Analysis of Foreign Language Teachers’ Professional Development: A Case Study of National University of Modern Languages
This case study was aimed at analyzing the current status of foreign language teachers’ professional development (FLTPD) at NUML, with focus on key areas of training & qualification, key teaching competencies, enabling competencies, and professionalism and measures taken by concerned authorities for their professional development (PD) in these areas. “European Profiling Grid” for language teachers’ PD was used as conceptual framework. This multiple instrumental case study was delimited to foreign language (FL) teachers working in 15 FL departments of NUML and each department was considered as a case. It was a mixed method descriptive research; both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to collect and analyze data. Triangulation design was used; multiple perspectives were considered, involving FL teachers, their heads and university administration. Questionnaire, semi-structured interview and document analysis were used for data collection, which were designed keeping in view the conceptual framework. Data was collected during spring 2015, was analyzed for each of the 15 cases separately and later merged together for interpretation. This study analyzed the current situation of different factors that affect PD including working conditions, developmental stages of teachers and their organization. Findings of this study revealed that although opportunities are being provided but most of them are not specifically designed for FL teachers. More focused PD is needed to improve these areas, especially education & training, assessed teaching, methodology: knowledge & skills, and digital media need further development. Other problems faced by FL teachers include limited opportunities of higher education in Pakistan, lack of personal resources and organizational support for going to TL countries, unclear administrative policies, inadequate facilities for research, lack of time and human resources, lack of leadership, absence of qualified FL teacher educators, lack of collegial sharing and interaction, no access to latest material and technology, absence of motivation and incentives etc. This study provided statistics and recommendations for the introduction and development of an adequate and uniform process of PD according to the needs and levels of FL teachers and need of specific FLTPD through professional FL teacher educators was emphasized in the recommendations
A Study of Prospective Teachers’ Perceptions about Monitoring and Supervision during Teaching Practicum
The research in hand was developed keeping in view the three major objectives. Main objectives of the study were to explore the major factors influencing the teaching practicum practices in our academic institutions; to compare the differences between perceptions of perspective teachers of different universities about our six independent factors with respect to one another and to compare the differences between perceptions/opinions of male and female schools heads regarding our six independent factors with respect to one another. The research was conducted by applying the quantitative analysis. The population of the study was based on two major section. Population (A) was based on the prospective teachers of four public universities of twin cities while population (B) was based on the school heads of model colleges located in Islamabad. Purposive sampling technique was used for the selection of sample. From the population A, prospective teachers of 4 universities were selected as sample. From population B, all the school heads were considered. Population size was considered as sample size of the study. The model presented by the Ali Holi& Ahmed Al-Adawi (2013) and Michael, Agyei & Hormenu (2014) was selected as the theoretical frame work and also for the research instrument development. Two teaching practice assessment scales were developed on six factors: attitude, school environment, supervision, administrative support, cooperative teachers support and autonomy. One instrument was developed for the prospective teachers and the other for the school heads. The data was collected by the personal visits of the researcher and analyzed with the help of SPSS 21st Edition. The results revealed that the perceptions of the prospective teachers of NUML University regarding factor school environment was better than the other three universities. Female & Male school heads perception were same and all related null hypotheses were accepted regarding monitoring and supervision of teaching practicum, Teaching Practicum Supervision and assessment Practices, University Linkage and Support Related Issues, Cooperative Teacher Support and Issues and Independence and Autonomy. On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that university supervisors and School heads may promote the high positive conditions & environment in school, collaboration between schools & university supervisors and mentors, proper monitoring and supervision by the cooperative teachers and last not least prospective teachers should be given autonomy for effective professional learning for prospective teachers, So as school leaders they must know how to conduct and operationalized the teaching practicum in the school.
A Comparative Study of Professional Work Ethics Among Public and Private Sector University Teachers
The research study was designed to explore and compare the professional ethics of faculty members working in public and private sector universities. Two major objectives were formulated for the conduction of the study. These were (i) To explore the professional ethics of public and private sector university teachers. (ii) To Compare the professional ethics of public and private sector university teachers. The population of the study consisted of all the teachers working in public and private sector universities located in Islamabad. For data collection sampling was done by using the technique of stratified random sampling. The total number of population of teachers was found 7258 faculty members. 10% of the population was selected randomly, as the representative sample from the population. The total number of teachers’ respondents in sample was 725. From which 592 teachers belonged to public sector universities and 133 teachers belonged to private sector universities. Data collection was done through the opinnionaire developed by researcher after extensive readings of the material related to the area of research and discussions with the respected supervisor and also in the light of suggestions of Research Advisory Committee of the department. Responses were collected from the sample through personal visits of the researcher and personal contact with the respondents. The collected data was then analyzed through the application of statistical technique of t-test for comparison of means and comparison of the frequencies of the responses generated by both sector’s respondents. For application of statistical technique of independent sample t-test, the software of SPSS version 20 was used. Findings showed that from the seven dimensions of work ethics presented by Weber, in two of the dimensions, the concept about leisure time and dimension of wasted time, less significant difference was found in the concepts of the teachers from both the sectors while in other five dimensions of self-reliance, work centrality, delay in receiving the gratification after good performance, concept and belief about hard work as key to success, and the concept of moral decisions and actions on work place , a significant difference was found IV in the opinion of the teachers in public and private sector. The findings showed that private sector university teachers were better in all five of above mentioned dimensions. On the basis of these findings recommendations were made for the public sector university administrations and teacher training institutions to inculcate the professional ethics in the prospective teachers. The main steps that may be helpful for the improvement of the situation can be, (i) Universities need to develop a code of conduct for their employees. (ii) Universities may insert course of professional ethics in teacher education curriculum and also by including trainings about the professional ethics to in-service courses. Another good practice for inculcation of professional ethics can be that institutions may give monitory and non-monitory awards to teachers performing well in positive utilization of time, behaving more ethically, or showing moral values during their teaching practices. It may result improvement of professional ethical behavior in future teacher’s professional ethics.
Effectiveness of Reward and Punishment as Modifiers of Students’ Classroom behavior
This study aimed at examining effectiveness of reward and punishment as modiﬁers of students’ classroom behavior. The results of this study brought out a clear picture of the reward and punishment practices being followed in schools, which may serve as a useful input for improving these practices that inﬂuence development of students’ desired behavior. The results of the study may lead to redesigning of teacher education curricula both for pre-service and in-service training of teachers. The objectives of the study were to identify effective and ineffective reward and punishment practices of school teachers, to compare teachers and students views on the frequency of reward and punishment practices, to compare male and female teachers on the use of effective and ineffective reward and punishment practices, to compare the effective and ineffective reward and punishment practices used by urban school teachers and rural school teachers. It was hypothesized that punishment, corporal punishment in particular, is used more often in schools than rewards. It was also hypothesized that punishment as given in schools did not modify the behavior, nor did the rewards used modify the behavior positively i.e.; effective reward and punishment techniques were not being deployed in schools. The population of the study comprised the teachers serving in government secondary schools of Punjab. The population of the study also comprised the students studying in government secondary schools of Punjab. A sample of one thousand teachers (two hundred teachers from district Rawalpindi, one hundred and ﬁfty teachers from district Attock, two hundred teachers from district Lahore, one hundred and ﬁfty teachers from district Gujranwala, one hundred and ﬁfty teachers from district Multan, one hundred and ﬁfty teachers from district Khanewal) were randomly selected in such a way that the proportion of rural and urban, boys and girls secondary school teachers was ﬁfty ﬁfty. A sample of one thousand students (two hundred students from district Rawalpindi, one hundred and ﬁfty students from district Attock, two hundred students from district Lahore, one hundred and ﬁfty students from district Gujranwala, one hundred and ﬁfty students from district Multan, one hundred and ﬁfty students from district Khanewal) were randomly selected in such a way that the proportion of rural and urban, boys and girls secondary school students was ﬁfty ﬁfty. In order to collect data from sample teachers, a comprehensive questionnaire was developed and personally administered. The data obtained was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by using appropriate descriptive and inferential tests of signiﬁcance, such as one-way chi-square and two-way chi-square. The level of signiﬁcance was 0.05.
On the basis of results and discussion it was concluded that a large number of teachers do not apply the appropriate techniques of behavior modiﬁcation rather they are totally unaware of these techniques. The entire study of the researcher reveals that our teachers are totally unaware of the modern techniques of classroom management. It is needed to equip them with the latest techniques of classroom management. There should II: a country wide programme to articulate and train teachers according to the demands of the new era. Token system and contingency contract programs should be introduced in our schools.
A Study in Indices of Discrepancy between Students ‘Learning Styles and Their Actual Grade Achievement at Masters’ Level "
A Study in Indices of Discrepancy between Students ‘Learning Styles and Their Actual Grade Achievement at Masters’ Level
Every person has a preferred way of learning that is called Learning style. It is a characteristic way of reaching to the solution of the particular problem. The present study was conducted to find out the indices of discrepancy between students’ learning styles and their actual grade achievement at the masters’ level. It was to find out which type of learners is better in terms of actual grade achievement. The mean difference was also to be found out between learning styles of male and female students, urban and rural students, mean difference due to difference of fathers’ academic qualification, mothers’ academic qualification, and parents’ monthly income. All the students of Social Sciences and Management Sciences studying in third and fourth semester in public sector universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad constituted the population which was two thousand and seventy six. Eight hundred and twenty students were chosen as sample. The Stratified Random Sampling Technique was employed for selecting the sample. The Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory Version III was used for assessing learning styles of students. The students’ first two semesters’ results were used in order to find out the grade achievement. Data were analyzed by using, percentages, T -test, and one way ANOVA. After analysis it was found out that Divergent learning style was learning style of majority of student irrespective of the department or subject. It was concluded that there was a significant mean difference of learning styles in grade achievement at Masters’ level. The divergent, assimilative, accommodative, and convergent learners acquired higher grades respectively. It was also found out that residential location, academic qualification of mothers, and monthly income of parents brought significant mean difference in learning styles of students. No significant mean difference was found between learning style of male and female students, Along with that no significant mean difference was observed between learning styles due to academic qualification of fathers.
"Investigating the Factor Structure of the Teachers‟ Sense of Efficacy Scale with Pakistani In-service and Pre-service Teachers"
Teachers with a high sense of efficacy are motivated to achieve and are generally optimistic about future learning. There is an extensive body of research that indicates a teacher’s self-efficacy beliefs can be a performance indicator for school outcomes. Research on characteristics related to teachers in Pakistan has been increasing over the last decade, however there are a number of instruments being used with this population without any documented validation studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES; Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001) to determine the latent structure of the TSES in the context of Pakistan in-service and pre-service teachers. Participants included 549 in-service (31% male and 69% female) and 423 pre-service (27% male and 73% female) teachers from four provinces of Pakistan. Content validity was investigated using experts’ judgement ratings. All items were rated as culturally appropriate for a Pakistani population. This study evaluated the construct validity of the TSES using structure equation modeling. Three-factor models were hypothesized for in-service teachers and one-factor models for pre-service teachers, as had been consistent with factor structure of the TSES for in-service and pre-service teachers from other cultures. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the three factor model for in-service teachers, as had been observed with other cultures. However, it did not support the one-factor model for pre-service teachers. As a follow-up, exploratory factor analysis produced three-factors for pre-service teacher, concluding that a three-factor model is
more appropriate for both pre-service and in-service teachers in Pakistan. A multitraitmulti method procedure provided partial evidence of convergent validity, however the scales within the TSES appear more correlated with each other than corresponding measures of the
scale. Teacher subgroup comparisons revealed that female teachers tend to have a higher sense of efficacy in student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management than male teachers. Moreover, Pakistani teachers teaching at primary level grades report a higher sense of efficacy than teachers teaching at higher grade levels. The findings of this study provide significant benefits for Pakistani researchers who want to use a teacher efficacy instrument as a tool for their studies.
AN ANALYSIS OF ONLINE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES’ UTILIZATION FOR PROFESSIONAL LEARNING PRACTICES OF UNIVERSITY TEACHERS IN ISLAMABAD
21st century demands that teacher must be competent to deal with technology. Teachers need to be professionally updated and there are different educational resources available for teacher’s professional development that help to keep them aware about utilization of those resources. Objectives of the study were; to examine the usability level of online educational resources of university teachers for professional learning practices, and also to find out demographic differences i.e. gender, qualification, university and teaching experience of university teachers with reference to usability level of online educational resources for professional learning practices. The nature of the research was descriptive, survey method was used for analyzing about application of online educational resources for professional development of university faculty in Islamabad. The population for this study was comprised on male and female university teachers serving in faculty social sciences in public sector universities located in Islamabad. There were 409 teachers (male 194 and female 215). The target population of this study was 342 teachers (165 and female 177). Purposive sampling technique was used to select sample. And 223 teachers (male 108 and female 115) were selected for data collection. Data was analyzed through Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) by applying mean, independent t-test, One-way ANOVA and Regression test. The major findings of this study were that the quality and trained faculty has positively influence by usability of online educational resources and platforms. The other major findings were that teachers with high qualification like MPhil/MS and PhD degree holders were directly engaged with online resources for professional development. Moreover, the faculty with 5-10 years of teaching experience were more motivated for practices online courses. Furthermore, female faculty were more interested in online resources for professional development as compared to male faculty. Therefore, it is recommended that there are number of online educational resources available on internet. In this era, teachers’ professional skills can be enhanced by enrolling in different online educational programs.
EFFECT OF PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS’ INTERPERSONAL SKILLS ON THEIR SELF EFFICACY
This research was conducted to assess the level of prospective teachers’ interpersonal skills and to analyze the self-efficacy of prospective teachers, furthermore the purpose of the study was to assess effect of prospective teachers’ interpersonal skills on their self-efficacy. Two theories were consulted to design conceptual framework of the study. One was Interpersonal Need Inventory (IPNI) developed by Pareek and Purohit (2010) and the second was based on Sources of Teachers Efficacy Questionnaire (STEQ) by Hoi, Zhou, Teo & Nie (2017). The model of Interpersonal Need Inventory (IPNI) which was consisted of six sub indicators named as belonging, affiliation, extension, recognition, control and influence. While the self-efficacy source consisted of four indicators named as mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and physiological states. The research approach used for this study was quantitative. The population of the research was based on International Islamic University Islamabad and National University of Modern Languages Islamabad (session 2019) and there were total 690 students. The sample was 414 of 60% of the total population and 354 questionnaires were returned; rate of return was 85.5%. Purposive sampling technique was used. For the validity of the questionnaire the researcher consulted some experts. The reliability of Interpersonal Need Inventory (IPNI) was (.855) and reliability of Self Efficacy Sources (SES) was (.772). It was revealed that interpersonal skills represented 6.5% variation on self-efficacy and there was a positive statistically significant at 0.01 level of significance and the hypotheses was failed to accept. In teacher training program extracurricular activities may include. There may teacher training programs offered, workshops, seminars and presentations. There may be internship programs conducted for prospective teachers for the improvement of their self-efficacy.
SELF ESTEEM OF PHYSICALLY C HALLENGED STUDENTS AT SECONDARY LEVEL: A CASE STUDY
Title: Self Esteem of Physically Challenged Students at Secondary Level: A Case Study
The main objectives of the study were (a) to determine the level of self-esteem among physically challenged
students of secondary level (b) to compare the self-esteem of students on the basis of Gender (c) to compare
the self-esteem of students on the basis of social class (d) to compare the self-esteem of students on the basis
of Ethnicity(e) to explore effect of factors related to personal experiences on self-esteem of students at
secondary level (f) to explore effect of factors related to parents behavior on self-esteem of students at
secondary level. The study used both qualitative and quantitative approach for a generation of rich dataset
about the state of variables. 100% population was used by the researcher. Population of the study consisted
of 25 students of National Special Education for Physically Handicapped children. For this study three
instruments were used. Two questionnaires and one interview. Statistical techniques of percentage, individual
scoring, Regression and ANOVA were applied to calculate results. Major findings of the study indicated that
few students were at low and high level of self-esteem while mostly students were at medium level of selfesteem. Statistically no significant effect of factors related to success or failure on self-esteem of students.
There was statistically no significant effect of factors related to appearance on self-esteem. There was
statistically no significant effect of factors related to appearance and gender was found on self-esteem of
students at secondary level. In the light of findings, it is suggested that parents and people related to special
children may be sensitized to identify the factors that affect their children’s self-esteem. It is suggested that
strategies may be adopted by parents, teachers and institutions for improving well-being of special children
and focus may be drawn upon improving emotional, cognitive, or motivational processes, increasing
behavioral proficiencies, or making changes to the social conditions in which special children live and work.
Government may provide equal opportunities of education, trainings and professional opportunities special
children. Parents and teachers of special children may develop and maintain healthy communication with
their children so they can express their needs, likes and dislikes with confidence and trust.
EFFECT OF GOAL ORIENTATION ON SCIENCE STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL
The main aim of the study was to determine the effect of goal orientation on science students’ academic achievement at secondary school level. The second and third objectives of the study were to compare the science students’ goal orientation with respect to gender and educational sectors respectively. The population of the study was 1682 (male and female) secondary school science students from both public and private schools. A stratified random sampling technique was used and 400 secondary school science students were chosen as a sample of the study. The population was divided into two major strata based on gender i-e., (male and female) and educational sectors i-e., (public and private). Goal orientation assessment scale, developed by Was (2006) was adapted for data collection. Inferential statistics including t-test and linear regression was used to compute results. The results of the study revealed that goal orientation had a positive effect on academic achievement. Regarding gender wise comparison, male students were found more mastery goal orientated while female students were more performance goal oriented. With respect educational sector wise comparison, public school students were more mastery goal oriented whereas; private school students were more performance avoidant goal oriented. It is recommended that stakeholders may create an encouraging environment that is helpful for enhancing personal psychological factors in students.
A COMPARISON BETWEEN NATIONAL CURRICULUM OF ENGLISH AND INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE PROGRAM AT PRIMARY LEVEL
The topic of the study was ‘Comparison between National Curriculum of English and International
Baccalaureate Program at Primary level’. The objective of the study was to compare the National
Curriculum of English with International Baccalaureate Primary Year Program in relation to the
Language skills at Primary Level. Five research questions were made to achieve the objective of
the study. The research questions were related to the comparison of Goals, Objectives, Content
and Assessment Strategies as well as Teaching Approaches of National curriculum and
International Baccalaureate Primary Year Program. The research was conducted in Islamabad. The
study was of qualitative nature. A Constant Comparative Content analysis was conducted. 20
teachers were interviewed of respective curriculum. Purposive sampling was used. Document
analysis and interviews were the tools to gather data for the research. Thematic analysis was
applied to interpret data collected through interviews. Major findings of the study were that
National curriculum lacks the equal distribution of the language skills in the content, National
curriculum’s textbooks lacks critical thinking activities and content regarding listening and
speaking skills. While International Baccalaureate Primary Year Program accommodates all the
Language skills and focuses on inquiry based learning. Teachers of National curriculum needs
training in regard to teach English as a language. In the light of findings following
recommendations are made. Use of AV aids may be made compulsory in National Curriculum for
better understanding of language skills. Activity based content may be added in National
curriculum. Inquiry based teaching may be adopted by the teachers following National Curriculum
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF UNIVERSITIES WITH REFERENCE TO CREATIVE CLIMATE
The study was conducted to compare universities with reference to Creative climate. The prime objectives of study were:1) to compare the public and private sector universities with reference to creative climate,2) to compare the creative climate dimensions (idea time, risk taking, challenges, freedom, idea support, conflict, debates, playfulness/humors, trust/openness and dynamism/liveliness) in public and private sector universities, 3)to compare different universities with reference to creative climate and 4) to compare different universities with reference to creative climate dimensions(idea time, risk taking, challenges, freedom, idea support, conflict, debates, playfulness/humors, trust/openness and dynamism/liveliness). Quantitative survey research approach was applied on study. The population of study consisted of all the faculty members of Social Sciences and Management Sciences from public and private sector universities located in Islamabad. Proportionate stratified sampling technique was used to select the sample of 299. 243 faculty members from public sector universities and 56 faculty members from private sector universities were taken as a sample of study. Public and private sectors were considered as the two strata of the population. The researcher developed Creative Climate of Universities Questionnaire (CCUQ) in the light of Ekvall’s Creative Climate model which was validated by the experts from the field of Education. The questionnaire’s reliability was analyzed by Cronbach’s Alfha Reliability method (.918). Data was analyzed by mean, Standard Deviation, Mann Whitney U test, ANOVA Post Hoc(Bonferroni) test using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). It was concluded that there was no difference between public and private sector universities with reference to creative climate. The findings of the study also revealed that there was no difference between public and private sector universities with reference to different dimensions of Creative Climate. A significant difference was found among different universities with reference to creative climate. Universities varied significantly in terms of different dimensions of creative climate including; Idea time, challenge, idea support, conflict, debate, playfulness/ humor, trust/openness and dynamism/ liveliness. It has been found that the climate of different universities is moderately creative and hence those universities with comparatively lower level of creative climate may have consultation with those universities which have higher level of creative climate for improvement of their climate.
CONTENT ANALYSIS OF 5TH CLASS TEXTBOOK OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES WITH REFERENCE TO PROVISION FOR CIVIC SENSE
Social studies textbook has a major role in promoting civic values, traditions, and culture among the students. Keeping this in view, the objectives of the research study were: i) to assess the Social Studies textbook of 5th class with reference to provision for Civic sense; ii) to analyze the textbook (text, pictures, questions, and activities) of Social studies with an orientation to Citizenship/Democracy; iii) to analyze the textbook (text, pictures, questions, and activities) of Social studies in the context of National Identity; iv) to assess the textbook (text, pictures, questions, and activities) of Social studies with reference to Diversity/Social Cohesion. The analysis of the 5th class Social studies textbook (text, pictures, questions, and activities) was carried out with the help of William D. Romey’s analysis technique. It was found that the content of the 5th class Social studies textbook was most focused for inculcating Diversity/Social Cohesion among the students. While the content dealing with Citizenship/Democracy was less focused as compared to Diversity/Social Cohesion. The National identity content’s provision was least focused as compared to other two components. The results showed that the whole textbook’s questions, pictures, and activities were sufficient but the text promoting the Civic sense was found least focused. It is recommended to increase the text in the textbook regarding National identity as it was found lowest among others. It is also recommended to increase the text related to civic sense along with pictures, questions and activities. As it will be helpful for students to work in a harmony for the prosperity of the country in the future.