A Study on Standardization and Quality Management Model for University Education
The purpose of this study was to find out the current status regarding the quality of academic processes in National University of Modern Languages (NUML) Islamabad. The study was intended to identify views and opinions of teachers and students about the quality of academic processes of university. Academic processes addressed learning, research, community service, curriculum, teaching methods and evaluation.
The study focused on the quality management practices in NUML for teaching and learning processes and to suggest a comprehensive framework for the quality management of the university. The idea of quality management in higher education is not new, and several attempts have been made to apply the quality management models in higher education. The models employed for quality management in higher education were mostly derived from the industrial models i.e. Total Quality Management Model, ISO, EFQM etc. The researcher examined the quality concepts and approaches in higher education and intended to suggest a model for quality management in higher education. For this purpose as an initial step, an attempt has been made by the researcher to propose a framework for National University of Modern Languages Islamabad. After the successful implementation of the suggested model the research could be of benefit to the other universities of Pakistan.
The sample comprised random selection of 80 teachers and 175 students from NUML to know their views about the quality of NUML. An individual questionnaire was developed both for students and teachers. Data was collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted using statistical measures. Based on that, the researcher has suggested a framework for the quality management of university.
Relationship of Multiple Intelligence and Effective Study Skills with Academic Achievement Among University Students
Present study was designed to investigate the relationship of multiple intelligence and effective study skills with the academic achievement among the university students. Study was descriptive correlational in nature in which scientific method was used to achieve the research objectives.
The first objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of multiple intelligence , effective study skills and academic achievement of university students, second objective was to measure the impact of multiple intelligence and effective study skills on the academic achievement of university students and the third objective was to investigate the role of demographic variation such as gender, discipline, family income, birth order, parents’ qualification and profession in determining the levels and dimensions of multiple intelligence, effective study skills and academic achievement.
In this study a stratified random sample of 250 male (104) and female (146) university students were collected from 4 selected private and public sector universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Family income of Students ranged from 50,000 to 150,000. The study was delimited to Master level students studying in the fourth semester only. In this research for the measurement of multiple intelligence “Simple Multiple Intelligence Inventory” based on 80 items developed by Gardner was used and for the measurement of effective study skills an inventory named as,” Study Skills” based on 51 items developed by Congos was used. The students’ academic achievement was measured through their results of first three semesters (students result was taken as measure their academic achievement).
After data collection it was analyzed with the help of SPSS 16 by applying various statistical tests such as, Percentile Analysis, Mean, SD, Linear Regression, and Pearson Correlation. On the basis of findings, it was found that there is positive relationship between multiple intelligence, study skills and academic achievement in the context of Master level university students. The students of private sector universities possessed more effective study skills and higher score on the academic achievement as compared to the students of public sector universities. Present research is significant due to its uniqueness it can bring new avenues in the teaching learning process. University management can provide creative competitive environment to the learner so learner can develop their intelligence and exercise study skill in their course of studies.
A Comparative Study of Secondary School Principals and Teachers Priorities Regarding Change and Innovation in Curriculum
The research was conducted to explore the Secondary school Principals and teachers priorities regarding change and innovation in curriculum. The objectives of the study were to analyze the secondary school teachers and principals’ general views about the existing Humanities group curriculum (2002); to explore the secondary school teachers’ and principals’ priorities regarding change and innovation in Humanities group curriculum; to make a comparison between the priorities of the both (teachers & principals) and to find out the barriers to curriculum change and innovation. For this purpose the descriptive and comparative research design was used. A total sample of 150 Secondary school teachers and 25 principals was drawn from 25 Federal Government Secondary Schools of Rawalpindi and its surrounding areas.
The data was obtained through a structured five point likert scale questionnaire comprising both close and open ended questions. The results indicated that the principals had more inclination towards change and innovation with comparison to teachers. Related to prevailed curriculum, teachers showed more positive views than principals. Further, a huge difference was also found between principals and teachers priorities. Integration of ICT; concept based mode of study and incorporation of some local environmental issues were some of the aspects highly prioritize mostly by the principals as compare to teachers.
The key recommendations involve the emphasis on teachers and principals’ participation in curriculum development process and giving value to the priorities of the both for ensuring the effective implementation of the curriculum.
Teachers' Attitude Towards Reflective Practice at Higher Secondary Level in Public and Private Sector
The study was conducted to explore teachers' attitudes towards reflective practice in public and private sector at higher secondary level. Main objectives of the study were to investigate teachers' attitude about the need of reflective practice in teaching , to measure teachers' attitude about use of reflective practice to understand students' learning difficulties, to find the strategies which teachers use for reflection upon their teaching, to explore teachers' awareness about benefits of reflective practice for their continuous professional development , to explore teachers' attitude about need of reflective practice and to discover their views about barriers for doing reflective practice.
It was a descriptive study. For this purpose, researcher developed a five point rating scale questionnaire to measure teachers' attitudes towards reflective practice. Data was collected through stratified random sampling technique from 300 male and female teachers teaching higher secondary classes of rural and urban higher secondary schools/colleges of tehsil Murree.
The analysis of the data was done by applying mean, SD, t-test and ANOVA through SPSS. Main findings indicated that teachers of both public and private sectors did not realize the need of reflective practice at higher secondary level for understanding students' learning difficulties. Findings showed that the teachers of private sector used strategies for reflection upon their teaching more than the teachers of public sector and they had shown much interest in training for reflective practice as compared to the teachers of public sector. The findings of the study showed that the teachers of private sector are much aware about the benefits of reflective practice for their continuous professional development (CPD).
According to the findings of the present study female teachers were more interested in reflective practice than male teachers. The teachers of public and private sector had same attitude regarding barriers in doing reflective practice. It was recommended that teachers of public and private sector may be provided awareness about reflective practice through training programs. Strategies of reflective practice are for teachers to follow in teaching learning process.
It is suggested that reflective practice may be mentioned in syllabus of training course. The present study provides a theoretical ground for implementation of reflective practice in teaching profession.
A Study of Inter-Relationship Among Teaching Strategies, Learning Styles and Students Academic Achievement at Secondary School Level.
The purpose of this study was to investigate inter-relationship among teaching strategies, learning styles and student’s academic achievements at secondary level. Study was co relational and descriptive in nature. Three teaching methods i.e. lecture teaching method, problem solving teaching method and discussion teaching methods were took into account.
It was aimed to find out relationship between teaching strategies and learning styles and to investigate relationship between teaching strategies and student academic achievement at secondary level. VAK learning style model was used. Independent t-test, sample t-test and ANOVA were applied to analyze data. All teachers and students from public and private schools in district Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa were selected as population of the study. 100 teachers and 400 students were selected as sample of the study from 10 public sector and 10 private sector schools. Research indicated that 70% teachers favored lecture method as the most frequently used method. Discussion method was the most effective teaching method at secondary school level. Auditory learning style was the most preferred learning style of students at secondary school level.
This study declared that there was significant relationship between different teaching strategies and students academic achievements. Research also showed significant relationship between different learning styles and students academic achievements. Teachers of public sector and private sectors schools have same opinions about most common method. However there is significant difference between public sector schools teacher and private sector schools regarding most effective method. Teachers of public sector schools considered discussion teaching strategy as most effective while private sector school teachers considered problem solving teaching strategy as most effective.
It was found that student who gave more time to study at home achieved better result than other student. It was also concluded that teaching strategies and learning styles have insignificant relationship because there was mismatch of teaching styles and learning styles of students.
Impact of Teachers 'Professionalism on University Students' Emotional Stability and Social Competence
Purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of teachers' professionalism on students' Emotional Stability and Social Competence in the context of private and public sector universities. The major objectives of this study were to measure the Professionalism among university teachers, to measure the impact of teachers' professionalism on the social competence of university students, to measure the impact of teachers' professionalism on the Emotional Stability of university students, to weigh the impact of demographic variables, such as Gender, Age, Socio economic status, Qualification, Experience, Class size in determining the teachers' of professionalism and students' emotional stabilities and social competencies. For this purpose a stratified random sample of 300 respondents was collected from two distinct groups of the population, such as university teachers and students of 6 private and public sector universities located at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Data was collected from both male and female respondents (University teachers and university students).
The findings of the study revealed that there is positive relationship between teacher's professionalism and students' emotional stability and social competence. Results revealed that teachers' demographic variations, effects on their professionalism, along with these students' demographic variations are also playing a vital role in determining their emotional stabilities and social competence. Results also confirmed that male university students are more emotionally stable and socially competent than female university students. At present in the context of private and public sector universities there is a need to groom teachers because a considerable number of teachers are exhibiting immaturity or demonstrating moderately professional conducts in teaching learning context. Therefore, there is a need to create the awareness among teachers about their professional responsibilities.
It is recommended that teachers may provide awareness about general teaching standards set by Higher Education Commission. It is also recommended that university teachers may also learn art of emotional stability and may also demonstrate it in front of their students. This research will be helpful for university teachers and administrators because it has provided us information to improve teachers' behavior at work. Careful planned teaching strategies and classroom management strategies affect students emotional and social grooming. Learning of socially approved behavior surely led students towards successful life. Study will also helpful for educational managers because of their role of planning and organizing organizational activities in more dynamic way which may lead their employees toward professionalism.
This study will also helpful for the parents to understand the impact of environment in nurturing balanced personality pattern and behavior responses in children. At present in the context of private and public sector universities there is a need to groom teachers because a considerable number of teachers are exhibiting immaturity or demonstrating moderately professional conducts in teaching learning context. Therefore, there is a need to create the awareness among teachers about their professional responsibilities. It is recommended that teachers may provide awareness about general teaching standards set by HEC. It is recommended that university teachers may also learn art of emotional stability and may also demonstrate it in front of their students.
A Study of Relationship Between Organizational Climate And Job Satisfaction of School Teachers at Primary Level
The study aimed at finding out the relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction among government primary school teachers in District Rawalpindi. The study was based on the following objectives: to find out the factors of organizational climate of primary school teachers, to find out the level of job satisfaction of primary school teachers, to identify the relationship of organizational climate with job satisfaction among primary school teachers, to find out the difference of various demographic variables with respect to qualification, age and experience in organizational climate of primary school teachers, and to determine the difference regarding of various demographic variables such as qualification, age and experience on job satisfaction of primary school teachers.
The study was delimited to female govt. primary school teachers of Tehsil Rawalpindi. Population of the study consisted of total 1910 female government primary school teachers working in 160 Government Primary schools located in Tehsil Rawalpindi. Simple random sampling technique was used. Four hundred female govt. primary school teachers were selected randomly as sample of the study. Two questionnaires each for assessing organizational climate and job satisfaction of teachers were modified by the researcher with the help of supervisor. Then these were validated through pilot-testing. The researcher collected the data herself. Collected data was analyzed by using SPPS version 16.
Major conclusions of the study were: There was significant positive relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction among primary school teachers. On the basis of conclusions following recommendations are made: Production emphasis has an important role in the success of any organization so it is recommended that head teachers should focus on production emphasis in their schools as their first and foremost priority. Head teachers and teachers should also focus on intimacy, esprit, consideration and thrust in their schools. Their school climate should be free from aloofness, disengagement and hindrance behavior of head teachers and teachers. Job satisfaction plays a key role in any organization.
It is recommended that top management attitude should be positive, appreciative, welcoming and rewarding for teachers. Promotion possibilities and good pay structure should be given priority in order to get better results.
Emerging Trends of Information and Communication Technology Among Teachers and Students at Tertiary Level.
The study was descriptive type in nature. The study aimed to explore the emerging trends of information and communication technology among teachers and students at tertiary level. Major objectives of the study were to find out the availability of information and communication technology for teachers at tertiary level, to determine the utilization of information and communication technology among teachers at tertiary level, to assess the teachers skills to use the information and communication technology at tertiary level, to investigate the problems faced by teachers in accessing information and communication technology at tertiary level, to find out the availability of information and communication technology for students at tertiary level, to determine the utilization of information and communication technology among students at tertiary level, to assess the students skills to use the information and communication technology at tertiary level, to investigate the problems faced by students in accessing information and communication technology at tertiary level. For this purpose stratified random sample of 358 respondents was collected from two distinct groups of the population which were teachers (64) and students (294) of two leading public sector universities located at Islamabad (National University of Modern Languages Islamabad and International Islamic University Islamabad). Data were calculated from both male and female respondents (teachers and students).
Data were collected from three departments of social sciences which include departments of Education, Mass Communication and International Relationships through personal visits.
The findings of the study revealed that ICT facilities are not available for students, students were not agree for the fact that ICT tools are utilized, students are agree for the fact that they have skills to use ICT tools, students were agree for the fact that ICT tools are not accessible for them easily, teachers agreed upon the fact that ICTs are available for them at tertiary level, most of the teachers agreed that they are fully utilizing ICT at tertiary level, majority of teachers are agreed that they have skills to handle and use different ICTs, majority of teachers were agree that they have problem in accessing ICTs at tertiary level. The study tried to catch the attention of educational administrators and planners towards the existing condition of ICT at tertiary level.
A Comparative Study of Student Assessment Practices of Public and Private Sector at Elementary Level
The general purpose of the study was to examine the current student assessment practices in the private and public sector. Specifically, the aim of the study was to gain an understanding of the extent to which teachers use student assessment practices in their classroom. The study resulted in moderately through description of these teachers' assessment practices at elementary level in public and private sector (which are following Cambridge assessment practices.
The study was based on student assessment practices at the elementary level in public and private sector. Objectives of the study are to (1) Explore the student assessment practices of public and private schools. (2) Find out strength and limitations of student assessment practices. (3) Compare student assessment practices of public and private schools at the elementary level. The Population of the study comprised all the public and private schools in Rawalpindi.
The sample was taken from five schools from private sector and five schools from public sector. The respondents were 100 teachers, and 200 students which were selected randomly. Two questionnaires were designed by the researcher for data collection one for teachers and one for students. There were seven hypotheses formulated and tested by applying independent sample t- test at 0.05 level of confidence to find out, the significant difference between the mean scores of independent variables like sector. The findings of the study showed that the student assessment practices of private sector are better than public sector.
A Comparative Study of Academic Achievement and Cognitive Development of Students of Public and Private Sector Educational Institutions of Islamabad
Education is the fundamental responsibility of the state, but in order to achieve the objectives of Universalization of Primary Education (UPE) and Education for All (EFA) along with the objectives of access and equity, government has allowed private sector to share the responsibility of the state. Presence of two sectors has created discrepancy in educational quality, which is significant to be explored, as, such differences may open doors for divide and inequalities in the society.
The objectives of the present study were to explore and compare academic achievement and cognitive development of students of public and private sectors at primary level. Data were collected from 500 students of grade V at the end of academic year from 10 public and 10 private sector educational institutions of Islamabad city. Two research instruments were developed for data collection. For data analysis mean scores were calculated, and t-test was applied to seek comparison in both sectors.
Findings showed that overall academic achievement of public sector students was better, their performance remained better in the subject of Mathematics whereas, there was no significant difference in academic achievement students of both sectors in the subjects of English and Urdu. There was no significant difference between the cognitive developments of students of both sectors. It was further revealed that female students outperformed their male counterparts in all subjects and in cognitive development.
Findings of the present study remained inconsistent with most of the previous studies, therefore the researcher recommended, that all public sector educational institutions should be provided similar educational facilities and teaching faculty as that in the Islamabad Model Colleges so that all public sector institutions could perform well. Research work is needed to find out reasons of low performance of male students, so that efforts could be planned to improve performance of male students in coming future.
A Comparative Study of Islamic and Existentialist Paradigms of Education
The purpose of this study was to find out the characteristics of both the Islamic and existentialist paradigms of education and it was also aimed to find out the commonalities and differences between both the paradigms. The nature of this study was narrative and comparative. Data was collected from the primary and secondary sources. The Holy Quran and Sunnah were the basic sources for the Islamic paradigm of education.
This study will open a new dimension of research in paradigms of education and will also introduce a comprehensive comparison between the Islamic and Existentialist paradigms of education. It will also provide opportunity to all those who have an interest in understanding both the Islamic and existentialist paradigms of education. It has also potential to guide educational philosophers and curriculum developers to decide whether only the existentialist paradigm of education can fulfil the educational needs of the modern era, or the Islamic paradigm of education has also potential to meet the educational needs of the modern era.
This study declared that there were more differences than commonalities between both the paradigms. The Islamic paradigm of education was broader than the existentialist paradigm of education; because existentialism was learner centered paradigm and its focuses were only on the individual. The Islamic paradigm of education placed it focuses on the whole education system rather than any single element. According to existentialist paradigm of education, the whole education should be revolved around the need, interest and ability of the students. But in the Islamic paradigm of education all components are important, especially the role, status and responsibilities of the teacher are very important along with the status, role and responsibilities of the student.
The existentialist paradigm of education preferred student centered teaching methods more, but the Islamic paradigm of education suggested to use all effective teaching methods. Basic religious education was compulsory in the Islamic paradigm of education and all other fields of education were elective. The existentialist paradigm of education placed more emphasis on humanities as compared to other subjects
Comparative Analysis of Management Styles Used by Public And Private School Heads at Secondary Level
This study was designed to comparatively analyze the management styles used by public and private school heads at secondary level. Main objectives were as follows: (i) To explore the head opinions regarding their management style (Autocratic, Democratic, Bureaucratic, Laissez Fair and Paternalistic) at secondary schools level. (ii) To find out differences in opinions between public and private school heads about management styles (Autocratic, Democratic, Bureaucratic, Laissez Fair and Paternalistic). (iii) To find out the differences in opinions between public and private school heads about different types of management styles. (iv) To explore the difference in opinions between male and female heads at school level about management styles. (v) To find out the differences in opinions between public and private school heads with respect to academic qualification, experience, age and training received about management styles.
The population of the study was the heads of public and private schools from District Rawalpindi (Pakistan). In the sample, total 200 private and public schools were included. The number of male heads of schools were 100 and female were also 100. Questionnaire of management style was used to collect the data. It consists of 32 items. All items were sub divided into sub scale. There were five sub scales in the questionnaire. The five sub scales are about the different types of management style. The names of sub scale are autocratic, democratic, bureaucratic, laissez faire and paternalistic. Heads of schools responded to the items on five point likert scale ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree". For analysis of data t-test independent sample and ANOVA were applied. Results revealed that there is significant difference in the mean score of management style (democratic) between public and private heads of schools.
Conclusion of study showed mean score of male was better than female on management style (Autocratic, Democratic, Bureaucratic, Laissez Fair and Paternalistic).
A Comparative Study of Gender Based Classroom Incivilities in Public and Private Institutions
Classroom incivility is any action that interferes with a harmonious and cooperative learning atmosphere in the classroom. The present study focused to investigate and compare classroom incivilities in male and female college students in public and private institutions. The study also identified strategies used by the teachers to control classroom incivilities.
The study was quantitative in nature. Survey method was used for collecting data. All the students and teachers of Bachelor level at District Attock comprised the population of the study. The total population of students at Bachelor level was 3362 and teachers’ population was 264. The sample consisted of 672 students and 132 teachers. Two questionnaires were developed by the researcher to collect data from students and teachers. Percentage, mean, standard deviation and t-test were used to analyze data by using SPSS. Data was presented in tables and graphs.
It is concluded that in the light of the teacher's and students’ opinion, there was a difference found in the behaviours of male and female teachers and students, as female teachers and students were more involved in classroom incivilities as compared to male teachers and students. In the light of institution-wise comparison of teachers’ behaviours public and private colleges have no significant difference. In the light of student opinion institution wise comparison of teachers’ behaviours, there was a significant difference as public college teachers were more involved in classroom incivilities as compared to private colleges’ teachers. It is recommended to provide classroom management training and practical strategies to deal with classroom incivilities.
Relationship Between Parenting Styles, Self Esteem and Achievement Motivation Among Secondary School Students
Present study was conduct to explore the relationship between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting style), self-esteem and achievement motivation in the context of public and private sector secondary school students. The prime objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between parenting styles, self-esteem and achievement motivation among secondary students, the second objective of the study was to the impact of parenting styles and self-esteem on the achievement motivation of secondary school students and third objective of the study was to explore the impact of various demographic variables such as gender, grade, education sector, mothers profession , fathers profession, monthly family income, birth order, number of siblings and mother tongue in determining parenting styles, level of self-esteem and achievement motivation.
This study was consisted of three parts. Part I comprised of translation and validation of research instruments. For the measurement of parenting styles "Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ)" based on 2 forms (mother and father) 30 items in each developed by Buri was used, for the measurement of self-esteem "Self Esteem Inventory (SEI)" consisted of 36 items created by Todd was used and for the measurement of achievement motivation "Achievement motivation inventory (AMI)" comprised of 32 items developed by Immanuel was used.
Part II of the study was comprised of pilot testing of translated research instruments on 60 secondary school students. Part III consisted of main study, a stratified random sample of 300 secondary school students, 150 from public sector and 150 from private sector were selected in order to collect data. After data collection data was analyzed by the help of SPSS 16 through using different statistical procedures such as Mean, SD, Percentile Analysis, Coefficient Of Correlation, t-test and ANOVA. Findings of the study revealed that a positive significant relationship exist between parenting styles, self-esteem and achievement motivation among secondary school students.