A Comparative Study of Quality Enhancement Measures in Public and Private Sectors at Secondary Level in Hazara Region
Quality is an important aspect in education. There are many parameters such as drop-out rate, teacher-student ratio, class-size, physical facilities, educational facilities, hostel facilities, information and communication technology, parents and community participation in children education, monitoring and assessment, homework assignment, students and teachers absence, actual size of classrooms, participation in pre-primary/early childhood education, teacher’s qualification and professional development, administrative and financial autonomy of Principals, coordination between staff and head of schools, competency in English, mathematics and science and reading proficiency in Urdu and English that reflect the quality of education. These were used as bases of comparison for quality enhancement measures in public and private sectors’ institutions. Total sixty four (64) schools were randomly selected, thirty two (32) schools from private sector and thirty two (32) schools from Govt sector.
A questionnaire was developed and distributed among the principals of sample schools to collect relevant information. Achievement tests were prepared in the subject of science, English and mathematics to compare the academic achievements of Govt and private schools’ students. Hundred (100) test item for science, hundred (100) for English and fifty (50) test items for mathematics were taken. The tests thus taken were marked and other collected data was analyzed by using different statistical tools, i.e. average (mean), percentage, standard deviation, t-test and correlation.
The findings of the study indicated that the performance of private boys and girls schools was better than the performance of the Govt boys and girls School’s in all the three tests and English reading competency while in Urdu reading both type of students were same. Principals of the boys and girls private had more administrative and financial powers as compared to the principals of Govt girls and boy’s schools. Parents of private school students participated actively in their children’s education as compared to the parents of Govt school’s students. All kind of facilities were better in boy’s and girl’s private schools as compared to Govt boys and Govt girl’s schools. Teachers’ academic and professional qualifications were similar in both types of institutions. Results of the achievement tests were highly correlated with the results of examination conducted by BISE.
A Study of Effectiveness of Dimensions of Learning Model for Science Teaching at Elementary Level
This research was an experimental study based on pre-test post-test equivalent group design. The population of the study was comprised of all the students (boys and girls) of 7th class studying at elementary level in district Abbottabad. Sample of the study was comprised of 240 students (120 each from both genders). Both the samples were further divided into two equal groups. One served as control while the other as experimental group. The researcher under the guidance of supervisor, after thorough and comprehensive review of test construction techniques, developed pre-test, post-test and an attitude scale. Pre-test was administered to the sample of study in order to formulate two equivalent groups- the experimental and the control group. Then both the groups were taught by dimensions of learning model and prevailing rote learning model respectively. After the completion of one hundred and twenty days teaching, post-test and the attitude scale were administered to both the groups.
At the end, data was collected and analyzed. The analysis of data showed that there was a significant difference between the achievement of experimental and the control group. Experimental group showed better performance in post-test as well as on attitude scale and achieved high scores as compared to the control group. This reflected that by applying modern approaches like Dimensions of Learning Model for teaching science at elementary level, we can attain better results.
An Evaluative Study of the Impact of Trained Elementary School Teachers on the Classroom Practices and Students Achievements in AJK
The study aimed to evaluate the teacher training program at elementary level in AJK so as to have quality education through the improvement in the quality of teacher training, classroom teaching and ultimately by up grading the student’s achievement level.
The main objectives of the study were 1) To evaluate the impact of trained elementary school teachers on classroom practices and students achievements 2) To compare the impact of trained elementary school teachers on classroom practices and students achievements in different strata 3) To suggest some recommendations to educational administrators, supervisors and teacher trainers to coordinate and upgrade the programs of teacher training and instructions to enhance the students achievements and quality of educations.
Total respondents were 605 including students of grade 8th through other respondents to Directors of education. The tools of study were composed of questionnaires, interview schedules, classroom observation schedule and an achievement test of science grade 8th. Analysis of the data collected, through different tools, was made, means and percentages were calculated out which showed that generally there was no application and implementation of training in classroom environment and resultant achievements of the students remained very low ranging from 42.24 % to 48.57 % falling in grade “D” (Fair). Overall performance level of teachers regarding impact on classroom practices and students achievements was very low. This least or no impact of trained teachers on classroom practices and students achievements was due to the lack of well-planned and organized teacher training, monitoring, supervision and follow up mechanism for trained teachers.
To address this poor prevailing situation in the areas of teacher training and classroom practices of trained teacher’s recommendations are presented and a new model of teacher training has been designed for implementation in future.
A Study of Job Satisfaction of Academic and Administrative Staff Working in the Elementary Education System of Punjab
Job satisfaction of academic and administrative staff of elementary education is very vital because teaching and administration at elementary level is venerated and sensitive job. Job satisfaction has been a question mark and in debate by the researchers since long. It gained much importance due to its significance for the achievement of objectives of any organization.
The purpose of this study was to explore job satisfaction of academic and administrative staff working in the Elementary Education System of Punjab. The respondents for this study were academic and administrative staff taken of two Districts of Punjab i.e. Sahiwal and Rawalpindi. The overall response rate was 88%. Fifty seven Assistant Education Officers, 261 Headmasters, and 522 Teachers responded the questionnaire. Majority of the respondents n=702, 83.6% were from the rural area while n=138, 16.4% from urban area. Overall response rate of females was more than the male staff. 63% of the whole sample was of more than 40 years of age. Majority of respondents were having master degree. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) was used to collect data from the respondents. Stratified random sampling technique was used to take the sample from population. After seeking permission for survey from Executive District Officer (Education) Sahiwal and Rawalpindi; the researcher send questionnaire through mail to the respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyze the data. Frequencies and percentages along with mean value of responses were tabulated and calculated. The t-test was applied to know the difference of means and Pearson r value was also calculated.
The findings of study show that as whole respondents were satisfied with their job. However they were not satisfied with three dimensions (out of twenty) of the job i.e., 'advancement', 'Education Policies' and 'compensation'. No significant differences between job satisfaction of academic and administrative staff was found as a whole. However, by parts a significant difference of job satisfaction was found between academic and administrative staff from District Sahiwal. Similarly a significant difference observed between male and female teachers from District Sahiwal.
The Impact of Communication Climate and Managerial Communication Styles Upon Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Pakistan
Quality assurance with its multiplying manifestations around the world has become an integral part of higher education. The present study aimed to explore the impact of communication climate-which refers to individuals’ perceptions regarding communication events within the organization and managerial communication styles, which refers to the pattern or way a manager verbally or non-verbally interacts, upon quality assurance in higher education in Pakistan. An attempt was made to identify the communication climate(s) present in higher education institutions and to compare and contrast the communication climate(s) across the sector and rank.
The study also sought the answers to the questions about what are the major communication styles academic managers of higher education institutions in Pakistan do possess and whether these styles vary according to the sector and ranking of these institutions as well as according to the personal characteristics of the academic managers. All the 58 ranked universities constituted the population of the study. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample. At the first stage 8 high ranked universities (5 public sector and 3 private sector) and 8 low ranked universities (5 public sector and 3 private sector) were selected. At the second stage faculty members and academic managers from these universities were selected randomly.
For measuring communication climate through Communication Climate Inventory, 500 faculty members (academicians) out of 3049 serving in selected universities/ Higher education institutions of Pakistan were selected by using simple random sampling technique. For measuring communication styles of the academic managers of higher education institutions through the administration of Communicator Styles Inventory 250 out of 332 Deans and Heads of the Departments of the selected universities were randomly selected by applying simple random sampling technique. Instruments were re validated through pilot testing before administration.
Data were collected through personal visits, email and with the help of some colleagues. For data analysis both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. The study findings revealed that supportive communication climate, characterized by provisionalism, empathy, spontaneity; equality; problem orientation and description was found to be prevalent in public and private sector high ranked universities of Pakistan. Low ranked universities exhibited the prevalence of defensive communication climate characterized by evaluation; control; certainty; superiority; strategy and neutrality.
Most common communication styles of the academic managers working in high ranked universities of Pakistan, both public and private sector were open, relax, friendly and attentive. Academic mangers of low ranked universities, both public and private sector were having argumentative; precise; impression leaving and dominant communication styles. It was concluded that most of the communication styles did not vary on the basis of gender, age and experience of the academic managers. Based upon the generalizable conclusions, some plausible implications and recommendations were made for the stakeholders of higher education including those research scholars who are interested to conduct research studies in this area.
Impact of Cognitive Learning Styles on Academic Achievement of Students at Secondary Level (Effects of Pre-Labs)
At secondary level in Pakistan, Objectives of chemistry are to develop higher order thinking skills and practical skills in students. However, students tend towards rote learning due to inadequate teaching –learning process in the chemistry laboratory. Researches indicate that students come in the lab without any preparation. Teachers do not bother to take care for the learning styles of students. Therefore, Present study was designed to explore the impact of pre-labs in chemistry laboratory at secondary level.
This study aimed at improving the students’ understanding about the concepts, theories and laws of science (chemistry) at secondary level and their application in daily life situation. Study also highlighted the effects of pre-lab on academic achievement of the convergent and the divergent students in chemistry laboratory. All secondary schools of Islamabad having science laboratories (chemistry) were the population of this study. Randomly selected two schools (one from boys’ schools and one from girls’ schools) from the above population was the sample of the study. Data was collected through Cognitive Learning Style (Convergent and Divergent) Test, already developed and used by several researchers. Post-labs developed by the researcher and result of annual examination, conducted by the Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Islamabad.
Data was analyzed by using statistical procedures (Mean, t-test). Analyses of the data revealed that pre-labs enhanced the achievement of Convergent learner while affected adversely the achievement of Divergent learners in this sample of study. Hence, consideration of learning styles is recommended while introducing the prelabs in chemistry lab.
Use of Information Processing Model and Student's Achievement in Mathematics at Secondary Level
The development of the information processing model (Johnstone, 1997) brought some radical changes to address students’ understanding difficulties in mathematics and science subjects. The model mainly concerned the ways the learner process the incoming information and better results were reported in different contexts. In this study cognitive improvement of the secondary level students in the subject of mathematics was explored.
It mainly concerned the prediction of the model “if working memory is overloaded then there is a sudden drop in students’ performance”. To reduce the working memory overload, the concentration was diverted to the other predictions of the model. These predictions of the model lead towards the idea of pre-learning.
To check the effectiveness of this strategy a sample of 212 students from two schools in Cantt/Garrison setup Peshawar Pakistan was selected. The sample was divided into with and without pre-lecture groups. To judge the difference between the performances of the two groups objectively, it was necessary to assess the students’ attitude towards mathematics. For this purpose an attitude questionnaire was administered on the sample at the preliminary stage of the implementation of experimental plan. To check the reliability of the tool internal consistency method was used. After employing chi-square test, the attitude questionnaire was found reliable. At the final stage by using chi-square test no significant difference was found between the overall positive attitudes of the two groups.
The experimental group got treatment through pre-lecture (information processing model) whereas the control group through traditional teaching method for the academic session 2011-12. The students of former group performed significantly better in all categories than the students of later group. To ensure the objectivity of the post-test results through external source Federal Board results (2012) of the two groups were also analyzed. By employing t-test as whole significant difference was observed between the mean scores as the students of the former group performed significantly better than the students of the latter group.
It was found that by using pre-lecture strategy aided to understanding and procedural learning of both boys and girls in mathematics. As whole the girls outperformed the boys in all groups, but no significant difference was observed between post-test performance of the girls and boys with pre-lecture. This shows that the pre-lecture might have an effect of supporting boys’ understanding more than the girls. It was found that the girls got more improvement in procedural learning as compared to boys, this shows gender bias in quality of teaching in favor of boys. This study also depicted that as whole the teaching learning process got improved in the subject of mathematics at secondary level.
In Pakistan procedural learning is widely rewarded in teaching learning process of mathematics at all levels, therefore this study in replica form can be extended to other levels as well. The Board Examinations are mainly measure learning at lower cognitive levels such as procedure and recall therefore this issue needs to be addressed by the relevant department in future. The mathematics’ textbooks materials need redesigning keeping in view the working memory capacities of the learners. Equal opportunities should be provided to the girls in par with boys in the context of quality of teaching in Pakistan.
There is a vast contrast between procedural achievement and understanding in mathematics, therefore this issue needs more explorations. In this study due to high standard deviation values in certain categories, all the students couldn’t equally benefitted from the treatment given to the experimental group. In future, more work is needed to explore this in special connection to the learner’s interests and capabilities. Working memory plays an important role in understanding therefore this area needs more exploration in special relation to learning mathematics. Exploration must be made to assess students’ attitudes change to real understanding in mathematics.
An Analytical Study of Occupational Stress and Personality Type of Academic Managers at Higher Education Level
The purpose of present study was to analyze occupational stress and personality type of academic managers serving in public sector degree colleges in Punjab. Major objectives of the study were to find out the relationship between occupational stress and personality types among academic managers of the higher education institutions, to identify the level of occupational stress among academic managers of the higher education institutions, to determine the gender differences regarding occupational stress and personality types. All the 295 government degree colleges in Punjab constituted the population of the study, out of which 120 were taken as representative sample. Data were collected through Occupational Stress Inventory–Revised and Myers Briggs type indicator personality. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics such as Mean, Standard deviation, Percentages and Inferential statistics such as t-test and Pearson Correlation. Analyses of the data lead to the findings.
On the basis of findings major conclusions were drawn which indicated a high level of occupational stress in females than males. The occupational role that academic managers perform was reported as the main source of stress. Data revealed that main domain of personality types among both male and female academic managers were found as extroversion, sensing, thinking and judging. It was also concluded that there is significant positive correlation between extroversion, sensing, thinking, judging types of personality and occupational stress whereas significant negative correlation was found between introversion type of personality with occupational stress.
Based on conclusions it was recommended that steps should be taken to reduce the occupational stress of academic managers in higher education in order to improve the physical and mental health of academic manager which will ultimately lead to the development of healthy and calm environment in higher education institutions consequently enhancing the quality of higher education.
Analysis of National Curriculum for Social-Studies (Grade-VIII) with Reference to Citizenship Education in Pakistan
This study was undertaken to investigate the current status of citizenship education in National Curriculum of Social studies for Grade-VIII. For conducting this study mix method research: qualitative and quantitative research approaches are utilized .This study is consisting on two parts, first part based on investigation of curriculum standards and examine social studies textbook content' with reference to citizenship education. Pingal framework was used for analysis of standards and operating system of textbook and four point frameworks was used for social studies content analysis. The second part of the study was undertaken to investigate the awareness of citizenship education from 8th grade students and also investigate the role of teacher regarding school climate for citizenship education. Population of the study comprised on boys and girls of 8th grade and male female teachers who taught the social studies in five sector of Government Federal school of Islamabad only. One sector was selected for pilot study and other four sectors for main study. Proportional stratified and simple Random sampling was done.
According to application of proportional stratified sampling, two strata were made for boys and girls, almost 200 was the desired sample. For selection of teachers, simple random sampling was made and desire sample was 40 for Male and female teachers. Two instruments were used, Students awareness scale assess and investigate individual awareness about citizenship categories. A second instrument role of teacher and school climate provided information regarding role of teachers and school climate and related activities was administered on the sample teachers. (SPSS-XII) software was used to analyze the data. Statistical technique (one sample T-Test, chi square'and simple ANOVA) were used to examine the data. ANOVA was used to test the difference in citizenship education based on demographic in formation.
Results and findings revealed that students awareness in citizenship education shows that boys and girls students have highest mean scores in civic sensibility while girls students have a lowest mean scores in political awareness and literacy where as boys students have very lowest mean scores in political awareness literacy and sensibility. Male teachers have highest mean scores in (a) textbook content analysis and (b) Recognition of the Civic Purpose of Education category while they have a lowest mean scores in two categories As compare to female teacher they have highest mean scores in category of (a) Thoughtful and Respectful Dialogue about Issues and (b) Trust and Positive Interactions categories. While they have a lowest mean scores in two categories. The data indicate that school climate regarding citizenship education is missing in the schools and there were no statistically significant difference in citizenship education based on demographic information
The Role of Aptitude in Mastery Learning and Direct Instruction in the Graduate Teachers Training Program
The problem under investigation was to find out whether achievement through Mastery Learning (ML) and Direct Instruction (DI) was dependent on the aptitude of student-teachers in the graduate teacher training programme or not. The objectives of the study were to ascertain the aptitude of student-teachers before teaching them through Mastery Learning and Direct Instruction, to compare the high aptitude student-teachers in their academic achievement through Mastery Learning and Direct Instruction. Further objectives were to compare the low aptitude student-teachers in their academic achievement through Mastery Learning and Direct Instruction. Moreover, to compare the academic achievement of student-teachers having high and low aptitude taught through Direct Instruction and to compare the academic achievement of Mastery Learning group and Direct Instruction group of student—teachers.
It was an experimental study. The population of the study consisted of student-teachers enrolled in B. Ed. programme in Federal College of Education, Islamabad. The sample comprised of 116 student-teachers of B. Ed. class of Federal College of Education. Research findings revealed that the student-teachers having high and low aptitude differed in their achievement after teaching them through Mastery Learning and Direct Instruction respectively, the difference being in favour of those taught through Mastery Learning. The student-teachers with high and low aptitude did not differ in their achievement when exposed to teaching through Mastery Learning. The student-teachers with high and low aptitude however differed in their achievement when exposed to teaching through Direct Instruction, the difference being in favour of student-teachers having high aptitude. Mastery Learning was found to be equally effective for student-teachers having high and low aptitude for teaching, whereas Direct Instruction was found to be effective for student-teachers having high aptitude.
The major recommendations of the study were: Keeping in view the significance of aptitude, the enrollment selection criteria may suitably be modified. The text, lesson plans, co-curricular activities and behaviour of teacher may have a positive influence on aptitude. Therefore, these aspects may be improved and further research may be conducted on these aspects. Instructional material should be developed based on these two models of teaching for different subjects at different grade levels. These two models of teaching should be tested on under-achievers and over-achievers in terms of their achievement.
A Study to Examine the Effect of Classroom Learning Environment on Student's Achievement in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms
This study is carried out to examine the effect of classroom learning environment on students' academic achievement at secondary level in the Mathematics classroom. The study was focused on formal school system in Pakistan. The study was delimited to secondary and higher secondary schools located in Tehsil Rawalpindi and Islamabad (Federal Area). Out of these institutions 299 (237+62), 24 schools were selected by random sampling. Initially, 530 students of 10th grade studying Mathematics in 27 classrooms (one class for each school included in the study) were taken into consideration.
In order to measure the student's perception, three internationally validated and used instruments, namely, Classroom Environment Instrument (Personal Form), Classroom Environment Instrument (Class Form) and Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) were used and translated into Urdu for Urdu medium schools because these Instruments were developed in English. The validity of the questionnaires was also checked by experts and were found satisfactory. Their reliability was also rechecked using statistical formula. The Cronbach Alpha values of these Instruments were 0.855, 0.862 and 0.878. The pilot testing was carried out before the actual application of these Instruments to the whole sample included in the study. Validation of these instruments confirmed that these instruments are reliable tools to measure classroom learning environment in Pakistani context. For measuring student's academic achievement, the marks obtained by students in the subject of Mathematics in annual examination in 10th grade conducted by both BISE Rawalpindi and FBISE Islamabad were taken into account. The eight (8) Null hypotheses were formulated in the light of objectives of the Study. The data was analyzed using multiple regression, Pearson 'r' formula for correlation, t-test (independent samples), ANOVA to assess the effects of classroom learning environment on students' academic achievement. The results of study revealed that classroom learning environment contributes 15% and 6% towards students' academic achievement when measuring through individual and collective perceptions of the students respectively.
The results of the study can be summarized in the following assertions. First, the subscales, 'Involvement', `Personal relevance', 'Emphasis on understanding', related to students are major predicators affecting classroom learning environment and academic achievement whereas subscales 'Investigation' and autonomy' related to students have negative effect on students' academic achievement. Second, teachers are not playing their significant role in improving the classroom learning environment especially in rural areas. Third, gender of the students is not a major player affecting their academic achievement. This study may benefit curriculum developers, teachers, educational managers, teacher educators, policy makers etc. in Pakistan and will prove to be a basis for further studies at other levels, grades and subjects as well.
The Effect of Emotional Literacy on Academic Achievement and Emotional Intelligence of Students at Secondary Level
The study reported in this thesis has the following major objectives: (i) to find out effect of emotional literacy on academic achievement in terms of experimental group and control group (ii) to find out the difference of treatment effect between the students of low achievers group and high achievers group (iii) To find out difference regarding treatment effect in terms of students of experimental group and control group on the basis of variable emotional intelligence. The researcher selected 60 students of 10th class of Government Boys High School, Isa Khel (Mianwali District).
The sample was equally divided into the experimental group and the control group. Both the groups were equated on the basis of the scores of 9th class in the Board examination (treated as pre-test). A pre-test for emotional intelligence was also administered to find out emotional quotient (EQ) of the experimental and the control group. A curriculum of emotional literacy consisted of Chapters 4-9 taken from Goleman’s book entitled: “Working with Emotional Intelligence” was taught as treatment to the experimental group. A short syllabus (Appendix-D) from Urdu Book (Part II) for 10th class was taught to both experimental and control groups in a combined class by the same teacher. The study lasted for twelve weeks. After twelfth week, two separate post-tests (one for academic achievement and other for emotional intelligence) were administered to the both experimental and control groups.
Data were collected, tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted in the light of the objectives of study. Data were analyzed by applying t-test and (2x2) ANOVA. The findings of the study revealed that there is a considerable effect of emotional literacy on the academic achievement of the students at secondary level. It was also found that emotional literacy has improved emotional intelligence of the students. Moreover, it was found that emotional literacy was equally helpful and effective for both high achievers and the low achievers. Finally, on the basis of the findings of the study, the researcher put forward some feasible and practicable suggestions/ recommendations in this area.
It is recommended to include emotional literacy in the curriculum as a compulsory subject, particularly at secondary level. Emotional education may be utilized in solving the issues of problematic behaviors of the children in the schools. The managers of educational institutions may monitor teaching learning process with a view to implementing emotional literacy policy. A special curriculum model suitable for the subject of emotional literacy may be devised. Moreover, public awareness regarding the importance of emotional literacy should be increased by using mass media. Emotional literacy should be made an important element of professional training of teachers, managers, curriculum developers. For further research it is recommended that the present study needs to be replicated with students and schools at larger scale and context. The association of Emotional Quotient (EQ) with Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is another aspect which needs to be addressed.
Impact of Educated Maternal Workforce on Academic Performance of Children at Primary Level
Education is playing major role to promote social, political, economical and intellectual development of any nation around the globe. Students’ performance at primary level is the integration of psychological socio-economical, institutional standards and parental environment of interest, time spent with children, mothers’ motivation, fathers’ involvement and investment on children are the big factors to lift up children academic performance.
The major focus of the study was to explore the impact of maternal workforce on academic performance of children at primary level. Compare academic performance of children of highly educated working mothers and less educated working mothers. Investigate the impact social interaction of highly educated working mothers and less educated working mothers on children. Find out the differences of time spent in child’s educational activities by highly educated working mothers and less educated working mothers. Probe variations in income spent by highly educated working mothers and less educated working mothers on their children.
The study was both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Survey method was used as a major method for this research study. All those students who had passed class four and promoted to class five were the part of population and they were 525. Total number of students participating in study were 350. The total number of teachers were 21. Mothers of the respective students; educated working, nonworking and without education were the part of population. Proportionate allocation method was employed to select sample size.
Data were collected through questionnaire; from children, teachers and mothers. Questionnaires were developed in the light of previous researches. Reliability were also tested, questionnaires were distributed to the respondents personally. Data were analysed through percentages, graphs, ANOVA and t-test. Data was tabulated and interpreted in SPSS (statistical package for social sciences).Highly educated working mothers children’s got high academic(83.4) achievement as compare to less educated working mothers(74.06).
By applying cross tabulation it was appeared that about 46 children of highly educated working mothers obtained more than 90% marks. So highly educated mothers are in better position to assist their children in academic performance at school.
Impact of Management and Instructional Practices on University Students’ Satisfaction
Present study was designed to explore the impact of management and instructional practices on university students’ satisfaction. Major objectives of the study were to check existing management and instructional practices in the context of private and public sectors universities, to weigh students’ satisfaction towards existing management and instructional practices, to measure the relationship between management and instructional practices, to measure the impact of teachers and managers’ demographic variations of age, discipline, gender, grade, experience, socioeconomic status and marital status in determining specific management and instructional practices and to propose a model of effective management and instructional practices for universities.
In this study a stratified random sample of 800 respondents was collected from 3 distinct groups of population such as administrators, teachers and students from 16 leading private and public sector universities located at Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore and Mansehra. Finding revealed that most of the universities are trying to impart quality education up to the satisfaction level of their students but due to lack of resources they are unable to provide education of national standards (HEC, HEIs). When compared with the private sector students of public sector universities are more satisfied. Difference does exists between management and instructional practices because task of the management is to plan, organize, execute, lead and control the whole organizational processes whereas task of teachers is to plan, organize, execute their lectures. Management and faculty demographic variations affect their management and instructional practices whereas, students’ demographic variations also played important role in determining students’ satisfaction.
Study proposed a model for the overall improvement of university physical and learning environment which will be helpful to promote students’ satisfaction. If the university management and faculty follow these practices which are proposed in this model then students’ satisfaction can be ensured and this may also lead universities to achieve higher ranking.