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Archaeology and Cultural Heritage of Chakwal: A Case Study of shri Katas Raj Temple Katas Raj is momentous for many religions because of its more than a dozen sacred monuments. These monuments belong to Sikhism, Buddhism, Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Hinduism. It is compelling for Sikhs because of the historic Hari Singh Nalwa fort. It is cogent for Buddhists because of the ancient stupa of Asoka. Katas Raj is much more symbolic for the Hindus; every year several Hindus visit this place, perform holy baths and fill their pitchers with the holy water of Katas Raj; they assume the water; as the tears of Lord Shiva. The place is important for the Hindus because of its ancient Shiva Linga also; which is fixed at the core of the Shiva temple, Katas Raj. Katas Raj is the holiest temple of Hindus, after the temple of Jwalamukhi, Himachal Pradesh, India. As per the Hindu traditions, Katas Raj has the second holiest water; after the water of the River Ganges. With the government's efforts, this site can also take place in the world heritage sites by UNESCO. It is the need of the hour to take immediate steps to conserve all historic Hindu temples and Sikh Gurdwaras inside the country; so that the country can earn revenue and reconstruct its image in the nations of the world. This research document is an attempt to explore and analyze the historical architectural cogent of the Katas Raj group of temples and its current stature in Hinduism. The study aims to inquire why people visit this bygone temple? The current study finds out the positive management policies for the protection and promotion of the Katas Raj group of temples. Direct observations and in-depth interviews have been conducted to query about the recent problems.
The Status of Transgender in Pakistan: A Case Study of District Swat, Khyber The third sex communities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwah, Pakistan, known as transgender live in public houses known as Dera. These hospices can provide protection for transgender people from harassment, social stigma, discrimination. To date, there has been less amount of research on their position of transgender in Pakistan. In Swat transgender people live outside the main stream society and live in their own communities, within the deras, there is a system of learning phase between the guroo (house leader) and chailas (students). The aim of the current study was to critically evaluate the position of third sex people in Pakistan, A study in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Mingora Swat region. Moreover Considering the historical perspective of the criminalization of transgender people in southern Asia and describing how transgender community in Pakistani were officially recognized by the government while culturally and socially excluded from the main stream society. Exploring the ideas of activists and intellectuals in strengthening of the transgender community in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study was designed to examine the many dimensions of the lives of transgender people in Mingora, Swat, Pakistan. Twenty transgender people from Mingora Swat have been selected for the close ended interview. The results of this study describe the status of transgender in extreme social exclusion by violence and discrimination. We found that the literacy rate of the transgender community was very low. The lack vocational skills make them completely dependent on the Pan like dancing; sex work and bagging for their survive. Their basic human rights have been violated within Guroo-chaila culture. In addition, many are completely unaware of their basic human rights, like from Transgender Protection Act 2018, and other human rights movements in Pakistan. The transgender situation in Pakistan is that they face discrimination, oppression, and violence and death threats. The vast majority of respondents said that people often treat us as the cause of vulgarity and shame. The majority of participants agree that the State of Pakistan passed the transgender Protection Act 2018 is a practical step towards resolving their problems. Most agree that theologians can play an important role in the transgender social inclusion in Pakistan and can reduce gender-based violence. Most participants agree that by giving them the Third Gender category on national Identity Cards they will assess violence, oppression and discrimination based on transgender. By exploring the secret lives of transgender people in Pakistan we make and reduce their stigmatization and criminalization
Electoral Politics, Change and Continuity, A Case Study of PK 5 SWAT-IV District Swat in Election 2018 District Swat, previously a princely state from 1917 to 1969, is famous for its natural beauty, high lofty mountains, flowing waters, fruits, vegetables, hospitable people, etc. The area was a favorite place for tourists from inside and outside the country. For the last decade, the area was in news due to militancy in Swat. Militancy affected every sector of society at large. Militancy also affected the 2008 general elections which resulted in the shape of low turnout in provincial and national assembly constituencies. The 2013 general elections were the first general elections in the area after military operations in which PTI gained a clear majority from the district. In the 2018 general elections, PTI repeated the victory position in the province as well as gained the majority in the center with a clean sweep position in District Swat particularly. In the 2002 general elections in Swat, the people's voting behavior was affected by the religious ideologies of religious political parties. In the 2008 general elections, people's voting behavior was affected by ethnic nationalistic party ideology which resulted in the shape of victory of an ethnic nationalist regional party. In the 2013 general elections in Swat, people elected a newly emerged party due to charismatic leadership and party ideology and again elected the same party in the 2018 general elections. In the 2018 general elections vote for a political party were polled due to party ideology and party manifesto. In the same election voters polled a vote for a candidate due to the party affiliation of the candidate
WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA; A CASE STUDY OF ORAKZAI DISTRICT This research study involves an investigation of the women empowerment in Orakzai district from the socioeconomic and political perspectives, based on available data consisted of primary and secondary sources. The finding of this research study shows that the higher level of women empowerment in the social, economic and political aspects are connected to their women literacy ratio, higher level of education, awareness, equality rights and freedom of mobility, decision and participation, employment/ jobs/business, and accessibility to resources, and pace in the social system of a particular society. The situation of women empowerment in the entire FATA region especially in district Orakzai is found worst as compared to other districts of the province and country. District Orakzai has very low socioeconomic status because of insurgency, militancy, insecurity, sectarian violence and inadequate adherence to development by the government. The socio-economic and political empowerment of women in the Orakzai district is confined to the patriarchy culture of the tribes. The level of women empowerment is very low. Women are restricted to household caring, and their role to contribute to the development of the society is limited. The tribal setup and the cultural traditions have restricted women mobility, the opportunities of earning, getting education, doing jobs, running business, or participation in the politics is limited. The fear of stigmatization is prevailing in Orakzai and thus women are reluctant to participate in the development of their families and society.
Bradaari and Electoral Politics in District Sargodah: A Comparative Study of Elections 2013 and 2018" Title: Baradari and Electoral Politics in District Sargodha: A comparative Study of Election 2013 and 2018. This study is an attempt to analyze the role of Baradari and Electoral Politics with special reference to General Election 2013 & 2018 in District Sargodha Punjab Pakistan. These election have been significant in the electoral history of Pakistan because new political wave with the slogan of “change” signs of political revival in the Pakistan. The scope of the study is limited to the comparison of Elections results 2013 & 2018 of district Sargodha of Punjab (Pakistan). This district has significant role in politics of the country from pre-post independent era. Elections 2013 took attention and importance due to the completion of a democratic government tenure (2008-2013) in Pakistan after Mushraf ruling in 2008. The General Election 2013 held after the completion of PPP tenure and Elections 2018 held after PML-N tenure so the arrival of new parties in the main stream politics and Baradari base culture of Sargodha also influenced and effected, therefore this paper tries to understand the electoral politics of various parties in Sargodha and the role of Baradaries in General Elections 2013 & 2018. The study discussed political history of District Sargodha and role of Bardadaries in the form of phases from pre-independence to post-independence era and elections 2013 & 2018. The importance of this study is to make a comparative study about the Baradaries and Electoral Politics in District Sargodha during Election 2013 and 2018 on five National assembly seats in the relevant constituencies. Baradarism present in this region from post-independence era to until now so this region can be said as a pure colonial product. Therefore, the relation of dominant Baradaries and politics always remain alive during elections in Pakistan. The aim of the study is to analyze how much effectiveness of this relation present in the electoral results of this five constituencies for national assembly seats of this district in the recent general elections 2013 & 2018 in Pakistan. Different political families of the district participates in the electoral race from the platform of different political parties, this comparative study analyze the role of Baradaries, candidate’s portfolio, party ticket of mainstream parties and their election manifesto’s impact on the Election results 2013 & 2018 in Sargodha district
PAKISTAN-UNITED STATES RELATIONS UNDER OBAMA ADMINISTRATION 2009-2016 (A CRITICAL APPRAISAL) For almost seventy years, the relationship between the US and Pakistan has been based on short- term goals and no long-term strategy. This has led to the failure of both the governments to forge a long-term relationship. Despite their positive disposition towards each other, their interactions have not always been smooth. They are still close friends, but they have also got into a few rows over certain issues. The divergence of their interests on various policy issues can also affect their relations. The inconsistencies and transnational character of Pakistan-US relations are due to their various factors. These include their national interests and diplomatic differences. After the previous administration's mishandling of the relationship with Pakistan, US President Barack Obama's team launched a new approach toward the country. The new approach, which was referred to as the "AfPak" strategy, was established to strengthen the relationship between the US and Pakistan. The US President focused on the war in Afghanistan and on improving the relationship between Pakistan and the US. Obama decreased its focus on the Pakistan's military establishment. Instead of choosing political groups as the preferred partners for the dialogue, Obama decided to work with the government of Pakistan through a more consultative approach. He also pushed for the passage of a Kerry-Lugar bill that has increased the aid for non-security sectors. The new approach helped break the political stalemate between the US and Pakistan. It also promoted the country's interests in South Asia. Despite the various issues that the US faced with Pakistan, it was still able to improve its relations with the country. Although the US-Pakistan relationship is the longest and most intense in the region, it has become unstable due to the various factors that affect it and has undergone various changes during the Obama Administration. Aside from the US' interference in Pakistan's internal affairs, other factors such as the violation of its sovereignty and the unilateral actions taken by the US are also contributing to the complicated relationship between the two countries. There is also a lack of consensus on how the relationship should be built. Despite the various factors that affect the relationship between the US and Pakistan, it is still considered a complex and transnational one. This is due to the varying external and internal factors that affect the relationship.
Pakistan's role in SAARC (2000-2010): A Critical Appraisal The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is a political and economic organization that was established in 1985. It aims to enhance the development of its member states through enhanced intra-state cooperation. Different fields were to be improved using this association, but still, regional development is what South Asia lags in. Therefore, sufficient efforts to promote regional development among member countries were required. In the past 30 years of its presence, the association's tasks have in like manner stayed lazy and agonizing. Therefore, there is a need to increase the activities of regional development of SAARC, to connect and integrate the region of South Asia in real spirit. The role of Pakistan in SAARC was an important concern for this research. Pakistan’s role in the development of SAARC was imperative projects had been carried out in SAARC with the help of Pakistan. Pakistan has played an affective role in the development of SAARC. During the time period 2000-2010, Pakistan’s role in SAARC was constructive and that is majorly discussed in the research. Sufficient literature has been added that gives insight into the previous body of knowledge in this field. Therefore, by looking into the relevant literature, the knowledge gap was looked for and consequently was researched. A qualitative research design was used, and secondary data was used to evaluate the regional development of SAARC and Pakistan’s role in the development of SAARC. By qualitative research design, the thematic analysis has been done, and various themes have been extracted from the topic of ‘regional development of SAARC’. The discussion of ‘regional development of SAARC and the role of Pakistan’ is a top to bottom assessment of the outcomes, expounding on the meaning of the discoveries and referencing pertinent sources to contextualize them. Therefore, the regional development of SAARC is an important research topic that established the reason why and how South Asian nations have prospered and how Pakistan has contributed to this area. This thesis has comprehensively discussed and analysed the role of Pakistan in SAARC.
Government and Politics of Awami National Party in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa performance Evaluation (2008-2013) This study has traced the history of National Awami Party (NAP) which later became the Awami National Party (ANP) after the separation of East Pakistan. It has also analyzed the leftist leaderships of NAP wings of East Pakistan and West Pakistan. It has also put light on the differences in the ideology and practice of leadership of both wings. Furthermore, this study has also given the details of transformation of ANP from a left leaning national party of Pakistan to dynastic and provincial party of NWFP (KP). When it came into power in the province of KP, the policies adopted by the ANP led government are also discussed. From educational policies of ANP led government into KP province to its role in countering terrorism is also discussed. Not only this, this study has also highlighted the role of ANP into devolution of power in the country by playing a key role into introduction of 18th amendment to the constitution of Pakistan. The main focus is on the performance evaluation of the ruling era of ANP reforms and development policies. i.e. in health, education and legislation on governance and social development. At last, this research has used qualitative methods of data collection. It has also accessed the data from online sources, journals and newspapers. Hence, this study has put light on historical roots of formation of NAP, its dominance in the politics of Pakistan, its degradation into ANP as provincial party of Pakistan and its rise and fall along with the future prospects for its rejuvenation.
The Afghan Crises and Kurram: A Study of Socio Political aspects during (1979-2020) The present research focuses rising militancy and Kurram serves as a key strategic site for insurgents with an eye toward Afghanistan. The stability of living in Pakistan is being impacted by the unrest and crisis in Afghanistan. Pakistan has been badly impacted by wars, instability, and participation of global and regional forces. Due to its proximity to Afghanistan, Kurram is frequently regarded as the most strategically important of the tribal agencies (new merged districts), along with Khyber. It examines how the Afghan ongoing crisis 1979_2020) has affected the region of Kurram. The current study also demonstrates how the number of terrorist attacks in tribal districts suddenly increased in the years after the US invasion of Afghanistan, and how the conflict and instability in Afghanistan (the 1979 war) and the fallout from the 9/11 attacks, as well as their regional implications, had very negative effects. In particular, the effects on health, education, political involvement, and their fundamental administrative infrastructure have been studied. And comprehensive information regarding the social, political, and pressing issues facing Kurram today. This study intends to examine the socio-political aspects of the post- and pre-merger districts of Kurram. It also examines the merger changes' implementation and their impact on the sociopolitical characteristics of the tribal district. The current study's context also emphasizes the governance difficulties associated with integrating Federally Administered Tribal areas into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, with an emphasis on issues related to law enforcement, jurisdiction, and governance issues. Regarding the unavailability of key, fundamental infrastructure, the study has suggested that some immediate actions be taken.
Female Voting Behavior in Islamabad (2008-2018) Title: Female Voting Behavior in Islamabad (2008-2018) Females are more than half of the total population of Pakistan and also in Islamabad the capital city of Pakistan. They played a significant role in all spheres of life, especially in politics. Their voting behaviour in Islamabad directly influences the political scenario of this city. This study was conducted to understand female voting behaviour in Islamabad from 2008 to 2018. Three general elections were conducted during this era,2008,2013 and 2018 general elections. In this study, a mix-method approach was used. The researcher used both primary and secondary sources of data. Primary sources mostly consist of the election commission of Pakistan (ECP) reports that relate to the 2008, 2013 and 2018 general elections in Pakistan and data is gathered directly from registered female voters of Islamabad with help of a questionnaire. For this purpose, a five points Likert scale questionnaire used to gather the data from the three constituencies of Islamabad NA-52, NA-53 and NA-54. A sample of 400 female registered voters was selected from the constituencies on a convenience sampling method. The data was entered and analyzed through SPSS statistical software and ANNOVA test was applied to analyze the results of this study. The study found a wide gap between male and female voters in registration and also in voting turnout. The study results also highlighted that female voting behaviour was determined by various social and political factors and it also revealed that some specific causes and elements brought changes in female voting behaviour in Islamabad from 2008 to 2018. The study highlighted the current voting behaviour and voter turnout of females in Islamabad and the importance of their voting rights in the political scenario of Islamabad. In this way, it reflects the political status of females in Islamabad and provides help for the political system and political decision-makers to increase the effective participation of women in politics. Keywords: Election, Voting turnout, Voting behaviour, Constituencies, Determinants, Revealed, Political system.