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Satisfaction with Performance Appraisal System of Selected Public Sector Organizations The purpose of this study was to explore the views of employees and Officers/Managers about the Performance Appraisal system of their Organizations for a valid, reliable performance evaluation system to give employees and managers data about employee’s strengths and needs for development. If these data are used to reinforce employee’s strength and to plan and provide development assignments in areas of need, one might also expect improvement in morale, motivation and productivity. This study explores employees and administrator perceptions of a system with these goals, a system specifically designed to appraise performance of Public Sector Organization. Performance Appraisal system is the best source of to check and evaluate the performance of employees. Employees’ satisfaction with performance appraisal system is necessary, it helps and motivates the employee to work hard. Performance appraisal system must be base on performance of the individual. If criteria of assessment are based on performance, then every employee works hard.
Determinants of Operational Risk of Microfinance Banks in Pakistan This study was conducted to analyse the determinants of operational risk because it was almost uncovered area and has a significant impact on sustainability of Microfinance Banks in Pakistan. Operational risk is everywhere whether the organization is big or small, profitable or not. It cannot be eliminated but it can be minimized by the operations to take the optimal level of output. Primary data was used in this research. It was collected through survey from management of Microfinance Banks from different places of Pakistan. Questionnaire with 5-point Likert scale was used as data collection tool. For the processing of data descriptive and inferential statistics was used. From inferential statistics comparison of mean score and ordinal logistic regression was used. Results show that Human Resource, Information Technology, Consumer Financial Literacy and Internal Control System have significant relationship with the Microfinance Banks and odd ratios show that Internal Control System has high positive impact on Microfinance Banks which leads towards decrease in operational risk. Human Resource has lowest impact on Microfinance banks of Pakistan. Microfinance banks are the function of operational risk. It is linked with operational performance of Microfinance Banks. Good Human Resource, Information Technology, Consumer Financial Literacy and Internal Control System may reduce the operational risk and as a result performance of MFB's can be better.
Impact of Leadership, Training and Compensation on Project Performance: A Case on Detail Design of Rehabilitation and Up-Gradation of Lower Bari Doab Canal (LBDC) System Human Resource (HR) is one of the important aspects for any organization to accomplishing its management tasks in an effective manner. In this research, three human resource factors were studied and analysed for their impacton project performance. These factors are chosen on the basis of project natureand these factors are Leadership, Training &Compensation. The objectives of this research is to check the impact and significant correlation of leadership, training and compensation on the project performance also to find out the reasons of delay and how to boost-up the performance of this project. The case project has been delayed by 1.5 years. There is need to increase the efficiency of this project by addressing the three factors and analysing their significant correlation and impact on the project performance. Data was collected through questionnaire from companies who formed joint venture for this project and their departments specially HR department and different engineering departments which are working together on this project. This project needs strong leadership, effective training and comparatively high compensation for success. The results were described by using descriptive statistics, check the validity through reliability analysis, analyzed by Factor Analysis using Principal Component Analysis, Bivariate Correlation among the independent variables (Leadership, Training and Compensation) and dependent variable (Project Performance) and Regression analysis which shows results was reliable andmodel was best fit because the factors have a positive significant impacton the performance of the project. The multiple regressions shows the significant impact of independent variables (Leadership, training and Compensation) on dependent variable (Project Performance).
The Relationship Between Corporate Governance and Corporate Performance Corporate governance becomes a global issue. Corporate governance techniques are now most important to run a successful business. In Pakistan corporate governance was incorporated by SECP (Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan) in March 2002. A separate institute was also formed by SECP to take care the rules and regulations regarding corporate governance in Pakistan. The basic purpose of this research study is to check the impact of corporate governance on corporate performance. The corporate performance is generally measures through its profitability analysis. This research study examines the impact of corporate governance on corporate performance. The corporate performance is selected as a dependent variable and its variables are return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). The corporate governance variables are board size (BS), board independence (BI), and audit committee size (ACS). The data for this research is collected from the firms of Chemical Sector of Pakistan from 2005 to 2009. The regression models are applied to check the significance of corporate governance on corporate performance. The result shows that there is an insignificant impact of corporate governance on ROA & ROE. . The researcher has found that the role of corporate governance is not ignorable. As the corporate governance is at its early stages in Pakistan but due to corporate governance the performance of the firms have improved.
Impact of Trust and Subjective Wellbeing on Procedural Justice with Mediating Role of Psychological Contract Organizational justice has gained considerable attention in last few decades and has been widely studied because of its sensitive implications towards organization. Among other types of organizational justice, procedural justice has its own distinct place. Procedural justice is the fairness of procedures used in decision making. Organizational justice literature advocates that employees consider procedural justice more important than other types of justice in the organization. However, the factors influencing procedural justice have been underemphasized in literature. Current study strives to explore procedural justice with three factors including, trust, subjective well-being and psychological contract. Initially, a deep understanding of the topic is developed after studying a number of articles, books and other literature. A competing quantitative model is then developed where psychological contract is taken as a mediator. Data has been collected from a sample of 385 university teachers. The proposed model is then tested using Structural Equation Modeling. For this, AMOS is used to find the model that best fits the data. As reported in this thesis, the proposed model has undergone few modifications and results in a better model fit. Analysis of the proposed model reveals that trust is positively related to procedural justice and psychological contract. In addition, subjective well-being positively influences psychological contract but is not significantly related to procedural justice. Furthermore, psychological contract doesn't mediate the relationship between trust, subjective well-being and procedural justice.
Differences between Supervisors' and Subordinates' perception of Job Definition in Mobile Organization Telecom sector of Pakistan has a rapid growth rate in last few years. One of the problems being faced by mobile organizations is high rate of employees’ turnover. This study analyzes the perception of supervisors and subordinates on job definition of mobile organizations with relationships to turnover intent. Supervisor perception about the subordinate’s job and subordinates perception about their job. In addition, factors which affect the relationship between two sides are also analyzed. One hundred and ninety supervisors and subordinate employees of major mobile organizations were surveyed. The measurement included perception of job definition, supervisors attributes on subordinates job performance, subordinates attributes towards their job and supervisors attitude towards subordinates job description. One hundred and sixty questionnaires were distributed to supervisors and their respective subordinates and one hundred and forty were returned back. Univarite analysis ANOVA was used to find the relationship of eleven hypotheses of the study. Multivariate analysis was also performed on relationship of JDPI and tangible and in tangible satisfaction with turnover intent. Statistical package SPSS 17.0 was used. The study and analysis discovered that there are perceptional differences between supervisors and their respective subordinates. 55% subordinates’ think that their relationship with supervisors are not friendly and they are overload at workplace. 69% supervisors think that subordinates take more time to perform different tasks and give more priority to trivial matters of the job. In addition more than 50% supervisors perceive that most of their subordinates are classic squeaky wheel that needs always greasing. Furthermore 64 % subordinates think that they can easily adjust in any other organization, this shows their belongingness to their organizations and it would be critical for the mobile organizations.
Effective Risk Management in Commercial Banks This research study was conducted to find out the factors and indicators of risks in commercial banks and their effective risk management. It may be helpful to the stockholders who are concerned with the risk level: a bank faces and the management may use it to get a clear view of institution's standing and can decide future action plan for managing their financial risk. This study also provides a clear view of financial factors that by managing will lead to reduce the ultimate financial risk. The source of data collection for this study is primary and secondary. Questionnaire is used for primary data collection and annual reports of the banks are used for secondary data collection. The sample consists of banks from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Ten (10) commercial Banks from both cities were chosen at random. 30 different branches of all banks were selected for this study. There were hundred (100) respondents who have completed the questionnaire. The extent of interest shown by outside parties is a very basic factor that leads to financial risk. The more is the interest of outside parties higher will be the risk. The data of the survey depicts that a lot of interest is shown by the outside parties in the banks. Another factor is Regulatory / Contractual of the bank have an affect on the overall risk management. The banks in the survey are facing a high level of regulatory / contractual requirements. These increase the complexity and diversity of the banking system. The ratio analysis indicates an in consistency of the banks in their focusing areas.
Analyzing the Relationship Between Batch-Sizing and Bullwhip Effect in Two-Tire Supply Chain: A Case Study of Selected Pakistani Rice Firms This study attempts to investigate the relationship between batch-sizing and bullwhip effect in the Supply Chain dynamics in the rice firms of Pakistan. For carrying out this research, the data has been collected from the demand and sales sheets of a group of four large rice distributors and manufacturers (two each) from the districts of Lahore and Islamabad, Pakistan. This was done to make up two-tier supply chain as one manufacturer and one distributor was required for two-tier to complete the chain. Since this was a case study, therefore data from four firms were considered sufficient to examine the demand and inventory patterns of the selected tiers. The research comprises two case studies from each tier. Consistent with the earlier studies, the researcher applied simulation modeling technique to estimate the likely trends of the selected rice firms for two consecutive years from December 2007 to December 2009. The data was analyzed using simulation technique that produced results, showing a non-linear relationship between batch-size and bull-whip effect. The contribution of this research is two-fold. Firstly, the current research is an extension of a study by Hussain and Drake (2011) that analyzes the relationship between batch size and bullwhip effect as non-monotonic, whereby the size of the remainder of quotient determines the value of bullwhip effect. Secondly, the batch size has less frequently been studied in the context of bullwhip effect; hence the researcher has extended strength to the existing supply chain model. This study helps the supply chain practitioners and managers to understand and minimize negative effects of bullwhip by proper batch sizing and taking measures to control excessive inventory investment, capacity, poor customer level, lost revenues, decision making, reduced productivity, sub-optimal production and transportation. The study also provides implications for researchers and academicians. The study suggests the future researchers to conduct further research on bullwhip effect for other industries in Pakistan, especially for wholesalers and retailers.
Effect of Motivational Factors on Teacher Job Satisfaction: A Study of Public Sector Degree Colleges of Punjab, Pakistan Among all the resources of an educational institution, teachers are unquestionably the most important. Motivation plays a pivotal role in increasing the level of teacher's job satisfaction. Satisfied teachers in turn can help in improving the performance of an educational institution. The objectives of this study were to explore various factors of low motivation of teachers and to analyze the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors on teacher job satisfaction in public sector degree colleges of Punjab, Pakistan. This was an exploratory study based on primary data. Questionnaire was used to collect the primary data. The profile of the respondents included all the teachers who were working in public sector degree colleges of Punjab, Pakistan. Regression Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique using Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) 19.0 was applied. SPSS 19.0 was used for basic analysis purpose. The results of the study indicated that although compensation and benefits package is an important factor of teacher's low motivation in public sector degree colleges of Punjab, Pakistan, but there are also some non monetary factors for example, insufficient opportunities to acquire new skills at job, lack of participation in job related decisions, over crowded class rooms, unsatisfactory work environment, lack of pre-service and in-service training programs, unsatisfactory recognition and feedback process which are contributing to low motivation of teachers in public sector degree colleges of Punjab, Pakistan. Study concluded that there is significant relationship between intrinsic motivational factors and teacher job satisfaction. Similarly, statistically significant relationship is also found between extrinsic motivational factors and teacher job satisfaction. However, it is found that teacher job satisfaction in largely caused by intrinsic motivational factors as compare to extrinsic motivational factors. Moreover, significant difference is observed between teacher's age, designation, teaching experience and teacher job satisfaction. The study has recommended strategies about how management can utilize intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors as a tool to keep teachers motivated and satisfied in their jobs. The study also recommended ways by which management can eliminate low motivation amongst teachers by improving their skills, knowledge and competencies and by creating supporting learning environment, building good relationships between junior and senior teachers and involving teachers in job related decisions. The study seems to be very useful as it provides both, the theoretical implications for the researchers interested in exploring job satisfaction in higher educational institutions in Pakistan as well as practical implications for the higher authorities within public sector higher education set up in Pakistan.
Efficiency of Karachi Stock Exchange 2000-2012 The present study is conducted to investigate Weak Form Efficiency (WFE) of KSE-100 Index by using the daily data set from January 3, 2000 to November 30, 2012. This study estimated three unit root tests namely Augmented Dickey and Fuller (1979), Phillip-Perron (1988) and Kwiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt and Shin (1992). Weak Form Efficiency was also investigated by applying autocorrelation test with the help of Q-statistics. From the statistical results mixed findings are concluded about the efficiency of KSE-100 index. The presence of unit root indicates that a time series is non-stationary or random walk or in other words Weak Form Efficient. Meanwhile, estimated statistical results of Ljung-Box Q-Statistic of autocorrelation concluded that KSE-100 index is not Weak Form Efficient. However, the main reason of difference in results is because of the low power of process of unit root tests if the process is stationary. The implication of these findings can play pivot role in case of investment decisions made in stock markets in Pakistan. Investment managers, investors, multinaltional and even policy makers of developing countries with prior knowledge about Weak Form Efficiency of stock markets of the Pakistan can make smart investment decisions with better risk management.
Factors Affecting Customer Retention: A Case Study of Cellular Industry of Pakistan The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of price perception, customer satisfaction, brand image, switching barriers (switching cost, interpersonal relationship and attractiveness of alternative) and trust towards the Customer retention in the cellular industry of Pakistan. This study adds many other supporting materials especially for the literature review; a model is used in this study to find the effect of the factors on customer retention. Proportionate stratified sampling questionnaire was distributed in the nine towns of Lahore, this study choose current users of cellular service providers in Pakistan that cover all five mobile operators in Pakistan which Mobilink, U-Fone, Telenor, Wand, and Zong. The data is analyzed with the help of the multiple regression analysis. Out of seven variables tested it is found that switching barriers (interpersonal relationship and switching cost), brand image, price perception, trust and customer satisfaction have the effect on customer retention. However, customer satisfaction has little to do to increase the customer retention. This study also provides evidence that the higher switching barrier of attractiveness of the alternative lower is the customer retention. This study has its limitation since this research is only conducted in Lahore area. Therefore the finding of the study is unable to be generalized for the whole population of mobile users in Pakistan as the sample size is measured small. The findings can help the service providers to find the effect of customer satisfaction, price perception, trust, brand image and switching barriers towards the customer retention.
Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: A Study of Subcontinent and China This study looks into the determinants of foreign direct investment and economic growth of four countries (Pakistan, China, Bangladesh and India) based on secondary data covering the period form 1970-2010. The selected three countries are from Subcontinent. China is included in this study because China is getting highest foreign direct investment and it is on the top of preferred destinations of foreign direct investment. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) is used in this study to reveal the relationship between variables through two equations. The results, obtained from the analysis show that large market size and growth in the market of the host country are most significant determinants of foreign direct investment and foreign direct investment is an important ingredient of economic growth and economic growth. The relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth is ilateral. The results also reveal that domestic saving, growth in exports and employment are contributing to the economic growth. Depreciation in the exchange rate and deficit trade balance attracts foreign direct investment. When countries face trade deficit they adopt more favorable policies towards foreign direct investment.
A Study of Factors Affecting Earning per Share and Return on Capital Employed in Pakistan's Sugar Sector The purpose of this research is to investigate various factors affecting Earning per Share and Return on Capital Employed. In this study an attempt has been made to determine what factors can affect firm value or not? Firms have various choices to raise their capital and the decision to select mix of finance is referred to as financial structure decision. The decision of financial structure is one of the most important decisions that have great impact on shareholders maximization principal. Different theorists argue differently regarding components of capital structure such as debt, equity and preferred stock on firm value. In this study this relationship has been empirically evidenced in the sugar industry companies listed on Lahore Stock Exchange. This study investigates the relationship of Short Term Debt, Long Term Debt, Equity, Firm Size and Tangibility of Assets with Earning per Share (EPS) and Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) using Simple and Multi Linear Regression Models. The data that has been collected from financial statement of companies related to sugar industry of Pakistan listed on Lahore Stock Exchange. This study measures and analyzes short term debt and Long Term debt rather than an aggregate measure and analysis of total debt. The results reveal the fact that equity has significant relationship with profitability. Moreover, debt has non significant relationship with profitability.
Measuring the Effectiveness of Brand Positioning Perceived by Consumers: A Comparative Study of Selected Cellular Companies The role of brand positioning is vibrant and central in marketing and the consumers' perception is directly shaped by employing the suitable positioning strategy. Regardless the significance of positioning concept, however, there is scant study observed; how positioning substitutes contribute to build the consumer perception, which positioning strategy outperforms and how it can be measured effectively. The current study mode is quantitative and relative effectiveness of positioning strategies (feature, direct, indirect, surrogate-usage) is measured empirically regarding consumer viewpoint. The multidimensional scale is used to measure the relative effectiveness. The measuring items comprise of four dimensions that are favorability, dissimilarity, uniqueness, and credibility. The total numbers of items that are associated with these dimensions are seventeen. The relative performance of positioning strategies is observed hypothetically. For this purpose, four print ads of real brands from cellular industry are selected. The statistical technique that is applied is ANCOVA by considering age and monthly income as covariates. Descriptive statistics was also incorporated in analysis part. Relative effectiveness is noticed between the positioning strategies during interpretation and discussion on the statistical results. Moreover, some limitations are reported along with the associated directions for future research.