Implementation of Total Quality Management in Textile Industry of Pakistan
Pakistan textile industry contributes more than 60% of the country's total exports but the country is at 8th position of the largest exporting countries of Asia and the reason of such low export is poor quality in textile products. The study was conducted to find out the effect of TQM implementation on business performance in textile industry of Pakistan. TQM is a management method used to enhance quality of textile products and productivity of the textile firms. The study may be helpful in the fully implementation of TQM in order to improve quality of the textile products and increase in export value.
The research is based on primary and secondary data. Primary data is collected through questionnaires from employees/employers of the firm. While secondary data is collected from six composite textile firms. For primary 11 factors of TQM implementation and 4 factors of business performance were selected and responses were measured on 5 point likerts scale.
The results indicate that TQM has positive effect on overall business performance and leadership plays critical role in TQM implementation. It is not essential for all the factors to be presented to guarantee the success of TQM programme of overall business performance. Leadership, product quality, customer satisfaction and strategic business performance are found to be the most effective factors of TQM implementation in business performance.
Influence of Motivational Factors on Students Career Selection Decision
The study is conducted to analyze and find out the main motivational factors which influence career selection decision of the students. Career selection is a very complex issue and is influenced by various factors such as personality traits, socializers', demographic, environmental and motivational factors etc. Motivational factors are the most important, being these are the expectations of the students which they want to achieve while adopting a particular career path. The study is helpful for career counseling and to facilitate the students to select the career path that suit their traits & capabilities and enable them to achieve their goals & objectives. A little mistake at this stage will destroy their future plans & happiness, will waste many years of expensive education and they will not be able to reach at their destination.
The study is based on primary data collected through questionnaire survey from the students, studying in the colleges & universities located in the vicinity of Rawalpindi & Islamabad, their parents and teachers. Twenty one motivational factors are selected and the responses are measured on Likert five (5) points scale: strongly agreed, agreed, indifference, disagreed, strongly disagreed.
The results indicate that 92.4% students have already selected their career paths and 60.0% students have selected their career path/ profession by themselves. Parents play important role in deciding the career path of the students and the career of 35.1% students have been / will be selected by their parents.
Tax Structure, Compliance and Loss: A Case Study of Luxury Tax and Motor Vehicle Tax in Punjab Province
This study describes the Taxation & Tax structure in Pakistan and impact of independent variable on the dependent variable. It examined the effect of :
• Imposition of luxury tax on imported vehicles
• Sales of locally manufactured vehicles
• Import of foreign manufactured vehicles and
• Post registration transactions
(On the collection of motor vehicle tax in Punjab Province)
This is a descriptive and exploratory research as this study is based on secondary data and gathered from the Punjab Annual Budget documents and the reports of Excise and Taxation Department. The results, obtained from the analysis, are showing significant relation among the sales of motor vehicles, post registration transaction and collection of motor vehicle tax. It is further extracted that the said relation has also affected on the imposition of another tax i.e. luxury tax on imported vehicles.
This study concluded that the tax is a subject of federation and its compliance cannot be possible without its imposition throughout the federation as the motor vehicle is a mobile asset so the tax payer can easily drained to other provinces. It is further concluded while imposing any new tax the basic cannons / principles / ethics of taxation and 4-R's [Revenue, Reprising, Re-distribution and Representation] should be observed so the compliance is possible. Mostly the basic aim of imposition of taxation is to generate or gear up the revenue so it should be imposed where a large base or big potential is available
Impact of Training and Development Practices on Leadership Skills of Middle Managers: A Comparative Study
Impact of training and development practices on leadership skills of middle managers: a comparative study is the title of this thesis. The objective of this research study was to show the relationship of training and development practices and improvement of leadership skills of middle managers of chosen organizations in comparison. To conduct this study, response was collected from the 60 middle managers of Pakistan International Airlines, Descon Engineering Limited, ICl/Akzonobel Chemicals, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited, Allied bank Limited and National Bank of Pakistan, working in Lahore, where an established HR department and training and development practices were prevailing.
To conduct the research both primary as well as secondary data was collected. The main focus of the research was on primary data, 6 informal interviews as well as questionnaires were used. Descriptive statistics techniques, graphs and bivariate correlation analysis by using SPSS were applied on the data collected through questionnaires and informal interviews.
The conclusion revealed from the study is that training and development practices improved the leadership skills of the employees as it built confidence of recognition and made middle managers clearer of their objectives and customs of work in their organization to lead their colleagues fairly and with full devotion. But the fluctuation in results of different organizations came because of execution patterns of training, corporate culture, globalized culture pressures, morale, and willingness of employees to learn. Therefore, both training as well as fair development practices are important for the improvement of leadership skills in middle managers.
An Analysis of Procedural Justice in Performance Management System of Private Sector Firms
Procedural justice in performance management system is meant or creating and maintaining a comfortable and productive working environment for all the employees where they could perform to the optimum level with a perception of fairness and balance in the effort and reward structure within the overall context of performance management system. `In general, procedural justice means fairness / honesty in different functions of a system-. Procedural justice in performance management system has been a key area of interest for the researchers and practitioners.
A lot of research has been carried out in this area and some of it has been in the recent years. This is even more important in today's volatile business world where the absence of justice in performance management system can cause a negative word of mouth, decrease in motivation, high turnover ratio, conflicts and intra-organizational politics including introduction of worker unions etc. Non availability of procedural justice in performance management system is also one of the main areas of concern for the employees and especially for those in the private sector of Pakistan where economic downturn and political instability of the country has contributed to the employees' insecurity in the workplace especially in the private sector.
Managers have their own perspective about performance management which is equally important and needs proper understanding.
This research was aimed at understanding the perspective of both the employees and managers in the private sector. Two hypotheses were proposed for creating a model and for proving the significance of relationship among important variables. One of the hypothesis which was taken from the proposed new model on procedural justice identified few important components for creating and delivering a procedurally just performance management system. The second hypothesis was taken from the work of (Taylor, Renard and Tracy, 1998) which was linked with the new model for it partial replication.
This research was conducted under the parameters of a professional research methodology. Initially the managers and business owners of private enterprises were contacted for the initial interviews for having a need analysis of this research. Data collection was done through two separate questionnaires where one of the questionnaires was for the employees of private organizations and the other one was for the managers of the private organizations. Similarly the questionnaire that was for the employees was constructed from the variables of first hypothesis and the questionnaire that was for the managers was constructed from the variables of the second hypothesis. This was done by the proper operationalization of the research concept and by identifying all the related research dimensions. It was a cross sectional and generalizable study with an overall population sample of two hundred.
Data was collected from fifty managers and one hundred and fifty employees who were all from private sector of Pakistan. Pilot Test was conducted at an earlier stage for finding acceptable values of Cronbach Alpha for all the items of two questionnaires. Five Point Likert Scale was used for the proper coding of data on SPSS. Chi Square Test was applied on the collected data of both the questionnaires for proving the research concept through quantitative means. Frequency distributions and bar charts for each item have been given as well.
Findings of this research work have identified the potential obstacles for the implementation of a justice based performance management system in private firms. The results of this research match with the practical observations and also with the past research.
In the overall perspective, this research recommends the use of new research based model on procedural justice proved in this research for both the practitioners and academia. So this fact has been established that a positive contribution of the factors like willingness of top management, pre appraisal training of assessors, representing the post appraisal voice of employees, periodic performance feedback and accountability of assessors will surely enhance the procedural justice in the performance management system. This procedurally just system can be helpful for the organizations for better satisfaction with the system, improved working conditions and lesser distortion of appraisal results.
Finally some useful recommendations have been given for the benefit of ractitioners and academia. It can be useful for the practitioners to have a gap analysis for the current and required level of procedural justice for their organization. This research puts a clear emphasis of the use of those variables which make a procedurally just system with its distinct benefits for an organization.
Antecedents of Student's Perception of Garment Quality: A Multidimensional Approach
This study was conducted to find out factors that are constructing student's perception of clothing quality whereas quality is simply the degree of excellence. This study may be helpful for the producers and advertising firms being the consumer perception of quality affects the buying decisions. The questionnaire was distributed among hundred and fifty (150) students of colleges and universities of Abbottabad and its vicinity. The questionnaire comprises of factors that construct perception of students about quality apparels. There were 12 major factors with 31 items in the questionnaire. Statistical tools including Cronbach's alpha, Frequency distribution, Pie Charts and Cross Tables were used to test, analyze and present the data for which statistical package SPSS (version 16.00) was used.
The respondents point out a number of factors that construct their perception / buying decisions, of quality garments. All of these factors were considered for constructing perception of quality garments only three were rated important i.e. physiological expectations, the appearance of the garment and religion guidelines. The levels of agreed respondents were 89.6 %, 89.2 %, & 84 % respectively.
Style good for my Figure was highly rated among all the items the age group 30-34 (100%) considers it as a very important factor that construct their perception of clothing quality, while on gender basis females (98%) consider it more important than males, it is important to both urban and rural students (93%) and the students of high social class (100%) consider it as an influential factor that is constructing their perception of clothing quality.
Impact of Free Agent Learning on Employability with Special Reference to a Management Career
Those who can not work would not work. The employability skills and attributes are deliberated as a recurring feature of national policies on provision of effective education. This study investigated how individuals perceive, identify and address issues relating to their learning and employability. Schools are teaching youngsters without clear understanding of what professions will be invented by the time they will reach an age to work. The lifelong employability is no longer guaranteed by the education and training received in childhood and youth. The continuous restructuring and cost-cutting approaches frequently result into layoffs leading towards a job recession in global economy. This has increased the importance of up-to-date skills and competences to prepare the people for a more uncertain future, with many careers and more frequent changes in job roles.
Due to relatively high positions in organizations the managers can easily foresee and predict changes in job market. They are an appropriate group to study self-direction and self management with regard to learning. Hence, the significance of free agent learning for employability of managers seems a relevant object for study. The data was collected through a structured questionnaire from about 250 managers working across various functional areas in different banks based at selected cities of Pakistan.
Results of this study support the stated hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between free agent learning and employability with respect to a management career. The study concluded that free agent learning can be used as a tool to update and expand expertise, knowledge, and skills; to build and maintain networks; and to promote reputations to prepare for job transitions as and when current employer cannot guarantee long-term employment. The recommendations emphasis on use of free agent learning as a strategic approach by individuals as well as organization to capitalize over learning and development opportunities which could help in maintaining individuals employability as well as organizational excellence.
The Impact of Strategic Human Resource Planning on Organizational Performance
Human resource is undoubtedly the most precious asset of an organization. In the modern era, this business function is bringing ever increasing returns to the firms. Among the hot pursuits of reaching the International standards, human resource management is at the top priority.
The purpose of this research is to analyze the importance of strategic human resource planning in ISO certified companies of the paper and board manufacturing industry of Pakistan. Among all the organizations, two are found to be worthwhile for this study. It is a descriptive research that turns out the impact of strategic human resource planning on performance indicators such as sales, production, material consumed, gross profit margin, employee remuneration and paid-up capital. The data of the companies was taken from their annual reports.
The findings suggest that there exists a strong association between the two variables i.e. strategic human resource planning brings a positive impact on organizational performance. Companies have been seen to improve performance in the analysis of past five years. Human resource planning is being embedded as a core competency in the extravaganzas of the organizations.
It is forecast that if the entire economic sector utilizes the human resource optimally, the improvement in the performance shall be much more superior in the coming years. This research will be helpful in giving the chance on the debate of strategic human resource planning in the stated economic sector.
The Effects of Mergers and Acquisitions on Risk Reduction, Profitability, Efficiency and Growth of Banking Sector of Pakistan
This specific study has been conducted with the aim to highlight and describe the effects of mergers and acquisitions on risk reductions, profitability, efficiency and growth of banking sector of Pakistan. Ten banks operating in Pakistan having observed merger or acquisition transaction including Faysal Bank, United Bank Limited, JS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, NIB Bank, KASB Bank, MCB Bank, Habib Metropolitan Bank, Habib Bank and Bank Alfalah have been taken as a sample.
The financial analysis has been made with the help of financial ratios before and after merger or acquisition transaction to analyze the effects of the M&A activities. The paired sample T-test has been employed to verify the difference of performance of merging and acquiring banks before and after M&A transactions.
It has been found out from the results of this study that merger and acquisition transactions have no significant effects upon risk reduction, profitability, efficiency and growth of banking sector of Pakistan which is consistent to the several prevailing studies.
Relationship Between Reward's and Employee Motivation in Commercial Banks of Pakistan
The study examined the influence of rewards (payment, promotion, recognition and benefits) on employee work motivation. Subjects for the study consisted of one hundred and sixty seven employees of commercial banks of Kohat, Pakistan. Data for the study were gathered through the administration of questionnaire. The data collected was subjected to appropriate statistical analysis using "Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Analysis of Variance", all the findings were tested at 0.01 level of significance.
The results obtained from the analysis showed that there existed strong relationship between rewards and employee motivation in commercial banks of Pakistan. The results also indicated that women experienced lower levels of motivation based on rewards they received .On the basis of these findings implications of the findings for future study were highlighted.
Entrepreneurial health Audit of Banking Organizations in Pakistan
Exploitation of potentials requires provisioning of encouraging environments within the organizational setups for advancement and growth. For this study a set of five factors was termed as internal determinants comprising of management support, work discretion, rewards, time availability, and organizational boundaries which permeates entrepreneurial activities within organizational setups.
The research was carried out to audit the entrepreneurial health of banking sector organizations in Pakistan. The instrument was administered thrice simultaneously in public and private sector banks during the year's 2009 through 2010 and 2011.
The entrepreneurial intensity (EI) of overall banking sector of Pakistan had shown a continuous upward trend for all the years. The EI trend of public sector banks revealed a fluctuating trend with diagnostics cautioned inconsistencies on counts of internal determinants. Private sector banking organizations exposed continuous upward EI trends and shown consistencies on counts of internal determinants. The model is effective for internal determinants and EI for both the public and private sector banking organizations.
One of the recommendations framed on conclusive notes of this study is that the state bank of Pakistan as regulatory authority on banking sector may well employ El as one of the indices for evaluating the performance of banking sector organizations of Pakistan. Moreover, the research carried out on CE in Pakistan is expected to set a direction for future researchers, management consultants and other stakeholders which may be the most significant contribution of this study
Relationship of Customer Relationship Management with Product and Organizational Performance in Manufacturing Industries
There are several influencing factors concerned with the company and new product performance. Customer Relationship Management is one of them, which ultimately becomes backbone of an organization. The complete thesis designates the factors affecting Customer Relationship Management process, CRM technology and CRM reward system on New Product Performance and eventually on Company Performance. Many Studies on CRM and New Product Performance are continue from several years and deliberated its organization-wide importance.
The CRM processes in the context of New Product Development described hypotheses for the additional research in relation with Company Performance. Data was collected from 233 respondents from seventeen randomly selected manufacturing organizations in Pakistan. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for company performance described a strong and positive relationship of all variables. The consistency of the construct was measured by evaluating the reliability by cronbach's alpha of individual items. For the testing of external validity, the procedure of confirmatory factor analysis was used which suggests the validity including reflective indicators of key construct by calculating regression weights through AMOS and SPSS.
The SEM was used to calculate the path coefficients that evaluate strength of relationships. Separate models for the direct and indirect effects of company performance were examined for similarities and differences in perceptions. The outcomes described when a firm implements more its CRM processes in an NPD context, the higher the firm's new product performance. On the other hand, CRM technology did not positively influence the new product performance.
In addition to this the application of CRM reward systems also did not facilitate new product performance. While introducing successful new products ever has a strong influence on improving company performance. In addition to this new product performance was an important mediator of the CRM processes and company performance link.
An Analysis of Factors Affecting Individual Innovation: A Case Study of Selected Pakistani Organizations
Individual innovation provides basis for high competitiveness and improves fires performance. These are the employees whose capacity and capability for creativity and innovation provides the organization foundation for improved-performance and sustainable competitive advantage. The topic of individual innovation and creativity is of greater interest for organizations and entrepreneurs because individual innovation gives birth to firm-level innovation. Employee innovativeness not only enables an organization to choose from a broader range of products and procedures but also facilitates the organization to constantly adapt to a changing environment and to establish competitive advantages in strategic competition.
This variety provides the organization with flexibility with which it can respond to external demands and opportunities. Thus, employee innovations can be the inputs for a firm to innovate. However, research in this area is still at nascent stage in Asia Pacific, particularly in South Asia. In Pakistan, more specifically, no such efforts have been made to study individual innovation in context to its antecedent factors.
This study developed and tested a model of individual innovation and its four antecedent factors; creativity, self-leadership, knowledge management and culture. Data was collected from 227 respondents from thirty five randomly selected manufacturing organizations in Pakistan. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to extract the factors and measuring factor loadings for each construct. Construct reliability was tested using Cronbach's Alpha. Finally, Path Analysis was conducted to test the hypothesized model. The entire criteria for model-fit were achieved successfully. Results showed that creativity had a positive relationship with individual innovation.
A significant mediating role of creativity was found for self-leadership and knowledge management (KM).The data did not support the last hypothesis and showed no significant indirect positive effect of culture on individual innovation. Although a small positive indirect effect was found but that was statistically non-significant.
Impact of Employee Selection and Employee Development on Organizational Performance: A Study of Government and Private Sector Organizations
This study is conducted to evaluate the affects of employee selection and employee development on organizational performance. Both employee selection and employee development are important issues for organizations. These two variables have the potential to boost up the organizational performance. The Study shows that selection of right person is more critical than development of employee. A little mistake at the time of selection of employee will badly affect the organizational performance. Selections tools used in most of the organizations are out dated. Government organizations do not pay much attention on the development of employees.
The study is based on data collected through questionnaire survey from three government and three private organizations located in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The results indicate that both these variables are positively correlated with organizational performance in government and private organizations but there intensities vary across organization. In government organizations employee selection is positively and significantly correlated with organizational performance, whereas employee development is weakly correlated but not statistically significant. In private organizations both employee selection and employee development are positively and significantly correlated to organizational performance. In government organizations, organizational performance is only 20.7% explained by these two variables while in private organizations it is 56.6%, so this difference clearly depicts that employee selection and employee development are main constituents of organizational performance