-Muslims. Practical details of this interaction were demonstrated by the Prophet of Islam (pbuh) through his normative practice, the Sunnah, or the model example. Based on the Quran and Sunnah, Muslim scholars and jurists of the second century (ah) developed an independent legal-historical discipline known as siyar. The five principles are:
1. To prevent a war;
2. To resolve the dispute peacefully with compromise;
3. To contain the war to the minimum;
4. To contain the effects of war; and
5. To protect the affectees of war.
All of these criteria are found in the Quran and the sayings of the Prophet and have further been expatiated upon by Muslim jurists.
آیات محکمات اور متشابہات: تفاسیر اور علوم عصریہ کی روشنی میں
The Holy Quran is the last revealed Book of Allah. It is a source of perfect guidance and inspiration for all the Muslims of the world. It has specific terminology and every word of it implies a number of meanings and shades. In Surah 3 entitled "The Family of lmran" two contrastive terms, Muhkamat (Clear in Meaning) and Mutashabihat (Not very clear in meaning or resemblances) have been used in its verse 7. The Muhkamat and Mutashabihat dichotomy has been widely debated by the medieval Arab scholars and prominent theologians.
The literature of exegesis is full of great variety of meanings, dimensions and explanations. However, the word Mutashabihat was not perceived well until the recent time and the present age of science. When the matter was looked into its real perspective of present scientific knowledge it revealed another side of the story. So it was made the subject of PhD thesis under the above mentioned caption. The thesis was divided into five subsections comprising the following.
1. Muhkamat and Mutashabihat - Meanings and Division.
2. Muhkamat and Mutashabihat - Identification and Examples.
3. Verse 7 of Surah Al-e-lmran (Family of lmran) in the light of Exegesis.
4. Muhkamat and Mutashabihat - In the light of Usool-e-Fiqh.
5. Muhkamat and Mutashabihat - In the light of Modern Knowledge In the fifth section the writer has tried his best to clear picture of Mutashabihat verses. At the end of the work substantial annotated illustrations provide a detailed and comprehensive guide to the topic. Now it is up to the readers and the scholars to conclude how well the author has contributed, interpreted and disclosed the much hidden message of the verse.
Western Scholarship on ORIGINS of Islamic Law an Analytical and Critical Study
Orientalism is an ancient tradition of Western scholarship which portrays Islam, Muslim societies and Arabs in negative manner. Orientalist tradition was extended to Islamic legal scholarship during colonial era. Ground breaking publication of a Hungarian orientalist Ignac Goldziher (d.1921) `Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law' (1910) became the basis of all future writings on this subject. Joseph Schacht (d.1969) a German orientalist carried his work in Goldziher's footsteps and published `Origins of Mohammadan Jurisprudence' (1950) and 'An Introduction to Islamic law' (1964) which laid the foundations of Islamic legal orientalism in academic writings of the Western world.
With the advent of orientalist tradition in USA during the Cold War era, leading American universities established Oriental Studies, Near Eastern Languages and Cultures and Middle Eastern Studies departments which worked closely with U.S. State department and Foreign Affairs department to facilitate the goverhment to establish political hegemony over the Middle East and the Muslim world. Two major assumptions put forward in the academic debate by the West on 'Origins' of Islamic law were inauthenticity of hadith literature and influence of pre-Islamic non-Arab laws on the development of Islamic law. This dissertation carries out critical analysis of writings of Western scholars during cold war era through post 9/11 era to date, on these two issues.
The objective of this research is to study the shift in paradigms, trends, approaches and methodology adopted by Western scholars of 21' century in their writings on Origins of Islamic law and to see how this scholarship is related to European and American political hegemony over the Muslim world. Writings of Harald Motzki, Jonathan Brown, Wael Hallaq and Patricia Crone and a few more are selected to analyze 21' century Western scholarship. Responses, rebuttals and critiques on the assumptions put forward by Western scholars of 20th century are also part of this dissertation. A shift in trend and methodology is observed in 2l' century Western scholarship on Islamic law but the essential paradigms for the study remain the same thus putting forth similar results.
It is also observed that Western scholarship on Islam is strongly connected with its political hegemony over the Muslim world. Methodologically Western scholarship has shifted from 20th century philological zeitgeist to 21' century social science research but it remains within the orientalist problematique. Thus Islamic law is portrayed as an essentially defective legal system and hadith literature the second primary source of Islamic law remains inauthentic in Western scholarship. However there are scholars who are aware of the fact that they are not to become hostage to biased paradigms and inadvertent commitments to political agendas in order to promote academic honesty.
جدید اسلامی بینکادی میں اسلامی طریق ہاے تمویل کا اطلاق
Economic activities of man encompass most of his time and energy. All his life, from dawn to dusk, man keeps striving for a suitable living. Economic activities are linked with banking system in present era. But, unfortunately, the banking system across the world, by and large, does not base on the Islamic economic rules. In this research thesis such prospects have been discussed to see what guidance does Islam provides for the matters concerning to economics. The following question have been taken into account: What is the importance of wealth in Islam? What are the chief centers of wealth today? Do the economic activities of these financial centers consider the religious decorum? If not then does Islam provide us substitution for them? Truly, Islam provides a long list of substitutions, but in this thesis, the study has been confined to Musharka, Mudraba, Murabaha and Ijara, only.
This thesis consists of five chapters. The first chapter discusses the concept of wealth in Islam, conventional and Islamic banking while the second to the fifth chapters describe above mentioned Islamic modes of financing. Initially, in each first section of all the chapters, rationales of these modes of Islamic finance have been discussed, relatively; in the second sections of each chapter, their conditions and rules have been discussed, whereas, the third section of each chapter consists of discussion on the applications of these modes of Islamic finance such that what Islamic mode of finance can provide substitution for what instrument of conventional banking; moreover, in the present time Islamic banking has been given a review, its limitations and shortcomings are discussed to see how they can be removed and improved.
It has been discussed that what are the fundamental resources and Islamic methodology of Islamic banks in the present time and how the best implementation can influence them effectively. This study may help to solve some of the problems in the field of Islamic economics with the grace and the benevolence of Allah Almighty.
Islam being a comprehensive way of living, always thinks of the wellbeing of humanity. It came up with unity, peace, progress and prosperity. Its basic tenets are set down on the basis of solid and broad vision. That is why Islam has evolved constantly among Muslim Ummah. After the demise of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), due to the political situation, social disintegrations and sectarianism, the basic teachings were not fully followed and there came obstacles in the implementation of these universal principles. As a result the fundamental principles of Islam were neglected due to little differences in their beliefs. The minor variances were given more importance and the universal principles were disowned, so the Muslim society could not remain united even about their mutually agreed points and principles which were essential to keep Muslim society intact. Consequently, Muslims failed to save their gratitude and dignity.
However there were, some intellectuals and lovers of Islam, who struggled to bring forth the commonalties of Muslim's sects to promote unity and regain the lost dignity of Muslim Ummah. Their contributions to the cause of Muslim's unity are immense which are included in this study.
"Fiqh.e Moqarin" as a term, "Majma.e. Jahani.e. Tagreeb Bein.ul Madhahib" as a foundation and "Intra Faith Dialogues" a thought provoking series of dialogues, which were aimed at bringing various school of thoughts closer.
This research is also a humble effort to put forward the prevailing resemblances of Islamic jurisprudence among the major five school of thoughts, so it may bring harmony, peace, affluence and tolerance to each other's ideas and beliefs. It is also intended for bridging the gaps and end up the ideological infighting among Muslims.
منتخب اردو تفاسیر کے مناہج اور ان کا تقابلی مطالعہ
The final divine message in the form of Qur'an was revealed on Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as the guidance for the believers in particular and for humanity in general. So, its study and understanding is essential not only for the Muslims but it has many secrets for the success and prosperity for the whole humanity as well. The exegetes of the Qur'an have explained these practical and scientific guiding principles as per their deliberations and depth according to their specific methodologies. They have made their utmost efforts in this regard so that the understanding of the Qur'an could be made easy.
It would be possible by understanding first their methodologies and through the comparisons of some different methodologies having some common points. Therefore, I have selected there exegeses of the prominent Islamic Scholars of Indo-Pak subcontinent, named Mu'arif-ul-Qur'an by Mufti Muhammad Shafi, Tafhim-ul-Qur'an by Syed Abu Al Ala Maududi and Zia-ul-Qur'an by Syed Muhammad Karam Shah Al-Azhari.
The underline objective of this thesis is also to minimize or reduce the sectarian sentiments among some muslims against one other. It would be achieved through describing or elaborating the common salient features of these three books. A Tafsir in this way we will be able to remove the misgiving among the sects and thus have an opportunity to resolve the differences for the great cause of the unity of Muslim Ummah.
May Allah Guide and Help me to complete this great task for the success in this life and the hereafter.
Islam is a complete code of life, whose foundations are guidance and blessing for the mankind. Man is the vicegerent and representative of Allah. The role of vicegerent and caliphate can only be fulfilled when the system of Islamic Caliphate is established. It is the duty of Muslims to endeavor for establishing such a system in all parts of the world. This is a compulsory duty. And it is established from Koran and Sunnah and 1.ima of the companions of Holy Prophet (PBU).
It is an undeniable historical fact that India was partitioned on the basis of two-nation theory and Pakistan was established on the basis of muslim nationhood and in the name of Islam. The founder and architect of Pakistan also demanded a separeate homeland for Indian muslims, so that they could present before the contemporary world a concrete demonstration of islamic principles of human freedeom, fraternity and equality. In the entire muslim world, pakistan is the most ideal country where a modern Islamic state can be established and true khilafah revived, which can serve as a model for the whole world.
The revivalist efforts in the indo-pak subcontinent made during the last 400 years insinuate that Pakistan has a special and pivotal position in the divine scheme for the ascendancy and revival of Islam. I also believe that, through the interplay of the forces of history, Humanity itself is at last moving towards the most balanced system of politico-socio-economic justice as enunciated by Islam. This movement of history in the direction of Islam is slow but inexorable, and will ultimately culminate in the global domination of Islam. The struggle and effort to establish the ascendancy of Islam is obligatory upon each one of us. The global domination of Islam is bound to come. The question for us is whether we achieve success and salvation in the hereafter by participating in this struggle, or whether we remain Idle and indifferent and earn divine wrath! This choice has to be made by everyone of us.
Hopefully, this research will serve as food for thought for people working for the establishment of Caliphate in Islamic world.
Allah has created human beings as crown of creation and sent messengers for their guidance.Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) is the last messenger of Allah. All these messengers were sent for the guidance of human beings but even then the nations followed the path of Shirk (Polytheism) and got entangled in the social evils which proved to be a reason of their destruction.
Islam is based on the Law of Mukafat (Requital), not only Islam but the whole universe is based on the Law of Mukafat e Amal which means that God has determined the result of each activity and every act of human (good or bad) determines its result. This is an unchangeable and ultimate law. Many directives of Islam which are: worship (Ibadat), ethics, and world affairs revolve around Mukafat e Amal.
Human beings have control over their actions and intentions and thus follow God given law and deviate from it too. When he follows, he succeeds and when deviates he fails. Thus the type of Humans determines the type of society. Hence society is also dependent on the practice of Law of Mukafat. If a society determines the right direction it will prosper. If deviates it will meet with failure and disaster.
Hard work and continuous struggle is the guarantee of success only committed nations succeed. Today Muslim Ummah is on the decline due to lack of commitment and hard work. There is no cruelty and injustice in the law of God. According to the Law of Mukafat, human beings will get as much as they deserve.
No matter how complete and just the world system of accountability is it still depends on human apparent action, while human imagination and determination is out of its reach. But according to God's law of Mukafat each human imagination and determination affects his own personal self on the basis of which he will be rewarded or punished in the world here after.
The rules and principales of Law of Mukafat are discussed in detail in the QUran and Sunnah. Many nations who disobeyed the law of God were punished while the others who followed the law were rewarded. The Muslim Ummah (Nation) can only escape the wrath of God if they understand and follow these rules and can reach the accord of Allah. Learning a lesson from previous nations and self accountability is the only possibility to get rid of problems of the present day. Thus by the Grace of Allah prosperity, honour and dignity in the world can be achieved.
A Study of Human Motives In The Light of The Holy Quran
This research work aims at the study of human motives of actions and behaviour in the light of the Qur'an, psychoanalysis and some theories of behaviorism and genetics. It also includes the study of the factors, which initiate, motivates and affect the motives behind human actions and behaviour.
Mainly, psychoanalytical or psychodynamic approach has been adopted. However, in addition to it, following are some of the theories, which, have largely been employed in this research work:
1. Genetic Behaviour
2. Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura
3. Situational Attribution by Philip Zimbardo
4. Hierarchy of Human Needs by Abraham Maslow
We believe that God is the creator of man, He knows him well. He knows the innermost secrets of his heart. Since we know from the holy scriptures that God wants to cure and correct man's actions and behaviour, it is obvious that He must have revealed to man his true nature and the real motives of his actions and behaviour in His divine books, especially in the Qur'an; so that, man may beware of himself and his true nature and may improve his actions and behaviour with the help of this knowledge. This is the theme of this research thesis. Therefore, the postulation of this research work is that God is the best psychoanalyst.
Some philosophical and metaphysical problems have also been discussed in this research work to establish foundations and parameters for the proposed study. Then, different modes of human behaviour and actions, mentioned in the Qur'an, have been discussed in the light of the Qur'an, psychoanalysis, psychodynamics, and the above-mentioned theories of behaviorism and genetics. Next, the good and bad personalities of the Qur'an have been discussed to determine the motives of their behaviour and the factors, which caused such behaviour. Next, the nations and their collective behavior have been analyzed with the same methodology. Scientific theories of behavior, except for genetics, are least consulted here as the author believes that human behavior and motives are not a subject completely scientific. They are more the subject of social sciences. In the end, the thesis concludes with some conclusions and recommendations for possible application of the findings of this work and for further research work, in the future.