The Role of Pashtoons of Baluchistan in Paksitan Movement: A Case Study of Jogezi Tribe
Baluchistan is a province comprising of huge stretches, dry mountains, the land of contrasts, deserts and a few green basins. There are some characteristics of Baluchistan which are very prominent in the region: the scarcity of water, the cultivable land and the scattered population of human and the natural resources. These prominent features of Baluchistan always attracted the foreigners to occupy this huge land mass easily. This is because of the geostrategic location and importance of Baluchistan and it is bordering with Afghanistan and Iran. Baluchistan has been occupied many times by the foreign invaders in the past and the people residing in this region are very different in their habits, way of living and recognized by their environment.
The British occupied this region of the united India and therefore their advent in Baluchistan was not inimitable. The reason of the occupation of Baluchistan by the British imperialists and other powers to exercise their influence was to get control of the area. These imperialist powers met with immense resistance and especially in the Pashtoon residing areas of Baluchistan. The resource rich area of Baluchistan always attracted these powers. The British interest in Baluchistan was to counter the Russian advancements towards the South and the Russians wanted to have their entrance to warm waters through the route of Baluchistan. The British wanted to expand towards the South and used different tactics to strengthen their hold in this region.
The British government also paid a huge amount of money to the Khanate of Kalat at regular period of time and supported by the local levies forces. The British government of India signed different agreements with the Khanate of Kalat and Sir Robert Sandeman of the British government explicitly pursued the policy of divide and rule. The Sandeman was successful in his
mission and Baluchistan was divided into British Baluchistan and the states of Baluchistan. This ‘divide and rule’ formula of the British government was successful in the territory of Baloch tribe but extensive army actions had to be taken in Pashtoon territory of Baluchistan. The British occupation and the number of military operations and resistance faced by them were in the Pashtoon areas of Baluchistan. The resistance movements headed by the people of Zhob, Loralai, Pishin, Duki, Sanjawai and Sherani. The Pashtoons of this region considered the British occupation of Baluchistan as a threat and a big challenge for them in their indigenous land and against the interests of their cultural, social and religious sensibilities with the adjacent country Afghanistan.
The British were to face difficult situations in the Pashtoon inhabiting areas of Baluchistan and they started a war against British on religious grounds. The British government placed their troops at fort Sandeman (Zhob) in the supervision of Sir Robert Sandeman and they controlled the region from this station. The resistance movements and war against the British in this region were led by the Sardars, Malik’s, and Nawabs of the eastern and northern parts of Baluchistan. Jogezai family is the family which resisted and fought against the British rulers in this area. Shah Jahan Jogezai and Nawab Bangul Khan Jogezai are leaders which were always on forefront of the confrontation against British in every corner of the Pashtoon areas
Judiciary and democracy are hot debate topics, which have made the political and constitutional history very interesting. This study therefore shed spots light on the era of Musharraf’s Military government from the perspective of judiciary role in strengthening democracy. In the history of Pakistan the initial involvement of the military in politics led to the formation of a hierarchical government in which the military has always dominated. The evidence from history suggested that the military has always enjoyed dominance over this power while influencing the other state institutions including judiciary and legislature. To prolong their tenures, the military dictator tried to include people in their power politics through direct means which resulted in the formation of the particular political class which was loyal to their military bosses. Contrary to that, resentment among the people also developed which suggests that the continuous but slow development of democracy; separation of East Pakistan being an example of the military took over whenever this political class threatened to acquire more shares in the power. On the other hand, every military rule had always been validated by the judiciary which suggests that the judiciary had always played the subservient role and allowed the military to influence the institutions. Various evidences from history support this argument. Judiciary had its conflicts with peoples’ representatives but never remained in direct conflict with Military till 2007.
General Musharraf took power in 1999, ousted the sitting government. The history repeated itself and his rule was validated by the judiciary although General Musharraf dismissed the sitting chief justice of Pakistan. As per the military tradition of rule, General Musharraf started a local government system to include people in politics. The massive flow of information on behalf of multiple news outlets accelerated the process of democracy. The superior judiciary which had been working under the PCO started to take sou moto actions. The judiciary interfered in the privatization process initiated by General Musharraf which led to conflicts between the two institutions. General Musharraf removed the chief justice yet again which he had done in the past. However, the whole judicial setup turned against the military regime and started movement. The media courage, inclusion of political parties, and return of exiled political leaders increased the magnitude of this movement which led to the establishment of the democracy in 2008. The movement later established judiciary public support at its back, it succeeded in acquiring a share of power.
Socio-Economic Realtions between paksitan and india: 1999-2008
The relationship between India and Pakistan is fraught with mutual mistrust, antagonism and has been one of the most enduring and dangerous rivalries in Contemporary world. The rivalry generated four wars, frequent skirmishes at the Line of Control (LOC), numerous and arm race which resulted in the nuclearisation of both countries in 1998. The nuclear power status of both Pakistan and India along with the international pressures has increased the need for peace and collaboration more intensely than before.
The process to improve Pakistan India Socio-economic relation was started in 1999 when India P.M visited Pakistan which clearly marked a significant change in the status quo which prevailed during the previous eras. The launch of the bus service included the CBMs that led to individual contacts, one of the greatest measures to allow people to become familiar with each other. In 1999, a bus service from Lahore to new was started by both countries before the start of the Composite Dialogue in 2004. The cricket series, held in March 2004, is worth mentioning and truly symbolize a significant incident in transforming both sides' psychology for help and peace building rather than pessimistic thought. The members of civil society of Pakistan from different fields of the life like the media, sports, culture and the arts have paid significantly to the establishment of friendly ties between the two nuclear neighbors. In the year 2008 an agreement was signed by Pakistan and India regarding cooperation and exchange of different think tanks run by state, i.e., Islamabad (Pakistan) Institute of Strategic Studies Institute of Strategic Studies, Islamabad (Pakistan) and the Institute of Security Studies and Analysis, New Delhi (India), in order to establish and promote contact and knowledge between the two countries. To foster warm interactions, in 2006 Pakistan and India become agree to conduct film festivals of one another. In 2008, a decision to legally release Indian films in Pakistan was made public by the government of Pakistan. To improve economic relation between India and Pakistan the bilateral trade relation between India and Pakistan was one of the topmost agendas of India and Pakistan official meetings in 2005. Bilateral trade between Pakistan and India amounted to $1.7 billion during 2007-2008. One can clearly see and hope for a very close cooperation in economic, and social fields. War is no more an option for these nuclear powers and in the world of today where regional economic integration is a way forward for development and stability, Pakistan and India need to increase their cooperation in all the potential fields and move for the resolution of all the outstanding disputes. This will surely lead towards the improvement of conditions of the poor people on both sides coupled with the economic integration and development of the whole South Asian region.
The Socio-Political impact of Land Reforms in Pakistan:A Case Study of District Sukkur 1971-1977
Land reform is a key aspect of social and political development in Pakistan, both as a way of redressing past injustice and addressing the development of future in the country, especially in rural areas. The harsh fact, history of Pakistan, confessed that landed gentry comprised of feudal lords, landlords, jagirdars and Zamindars were created in British colonial raj. The provinces that would form Pakistan, jagirdars and feudalism became a potent social organization along with the political power Bhutto. Every attempt to terminate landed elites was put into basket. The purpose of this study is to investigate policies and its implementation in Pakistan along with to explore the socio-political impact of Bhutto’s land reform in Sukkur district in Sindh during 1970 decade. In exploring these social and political issues, the outcomes of land reforms are first explored using questionnaire and survey in the area. The focus is then narrowed to the impacts in Sukkur district beginning with background and history chapter then policy and implementation and in the end impacts of these reforms. The findings indicate that changes were mostly not experienced in terms of poverty, employment generation, and political status after land reforms was introduced, although it was suggesting that land reforms has made some advancement towards achieving its intended objectives. Despite this limited developmental impact, literature makes it clear that land reform plays an important role in the society
Politics of Local Self Government Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (2002-2018): A study of District Lakki Marwat
Most studies on decentralization in developing countries reveal that the failure of decentralizing was
due to insufficient local government framework, ineffective implementation or capture of local
government by interest groups or a combination of these factors. The result was the insufficient
delivery of services at the local level and failure to strengthen grassroots democracy. We argue that
unlike most developing countries, the lessons learned from the case of Pakistan demonstrates
that right from the outset the purpose of decentralization was not to decentralize power and
authority but to meet two prime objectives. First, strengthening of civil and military bureaucracies
to establish the most centralized and coercive government structures through the political
marginalization of mainstream political parties and; second to co-opt newly emerging
politicians from local councils who could act as conduits between the local constituencies and
military established governments
Pakistan-India Military Balance (2015-2020): A Critical Analysis
Since the division of sub-continent, Kashmir has been the bone of contention between Pakistan and
India who hold substantial geostrategic importance in the South Asia. These rival states went beyond
the United Nation’s charter and waged wars against each other every now and then. Both states
experimented with settling this dispute with table talks, but they proved to be futile and abortive.
However, their rigorous inclination towards military enhancement has increased apprehension and
suspicion in the region. The world’s superpowers have also kept an eagle eye on South Asia to attain
their respective strategic objectives that evermore paved the way to change the strategic and political
dynamics of the region. Kashmir and Sino-Indian border conflict with two neighboring yet rival
countries, Pakistan and China have concerned India on one hand whereas Pakistan’s participation
in the proxy war between USA and USSR and tensions against India on the other hand, have put
pressure on these nuclear states to bring advancement to their military hardware. Between the two,
the former state is superior to the later in terms of quantity and specification but it’s also a notable
fact that Pakistan has surprised India on many occasions. Furthermore, the RSS ideology adopted by
the new Indian government of BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) has set ablaze the already fiery conflict
between these two states. Despite several attempts to negotiate on Kashmir issue by India and
Pakistan with the cooperation of international organizations it remained unsettled. In such scenario,
strengthening the military armaments and ammunition for their defense and personal security creates
an atmosphere of uncertainty and insecurity in the region. Conclusively, with the changing dynamics
of international and regional politics, the strain and stress in this South Asian region appears to be
reflective of a global threat. Kashmir Issue is no more a bilateral conflict but has become a global
issue that needs to be resolved in the better interest of not only the south Asian region but the entire
Politics of Clientelism and election in Islamabad (2008-2018)
Clietelism is a two sided exchange, therefore seeing it as a corrupting conduct delves deep into its
meaning. Clientelism or clientelistic practices are still prevalent in Pakistan’s democracy,
particularly when it comes to electoral procedures. The main goal of this research is to give a
detailed analysis of clientelistic politics in Islamabad with orientation to the general elections of
2008 along with 2013 and 2018 general elections. This study’s scope is limited to Islamabad. The
data is gathered from both secondary and primary resources. The theoretical frame work are
covered by secondary data in form of books and periodicals. This study’s original contribution is
primary data in the form of interviews which examines the voting behavior and clientelistic politics
in Islamabad. Qualitative and analytic methods are used in the study. The qualitative data
addresses the research questions and test the hypothesis regarding Islamabad’s electoral politics.
The general election of 2008, 2013 and 2018 hold a special place in Islamabad’s electoral history
because they all brought about important electoral changes. After the coup d’état of 1999 military
takeover the federal government and General Musharraf held the presidency of Pakistan from
2001 until 2008. After the long period of dictatorship, democratic elections were held in 2008
these democratic elections filled the public with the joy. A tragic incident of Benazir’s murder was
accrued with changed the elections wave. PPP remained successful all over Pakistan while in
2013’s general election PML-N won a large mandate especially in Islamabad. However, in the
general elections of 2013, a new political party appeared on the political scene. PTI emerged as
an enormous and powerful party it won election from all three continuities of Islamabad. All of
these elections shifts are significant and should be investigated
"Party Politics in Punjab: A Study of Unionist Perception about all India Muslim League, 1937-1947"
This work deals with the comparative study of two major political parties of British
Punjab named Muslim League and Unionist. Time period marked out for this research is from
1936-47. It covers the political spectrums under the frame of religious segments of Indian
subcontinent since the beginning of 20th century until the creation of Pakistan 1947, the overall
struggle for freedom and independence resulted in a deep rooted mass movement, which brought
forth Muslim Leaders onto our platform to construct a unified bond in terms of their party
objective. Therefore Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Sikendar Hayat signed a pact to determine the
future goals of Muslim motive, 1937.Muslim League established its stronghold in Punjab with
the due help and support received from Unionist Party.
It would undoubtedly be stated that Muslim League could not achieve the status of sole
popularity in Punjab without receiving the help and support from Unionist party. Their victory in
national elections (1945) and provisional elections (1946) was the proof of a political alliance.
This collaboration went into turmoid due to the internal weakening of Unionist Party. Self exile
of khizar Hayat (Unionist Leader) created an opportunity for Jinnah to rise as the only Leader.
Sustainable Development Goals and Water Insecurity in Balochistan A case study of Quetta City
The dilemma of water insecurity can exert extreme pressure on the least developed countries.
Sustainable Development goal 6 asks for the Sustainable water availability for drinking and
domestic use and also calls for sanitation. It proclaims that water scarcity is one of the major
crisis in the world. It can be concluded that all other goals are directly connected with goal 6.
Water insecurity can further increase the fringe elements in the society thereby giving rise to social
and economic problems. The study focusing on Balochistan and then extrapolated into Quetta
district shows alarming results. Prevalent structure and culture is severely disturbed due to water
scarcity. Mass urbanization, rise in population and agriculture have reduced the ground water
manifolds. This in turn led to the phenomenon of water insecurity. Mass migration and decrease
in water table has led to many social and economic problems in Quetta district. Mass migration
led to rise in the population therefore disturbing the economic equilibrium of the Quetta district.
Moreover, due to migration a rift is created among indigenous population and the migrants also
referred as refugees. More over more population has a burdening effect on the water table. These
factors result in the problems like rampant chaos, violence and terrorism. Water insecurity has
and can play a drastic role in disturbing the stability of the Quetta district
History is considering the real recognition of an area from which new generation have much more
to learn, to participate in his daily life events and play a vital role in the society. North West
Frontier Province of the sub-continent assumed a noteworthy job in the geopolitical history of the
area. The land was prevalently occupied by Pukhtuns. Since forever it stayed under steady dangers
from its north-western and eastern sides. The invaders who control Frontier were Persians,
Macedonians, Muslims, Mongols, Sikhs and finally the British colonial government. Truth be told,
that the tribes of Frontier always gave tough time to the invaders, and considered Pukhtuns as a
big hindrance in their forward walk towards India. The short period from 1799 to 1849 the frontier
was mostly dominated by Sikhs dynasty established by Ranjit Singh. Before the Sikh kingdom
Frontier was under the control of Durrani Empire and Barakzai Dynasty of Afghanistan.
Apart from all these Frontier also witness of various political movements and struggle of different
Muslim leaders. Syed Akbar Shah of Sathana was one them, he was the political representative of
Frontier at the first half of 19th Century and fought many battles against Sikhs, try to gain freedom,
the battle of Pir Sabaq Nowshera in 1823 was most famous. Syed Ahmad Shaheed’s Jihad
Movement is also significance chapter of frontier’s history. Syed Akbar Shah loyally and bravely
support him and also played a leading role throughout his movement. Syed Akbar Shah Also
remains as a king of Hazara and Swat States.
The researcher finds out that how Syed Akbar Shah contribute to the geo-politics of Frontier, and
what kind of role played by him in Mujaheedin Movement. The researcher also attempts to
highlight the administrative system of Syed Akbar Shah as a ruler of Hazara and Swat states. And
his accomplishment and achievements.
Climate Change and management of water resources in skardu
After the 19th century industrial revolution, the emission of carbon dioxide caused amplification in air pollution and the world has been introduced with the term climate change. Consequently there is 1.5 oC increase in overall earth temperature due to the disruption in greenhouse gases. Additionally, notable defrosting in the glaciers of north and south poles has been seen. The glaciers of Karakoram and Hindu Kush are also not immune to the effects of climate change. According to Pakistan Metrological Department, Intergovernmental Penal on Climate Change (IPCC), and German watch report America, Canada, and China are the top listed countries responsible for the excessive emission of greenhouse gases. However, Pakistan is included in the least responsible countries. Under the supervision of United Nations the establishment of IPCC came into being. Similar to other countries of the world Pakistan has also become a member of IPCC in 2005 under Paris Agreement. Pakistan has also established ministry of climate change but the need to spread awareness on public level is inevitable. Moreover, in 2017 under the said ministry, Environmental Protection Agency has also been established in Gilgit-Baltistan under the supervision of legislative council of Gilgit-Baltistan. Although this agency has created a policy document in which recommendations have been suggested in the light of UNSDG but have been facing lack of practicality due to insufficient public awareness. District Skardu that is also a capital of Baltistan division is a world popular city. On 17th December 2021 Prime Minister of Pakistan inaugurated international terminal of Skardu Airport.
Sad Para Lake is the only source to fulfill its water requirements. In 2010 WAPDA built a multipurpose dam on it that is still incomplete because of “Shadung Nala” that had to be conjoined with Sad Para Lake. This project has been left incomplete by the alliance of Executive agency and contractor and now neither water nor electricity requirements are being fulfilled.
Subsistence farming was only done for a short period of six months in Gilgit Baltistan. Water is insufficient for domestic use, cattle and drinking. Keeping in view these facts, it is the need of the hour to start Mega Water Management. Present “Kuhuls” (water channels) should be made, so that the far end of the fields can be irrigated. As far as the research gap is concerned, no research has been done on water management although research on drinking water in Gilgit has been done.
Politics of Religious Tourism: A Case Study of Punja Shaib
From few decades, tourism is considered as one of the growing activities
of people in the world. In Pakistan, the presence of numerous religious sites and
activities make it more significant to promoting pilgrimage or religious tourism.
Along this, it is deemed important to further understand the intentions and
movements of religious travelers. Hence, this approach assessed the religious
tourism motivational factors and experiences of visitors to select sacred sites.
Religious visitors of the destination are motivated due to their spiritual desire such
as satisfaction of religious convictions and fulfillment of religious curiosity
(faith and practice).
Tourism is also considered as the backbone and a major source of
economic development in several countries. In the field of tourism, Pakistan is
dealing with countless charms in the developing world. Immigrant visits to
religious and cultural sites in Pakistan have increased. It is linked with economic
expansion and also includes an increasing number of destinations. Political role
play vital role in the Religious tourism based on the relationship between
"religion" and "tourism". Visitors/ Pilgrims move to the holy places of the tourist
countries for the purpose of performing pilgrimages or other personal interests.
The role of politics in the religion is considered as to reach their target to
get any type of tourist’s source for the favor of tourists/ pilgrims, so this source
should not a hypocrite or pretended based. Tourism/ Religious Tourism is the
factor which is totally related to public concerned as well as for their interests.
Pakistan has more than a hundred shrines, which are dedicated to Sufis, saints and
sacred places connected to Muslims, Sikhs, Buddhists and Christians. Millions of
tourists move to religious sacred sites in Pakistan from within the country and
also from foreign countries. Similarly, shrine of Punja Sahib is attributed to a Sikh
shrine as being named Gurdwara Punja Sahib. Thousands of pilgrims visit Punja
Sahib each year to devote their precious time and also numerous visitors attend
annual events related to Punja Sahib, in these pilgrims/ visitors majority of
visitors belong to Sikh Religion.
Politics of Women representation in Pakistan: A Comparative Study of National Assembles 2002-2013
Women participation in all fields of life increased substantially in the 20th century.
Although, gender participation in professional fields is a recent phenomenon, yet
there are some areas where their contribution has evolved through ages. The
participation in political process has been recognized a fundamental right of each
citizen regardless of their gender, cast, and creed .In Pakistan all three
constitutions reserved seats for women, but this provision lapsed in 1988. In 2002 it
was restored with17 percent representation in the parliament. This study sheds light
on how women parliamentarians advocated women rights in National Assembly.
Based on the study of parliamentary debates and the legislative business of the
house, this study argues that women issues are presented and advocated by women
parliamentarians and they have adequately contributed on raising the gender-
sensitive issues in the lower house of the parliament. This study also reveals that an
increase in the number of women sitting in parliament also resulted in increased
participation in the law making process. Therefore, this enhanced number and
participation of women in parliament has started making a positive impact on
legislation. It is concluded that women parliamentarians advocated women issues
in National Assembly and enhanced representation of women in political and
legislative forums has the potential to positively affect legislation to protect women
in the country
The socio-economic significance of Archeological sites in Gilgit Baltistan: A case study of Hunza
Tourism has developed one of the leading industry of the world in modern times. Whereas heritage and archeological tourism is one of the fastest and emergent sectors in tourism industry. Archeological sites and tourism are reciprocal in relation. This study sheds light on the inclusion of local population can be more effective for the preservation of archeological sites. And furthermore, how archeological sites are contributing for the socio-economic development based on primary and secondary sources, this study argues that the authorities keen interest towards the preservation and conservation process. Archeological sites are important for future because it can play a very important component in revenue generation of a country and a region and also preserve a very ancient culture of the region.