Relationship of Parental Styles and Personality Functioning Dimensions of Students at Secondary Level
The aim of this present study was to examine the relationship of parental styles and effects of these parental styles on personality functioning dimensions (cooperativeness & effectiveness) of students at secondary level. The focus of this study was on four parental styles (permissive, uninvolved, authoritarian and authoritative).The objective of the study was to find out relationship between parental styles and personality functioning dimensions of students at secondary level. Parental styles have been identified as a contributing factor in child personality. In Pakistan very few researchers have focused on personality functioning dimensions (cooperativeness and effectiveness).
The population of this study was including all the secondary level students of government schools and students' parents from Faisalabad city.
The sample of this study comprised of two hundred male students and two hundred female students and their parents. Two research instruments were developed by researcher. One questionnaire was for students which contained thirty one statements and the one was for student's parents which contained thirty statements. The researcher translated these two instruments into Urdu and used them after pilot testing. Sixteen null hypotheses were tested to see the relationship between parental styles and personality functioning dimensions (effectiveness and cooperativeness) of students at secondary level. Data was analyzed by using Pearson Correlation. After analysis it was found that mostly parents has authoritarian parental style.
It was concluded that all parental styles have significant effect on child's personality. It was found that uninvolved parents are very few. It was observed at the offspring's of uninvolved parents are negative and confused individuals. Along with it results show that the children of authoritative parents are more effective and cooperative in their dealings.
A Comparative Study of Teaching Practices and Students Maladaptive Behaviors at Secondary Level in Three Armed Forces Colleges
This study was comparative study of teaching practices and maladaptive behaviors of the students of three armed forces colleges. In which both the methods qualitative and quantitative were used. The major purpose of this study was to compare the teaching practices in three armed forces colleges and find out most common teaching practices.
The study was also focused on comparison of maladaptive behaviours of the students and find out most common maladaptive behaviours of secondary level students. Efforts were also made to find out the reasons and possible solutions of those behaviours. Researcher has selected three armed forces colleges.
The study focused on secondary level students and teachers. Target population for this study was seven hundred and ninety nine students. Total three hundred and sixty students were selected from the target population, among them one hundred and eighty were males and one hundred and eighty females. All teachers (sixty six) who were teaching at secondary level in three armed forces colleges. Researcher has designed two separate questionnaires for students and teachers. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Statistical techniques mean difference, frequency distribution; one way ANOVA, t-test and chi square were used to examine the data. Analysis of variance was used to find out significant difference between teaching practices, t-test was used to find out gender differences and chi square was used to find out significant differences between maladaptive behaviors of the students.
Main findings indicated that there were significant differences in teaching practices in three armed forces colleges at secondary level.
It was concluded that behaviors like bullying, fighting, abusing, disrespect, irregular, whispering, talking during lecture etc. were common in the students of armed forces colleges, but significant differences were found in these behaviors, fighting, refusal to follow instruction, annoying other children, paying attention to something else, interruption etc. The results also indicated significant differences in the opinion of male and female students. The findings of the research will be equally important for the teachers, parents and administrators of secondary schools.
The study addresses the differential moral sense development through modular and traditional teaching approaches at secondary school level.
The study focuses also on students’ achievement in general comprehension as well as text understanding. Moral sense development is broadly defined as the process in which an individual attains the ability to distinguish between right and wrong and internalizes in his/her behaviour all those values, rules and principles, which are given importance and value by the society. The study was experimental in nature. The data for the study was collected from sample of 9th grade students through the administration of DIT (defining issues test) pretest/ and DIT posttest and two kinds of teacher-made (posttests) achievement tests. The researcher delimited the study to assess students’ moral sense development from their comprehension and reasoning level and not from their behaviour. Six hypotheses were formulated for the study. Applying statistical techniques through SPSS software tested hypotheses. Conclusions based on the results of statistical analysis showed the significant differences and students taught through modular teaching approach gained higher mean score in DIT posttest and both kinds of teacher made tests than those students who were taught through traditional teaching approach. Students taught through modular approach straightaway reached to the postconventional level of moral sense development. The rapid change in moral sense development of students’ occurred due to the factor that the study was conducted in an Islamic culture and with reference to the teaching of Islamiat through modular approach unlike Kohlberg’s study conducted in a European culture and with reference to general ethics. Major findings of the study indicated differential influences of modular and traditional approaches in moral sense development and achievement where students taught through modular approach showed better results than students taught through traditional approach. Findings encountered no significant gender difference in moral sense development and textual understanding. A significant difference in gender was found in general comprehension where male proved better than female.
A comparative study of Public and Private Sector College Practitioners’ Professional
Identity and Professional learning practices
The study was conducted to compare public and private sector college practitioners’ professional identity and professional learning practices. The objectives of the study were: to compare college practitioners’ professional identity in public and private sector, to compare their professional learning practices, to examine practitioners’ views about the value of professional learning practices, to compare discrepancies in practitioners’ professional identity and professional learning practices, to compare discrepancies in practitioners’ learning practices and the level of values they give to these practices, to investigate practitioners’ views about effect of professional identity with the reference of professional learning practices on institutional environment, to compare college practitioners’ views about continuous professional development activities for professional growth. The population of the study comprised male and female college practitioners serving in public and private colleges located in District Jehlum. The whole population was taken as sample of the study. Data were collected from 633 public and private sector college practitioners through disproportionate stratified sampling technique by using self-developed questionnaire. Data were analyzed through Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) by applying independent sample t-test, paired sample t-test and One way ANOVA. Major findings of study were that there was no significant difference in professional identity of public and private sector practitioners; however, private sector college practitioners were found more concerned about in improving themselves; they were more interested in professional learning practices and gave more value to professional learning practices than public sector practitioners. Male practitioners’ professional identity level was found higher than females. No gender differences were found in professional leaning practices. It was concluded due to job security, public sector practitioners were no more interested in improving their practices. However, as the survival of private sector practitioners in organization depend upon their performance, so they were more interested in improving performance through professional learning practices. It was suggested that college practitioners, especially of public sector, may be provided training for enhancing professional identity and professional learning practices through collaboration with universities and Higher Education Commission, Pakistan. At the same time professional development training can be made mandatory for college Practitioners’ promotion to next grades.
Assessment of Socialization Strategies Adopted by Public and Private Sector Universities of Punjab
The research was designed to assess and compare the organizational socialization strategies adopted by public and private sector universities of Punjab for its employees. The major objectives were to explore the socialization strategies that can be applied in the universities; to assess the effect of the socialization strategies being used by the universities of Punjab; to compare the socialization strategies being adopted by public and private sector universities and further to propose the comprehensive model by keeping in view the cultural background of Pakistan to enhance socialization practices. The population of the research was based on 9397 faculty members hired by the Higher Education Commission (HEC) recognized universities of Punjab, Pakistan. By considering public and private sectors as separate strata proportional stratified sampling technique was applied to draw representative sample. 10 percent of the faculty members from both strata were selected as the sample of the study. That data was collected by the use of three different tools (Socialization Strategies Scale (SSS), Socialization Content Learning Scale (SCLS) and Socialization Practice Suggestion) developed in the light of the model presented by Ruth V. Aguilera, John C. Dencker and Zeynep Y. Yalabik (2006). The data was analyzed with the help of SPSS 16th edition. Results revealed that the socialization strategies used at organizational (β = -.023 & R2 = .003), group (β = -.068 & R2 = .004) and individual level (β = -.069 & R2 = .001) were inversely related with Socialization Content Learning and were not being used effectively. However in the prevailing situation the private sector universities were utilizing socialization strategies more frequently then the public sector. Yet the socialization content learning was found better in public sector employees. On the basis of findings it was recommended that socialization of the employees must be accorded the foremost priority by the organizations’ leadership and the top level management of the universities. Special focus may be retained on the provision of orientation, mentoring, and social activities. There is a need to develop a culture and attitude to share, communicate, support and discuss professional issues and matters.
Analysis of social- studies curriculum of (8th grade) at elementary level in schools of Pakistan: with special reference to citizenship education
This study was undertaken to investigate the current status of citizenship in curriculum of social studies at 8th grade in Pakistan for this purpose this study has based on two research approaches (i) Qualitative (ii) Quantitative. In qualitative approach part one this study attempted to analyze social studies text book with special reference to citizenship for 8th at elementary level. This text book was analyzed in two ways: (a) Text was analyzed to see if it addressed issues concerning good citizenship and (b) If the exercises given in the textbook facilitated learning with regards to citizenship. A four point framework was used (1) Civic Sensibility (2) Political rights and sensibility (3) socio-Economic development (4) cultural and moral development. Furthermore within this framework the emphasis was given to the important set of skill: Intellectual, Social and Political skills. The analysis indicated gaps in textbook of social studies with respect to good citizenship education. In the second part of the study, Quantitative approach has used. This part of the study was undertaken to investigate the awareness of citizenship education and role of teachers and school climate regarding citizenship education. Using the population of federal government schools in Islamabad. The sample was selected from Islamabad so after getting the permission from the directorate in five sectors of Islamabad then in each sector of Islamabad two schools were selected one for boy and one for girls. Therefore in each sector, two schools were selected for pilot study and other four sector schools were selected for the main study. Students awareness citizenship education questionnaire and role of teacher and school climate scale, was administered in sample. Students awareness scale assess and investigate individual awareness about citizenship categories. A second instrument role of teacher and school climate provided information regarding role of teachers and school climate and related activities generally not available in textbook and school climate. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS-XII) software was used to analyze the data in this study, statistical technique (T-Test, chi square and simple ANOVA) were used to examine the data. A one-way ANOVA was used to test the difference in citizenship education based on demographic information. Results and findings revealed that students awareness in citizenship education shows that boys and girls students have highest mean scores in civic sensibility while girls students have a lowest mean scores in political awareness and literacy where as boys students have very lowest mean scores in political awareness literacy and sensibility. male teachers have highest mean scores in (a) textbook content analysis and (b) Recognition of the Civic Purpose of Education category while they have a lowest mean scores in above two categories such as (a) Students' Input and Participation Skills and Engagement in and (b) Learning about the Community. As compare to female teacher they have highest mean scores in category of (a) Thoughtful and Respectful Dialogue about Issues and (b) Trust and Positive Interactions categories. While they have a lowest mean scores in two above mentioned categories (a) Students' Input and Participation Skill (b) Meaningful Learning of Civic-Related Knowledge. The data indicate that there was not place of school climate regarding citizenship education and there were no statistically significant difference in citizenship education based on demographic information.
Teachers’ Satisfaction regarding Human Resource Management Practices in Technical Institutions at Lahore
The study has aimed to investigate the satisfaction of technical teachers regarding human resource management practices in terms of recruitment and selection, training and development and compensation. The study was descriptive in nature. Cross sectional survey design was used to carry out this study. The multistage sampling technique was used to select the sample of 208 technical teachers from the public and private sector technical institutions of Lahore.
The researcher himself developed the research instrument after extensive review of relevant literature. The research instrument consisted of three factors. The instrument was piloted on a small sample of 29 technical teachers. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of reliability was found as 0.91. The overall final instrument reliability was 0.89.
Mean was used as the statistics and it has found that male teachers were more satisfied with training and development practices than other practices. Whereas, female teachers were satisfied with recruitment and selection practices in technical institutions. Similarly, mean was applied to find which practice of human resource management was being considered most satisfactorily in public and private technical institution of Lahore. Recruitment and selection practices were considered most satisfactorily by the teachers of public institutions. While, the teachers of private technical institutions tended to be satisfied with training and development practices. Overall teachers were not satisfied with compensation practices.
To find out the difference in the human resource management practices used for the technical teachers based on their gender and nature of institution, Independent Sample t-test was applied. There was no significant difference between male and female teachers’ satisfaction regarding human resource management practices. Whereas, a significant difference existed between public and private technical teachers’ satisfaction regarding human resource management practices.
To find the difference in teachers’ satisfaction regarding HRM practices on the basis of their qualification, experience, area of specialization and nature of job, one way ANOVA was applied. Resultantly, no significant difference was found in teachers’ satisfaction regarding human resource management practices with respect to earlier stated demographic variables.
Human resource management Practices, Teachers’ satisfaction,
Factors Affecting Differential Equation Problem Solving Ability of Pre-University Level Students in A Selected Province in Pakistan
The role of differential equations (DEs) is very important in the modern technological era to inter-relate and solve a variety of routine daily life problems. Several approaches (algebraic, numerical and graphical) have been developed and more are being developed to make DEs course more effective and valuable. Several studies also have well elaborated the students’ epistemological math problem solving beliefs, goal orientations and self-regulated learning (SRL) towards DEs problem solving. However, in spite of the great importance of these factors, no study had related these three factors. Therefore, this quantitative correlational study was designed to relate and model these three factors particularly for DEs problem solving. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting DEs problem solving, particularly epistemological math problem solving beliefs, goal orientations and self-regulated learning strategies at pre-university level students in a selected province in Pakistan. Specifically, the objectives of this study were i) to investigate the direct effect of epistemological math problem solving beliefs, usefulness, goal orientations and self-regulatory learning (SRL) strategies towards differential equation problem solving and; ii) to examine the mediating role of goal orientations and self-regulatory learning (SRL) strategies. Three different types of the adapted questionnaires along with an assessment test containing five self-developed non-routine differential equation tasks were distributed to 430 pre-university students, studying in public and private institutions. Collected data was analyzed using SPSS and SmartPLS software. Both direct and indirect effects of the selected factors on DE
problem solving were measured. The analysis of the direct paths revealed that epistemological math problem solving beliefs, self-regulated learning strategies, and goal orientations strongly affected the DE problem solving. In the second phase of the study, mediation roles were identified. For this, initially the mediation effects of goal orientations (mastery, performance and avoidance goals) were considered. The findings revealed that epistemological math problem solving beliefs strongly affected the DE problem solving via mastery, performance, but the effect of avoidance goal was non-significant and negative. While considering the mediation effect of self-regulated learning strategies (critical thinking and elaboration), results revealed that epistemological math problem solving beliefs strongly affected the DE problem solving via elaboration, however, through critical thinking no significant effects were observed. Finally, findings have shown that elaboration had played the role of mediation for master and performance goals, while no such effect was observed for avoidance. Overall it can be concluded that epistemological math problem solving beliefs, goal orientations (both mastery and performance goals) and elaboration can be effectively employed to boost up the students’ ability to solve DE problems and to ensure that teaching and learning of differential equation may become more effective and meaningful.
Teachers’ Awareness about Brain-Based Learning at Elementary Level
The present study was designed to check teachers’ awareness about brain-based learning at elementary level. The major objectives of the study were: to assess elementary teachers’ awareness about providing balance between intrigue and stress in the classroom to maximize learning, to explore elementary teachers’ awareness about the influence of social conditions on students’ learning, to determine teachers’ awareness about the role of physical activity and Arts on learning, to assess elementary teachers’ knowledge about balance between novelty and predictability in class routines, to evaluate teachers’ perception about the relation between frequent/ formative assessment and achievement, to assess elementary teachers’ awareness about the importance of applying learning in practical life, to appraise teachers’ awareness about the importance of integrating content in teaching, and to determine elementary teachers’ awareness about principles of brain-based learning (BBL) and individual differences among students. To achieve the above objectives of the study, 8 major hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Teachers from public and private elementary schools located in Islamabad/ Rawalpindi and the surrounding rural areas made up the population. The sample of the study consisted of 321 elementary teachers. A questionnaire was developed to check elementary teachers’ awareness about brain-based learning (TABBL) in English and was translated into Urdu. Questionnaire was pilot tested on 50 teachers to check its reliability. Some adjustments were made in the Urdu translation in the light of pilot testing results. The collected data were analyzed by applying mean scores, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA and Post hoc test through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Major findings infer that there is lack of awareness among elementary school teachers about the major principles of BBL. However, teachers in urban area schools incorporate social skills in their lessons more than their counterparts in the rural areas. Teachers with higher academic qualifications tend to incorporate social skills and values in their lesson points to the fact that university education helps open the minds of teachers. It is suggested to support elementary school teachers through in-service teacher training on regular basis about the importance of brain-based learning.
Influence of Ecology on Comprehension of English Idioms and Proverbs by Pakistani Language Learners
This study attempts to investigate influences on the comprehension of English ecology bound idioms and proverbs, without any contextual clues, by the language learners of Pakistan. Language of idioms and proverbs has its ecological roots. Ecology is used as a metaphor for physical, social, psychological and learning environment of Pakistan for language learners in this research. The researcher has used mixed methods i.e. both qualitative and quantitative approaches using the tool of a questionnaire for data collection. Content analysis has been used to analyze the data. The study is exploratory in nature and tries to sketch out the type of meanings that are perceived by Pakistani adult learners and the way they comprehend them while learning within their native ecology. The results have been described by surveying and keeping in view the theoretical frameworks of ecological and cognitive influences on the comprehension process of learners in Pakistani context. The study reveals that meaning is a matter of perception and one’s ecology plays an important role in forming, understanding and interpreting it. It elucidates various connotations of ecological nature embedded in the formation of idioms or proverbs and compares this to the comprehension level of those language learners who have been brought up and studying in a different ecology. The reasons of problems in mutual intelligibility highlight the interaction between Pakistani learners’ ecology and the target language ecology in which English idioms and proverbs originated.
An Analysis of The Role Of Principals in Curriculum–Implementation At Secondary Level in Peshawar District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
The role of a principal is multidimensional and includes management of academics, provision of conducive ambient and environment for successful promotion of teaching–learning process, maintaining proper discipline, and implementation of curriculum. The implementation of curriculum is one of the basic and fundamental responsibility of principals. The overall tasks and jobs performed by principals come under the umbrella of this task. If the principals provide quality materials to leaners, and conducive environment for teaching–learning process but fails to implement the curriculum effectively, then the school objectives will not be achieved. It is the major responsibility of the principals to develop certain achieving vision and mission for implementing the curriculum in a limited time frame by taking consent from the stakeholders. The major objective of the study was to explore the role of principals in curriculum implementation at the secondary level in district Peshawar, and to identify gaps that hamper them in the implementation of curriculum. The study was descriptive in nature. All the 77 Principals / Headmasters of Government Secondary Schools in district Peshawar constituted sample of the study and close ended questionnaire was subjected. The statistical test used for analyzing the data was Chi – square test. The results of the study reveal that various schools had not established or structured their vision and mission for academic uplifting and modification. In majority cases, the staff members were not included in the process of curriculum implementation, lack of proper drafting regarding winning confidence of stakeholders, no planned strategies were designed, and if strategies were developed then the curriculum implementers and subordinates failed to get first–hand experience. The study recommended that the proper evaluation of educational policies with consent from stakeholders ought to be framed. Designing novel approaches regarding pedagogical skills and development of mutual understanding among curriculum implementers were also the recommendations.
A Study on Effect of Organizational Health of School on Teachers’ Morale in Private Schools
The topic under investigation was “A study on effect of organizational health of school on teachers’ morale in private schools”. The main objective of the study was to find out the effect of organizational health of school on teachers’ morale. Other objectives were to determine organizational health of private schools and their teachers’ morale. The study also identified the “mean” differences among teachers’ morale due to their demographic differences. Two instruments were used, OHI-S was used for measuring the organizational health of schools developed by Hoy and Feldman, in 1987, 2000 and morale scale was used for measuring the teachers’ morale developed by Hardy, 2009. The present study was descriptive survey with quantitative research design. The sample of 949 teachers was selected through stratified sampling technique which was ten percent of the total population. Two stratas were made, O and A-levels schools and matric and intermediate schools. Findings of this study revealed that school organizational health has a significant effect on the teachers’ morale. It was also found that institutional integrity, morale and initiating structure has a significant effect on affective and future/goal dimension of morale and insignificant for the interpersonal dimension of morale. While other dimension of school health including, consideration, principal influence, resource support and academic emphasis has a significant effect on affective, future/goal and interpersonal dimension of morale. School health was found good while teachers’ morale was moderately high. Schools which follow the O and A-levels were better in school health as compared to the schools which follow matric and intermediate while no significant difference was found in teachers’ morale in both the stratas. The significant mean difference was found among teachers’ morale due to salaries, age, teaching experience and professional qualification. It was recommended on the basis of findings that schools may use organizational health framework and morale scales on continuous basis for making schools healthy organizations. Frequent faculty development programs may be arranged and offered to every teacher of school for achieving high morale. Research culture may be introduced in schools among teachers for making improvement and progress in schools.
Effect of Teacher-Student Relationship on Academic Performnce of Students at Private Primary Schools of Ajk
Teacher-student relationship is seen as enormously important to student achievement. Teacher plays a substantial role in developing personality of students and relationship he builds up with them determines students’ academic and personal growth. The objective of this research was to determine the factors affecting teacher-student relationship, explore ways that strengthen teacher-student relationship and its effect on student achievement. The study was based on hypotheses that there is no significant difference in perceptions and linkage between teacher-student relationship and student achievement. Mixed method exploratory design was used to focus on private primary schools of AJK including 250 students and 50 teachers. The disconnection between students and teachers was addressed by investigating positive student-teacher relationships; student achievement; and the connection between student teacher relationships and achievement. Qualitative data were collected through interviews of randomly selected ten teachers who explored characteristics of positive student-teacher relationships and of student achievement. The data was analyzed and coded to discover common themes. Quantitative data was collected using a questionnaire that examined teacher and student perceptions of student-teacher relationships and their potential effect on student achievement. The overarching theme that emerged from the triangulated data suggested most students perceived that a relationship existed between student achievement and relationships they had with teachers. The actual teacher-student relationship however changes during the career. This study recommended that if students and teachers connect in the classroom with a more unified approach to building and sustaining positive student-teacher relationships, a more-prepared individual emerges contributing to the community, the workforce and society at large.