Comparison of Quality and Instructional Practices of Open and Virtual Universities in Pakistan with Special Reference to HRD
The study aimed at the survey of coverage, Quality, New Trends and Instructional Practices of Open and Virtual universities in Pakistan. This study also focused upon exploring the actual impact of Open and Virtual universities in expanding access to higher education in Pakistan and identifying innovations and good practices in ICT-assisted learning in Open and Virtual universities in Pakistan. Procedure adopted for this study contained desk review, observation of PVCs, study centers, getting the opinion of students, teachers and administrators through questionnaires, interview schedule and FGDs.
The study concluded that AIOU had provided wider opportunities of access to higher education in almost all disciplines of social, natural & management sciences because of its flexibility, tutorial services & regional network. On contrary Virtual University has progressed at comparatively slower pace because of being only ICT dependent. However both the universities have potential in expanding access to higher education in Pakistan at least @ 10-25% per year.
The study further revealed that both the universities have jumped into the innovation and good practices of online education, video conferencing, e-assessment & e-learning in providing education at bachelor & master level. Both the universities have tremendous potential of entering into other innovations and good practices in ICT-assisted learning to compete the contemporary regime of open and virtual learning.
Analysis of Relationship between Need Based Training and Assessment Reduction of Professional Obsolescence (PO) in Pakistan Banks.
According to the emergent case of Web services in Pakistani banking sector, two types of preconditions are investigated: technological preconditions and organizational preconditions vis-à-vis technically competent human resource. Based on these, a set of qualitative and quantitative research methods were carried out beside the bank direction, commercial staff and subscribed customers to technology based banking services.
The research illustrates that centralized architectures, fragmented information systems, organizational rigidity, level of technological know-how and disregarding user's implication could be factors of slowness (or failure) in implementing technology based banking services. E-banking has to be a delivery channel that replicates and replaces many of the physical functions a bank currently performs. Hence, e-banking now becomes a virtual banking counter that the individual and corporate customer to carry out the regular activities. Even e-banking services are more electronic-based, but, it still strongly supports banking activities, therefore communication, transaction and distribution (Peterson, Balasubramanian and Bronnenberg, 1997). There are number of challenges that need to be faced by Pakistani banks, however, the opportunity in this industry is high due to the current trend especially application and development of ICT.
The tremendous advances in technology and the aggressive infusion of information technology had brought in a paradigm shift in banking operations. Internet banking that has revolutionized the banking industry world wide has turned out to be the nucleus issue of various studies all over the world. However there has constantly been a literature gap on the issue in Pakistan. Exploring online banking customer requirements allowed the definitions of service criteria assuring customer satisfaction at the time of realization and so the factors regulating the quality level of Internet banking services. Analyzing voice of the customer and building a transformation framework bringing it into practice are the leading steps of the methodology and the most important factors in regulating the level of quality of internet banking services.
Dove (2004) holds the opinion that failure to adapt to change in terms of skills development is professional obsolescence. Khan (2004: Dawn) says that influx of insincere, non professional, incompetent recruitees in banks in the aftermath of privatization badly affected the banking industry. This fact has been verified by Grip and Zwick (2001:4) who opined in their study on "the employability of low-skilled workers in the knowledge economy", changes in technology and occupation also spur shift in the kinds of skills needed to serve a specific job, and any neglect to update the skills leads to professional obsolescence.
The continuous improvement in skills and knowledge in the Banks is vital and this view is supported by Grip and Zwick (2001:4) and they state that "Both the upgrading of the skill level and the shifts in the type of activities may deteriorate the applicability of skills the workers acquired in the past". The banks in Pakistan are facing new challenges due to globalization of financial markets. The international banks are equipped with modern technology, innovative products and services, skilled and knowledgeable human resource to capitalize on the major and valued segment of the clientele. The local banking industry is directionless. It is due to lack of required skills and knowledge the employees need to possess to perform their duties efficiently. Srivastava (2003:68) describes about the emerging competitive environment where performance of an individual depends upon different types of skills and knowledge and one of them is developing problem solving skills. Sridhar (2003:31) states that genuinely identified training needs will address the issue of skills development. Khan (2004:Dawn) proffers one significant remedy to improve the performance of banks which is institutionalization of HRM and it entails placement of best man to best assignment, updating his/her knowledge through refreshing courses, seminar on emerging banking and financial problems thereby heading towards reduction in professional obsolescence.
Need-based trainings are the major tool to equip the human resource so as to make Pakistani banks sustainable and competitive apart from other reform measures like further strengthening of Prudential Regulations, liberalized policy for opening and closing of branches has been significantly liberalized, free-floating market driven exchange rate system and so on so forth.
Development of a Quality Enhancement Training Model for University Teachers.
The progress of a nation depends upon quality of education .The quality of education is based on faculty at the university level. For achieving the quality education, professional development is an essential component. It is concerned with the creation of knowledge, utilization of knowledge and skills.
The main concern of this study was to explore the situation about professional development of university teachers in Pakistan pertaining to (a) quality improvement initiative by teachers to do research on teaching (b) adoption of innovative methods of instructions (c) diversified student population which is not satisfied by the uniform teaching methods /styles. Moreover the study was aimed to provide a guideline for the training of teachers so that existing deficiencies can be removed through quality teaching methods/models. Higher Education Commission (HEC) has taken various encouraging steps for the training of teachers. But before 2000 the training of teachers at university level was not given due focus for one or other reasons .The teachers in higher education organizations carry two functions i.e. research and teaching. This study covers only one-aspect i.e. Pedagogical skills of teachers.
There are various models of teacher training and some of them have been discussed in the study. Each of them has its own strengths and weaknesses but benefit can be taken from these models. The models have been analyzed in order to check feasibility for quality teaching at university level.
The quality of higher education is related with the competency of academic staff. In order to enhance the quality of teaching staff, there is an acute need to arrange the concurrent training session for teachers. With the creation of knowledge, abrupt changes are taking place which results into continuous changes of curriculum. To update the knowledge of teachers in relation to modified curriculum and enhance pedagogical skills, training is required.
Although various incentives have been given to the university teachers by the HEC to enhance the quality of learning and teaching at higher education but there is a need to further strengthen the training programmes. Teacher training is one of the key issues of developing countries. Higher quality of training leads to improve the students learning in addition to enhance the performance of teachers. On the basis of the reviewing of literature a model of training on quality enhancement of university teachers has been developed.
The Impact of Job Design on the Performance of Private Sector Organizations in Pakistan
The prime and basic motive of this research is to design a good job which is conducive and healthy for organizations to meet the future challenges. Particularly in corporate culture the organizations face fierce competition and on the parallel line the employees also face tremendous problems, due to innovation of new technologies, work overload, mental stress, job stress and ambiguous job description.
If the job design is well structured employees will more satisfied and their performance will be increased. The survival of many organizations has been challenged because of their inability to respond flexibly and appropriately to the need of employees' beneficiaries. The primary task of the organizations today, is to satisfy the need of employees, and look into the welfare of the society. The organizations of the future will be based on adaptability- intelligence, continuous change and transformation rather than on predictability.
This research focuses that job design has positive impact on the performance of an organization as well as it enhanced employees' satisfaction and motivation. In present era, the job design has great importance for both academicians and practitioners in the field of human resource management. A good job design means that all elements of work should be taken into consideration and no element should be overlapping.
The basic aim of my research is to explore the job design issue and structure a good job. Through good job we can increase the motivation of employees and performance of organizations. When the employee will be more satisfied, then unequivocally the productivity of organization would be enhanced. I have applied the conceptual job design characteristic model which is developed by Hackman and Oldham to analyze the impact of job design on organization performance.
Supply Chain Management of Auto-industry of Pakistan
The automobile industry in Pakistan took its roots during the fifties but in consequence of the Government's nationalization policy, its growth remained stunted till the mid eighties when it was reactivated with the setting up of more vehicle assembly plants in the country. It got a boost with the liberalization of the Government's financial policies and the advent of the era of car leasing in the country. Consequently, more auto assemblers ventured into the arena and established themselves in competition with the previously entrenched players.
With automobile assembling serving as the mother industry and focused on the domestic market, the downstream automotive parts industry and the engineering industries have nurtured to a level at which they are not only increasing their role in the domestic market but have also started playing a role in the export earnings of the country.
Being principally an assembling industry, the supply chain constitutes one of the most important parts of its functioning. It also dictates the cost and quality of the end product. Because of the vastness of the subject, the study has been principally confined to the car and light commercial (LCV) segment which has the maximum direct impact on the common purchaser.
The Study aims at understanding the industrial development of the Country and the current domestic industrial dynamics. It reviews global trends in the field where distinct trends are emerging of the auto manufacturers and assemblers shifting from their traditional bases. It also outlines the development of this sector in the domestic market so as to identify both its strengths and weaknesses and lay down the contours for its future growth which holds a good promise. At the end, certain recommendations are being offered for the future growth of the industry in Pakistan.
A Comparative Study of Organizational Commitment in the Punjab University & GIFT University Gujranwala Campuses
Organizational commitment plays a vital role in the progress of any organization. The researcher considered University of the Punjab and Gujranwala Institute of Future Technology University Gujranwala campuses as research centers and it includes how salary/financial benefits, job environment and opportunities for promotion are components of Organizational Commitment.
The accumulated results may be beneficial and helpful for future planners. The sample consisted of 153 employees working in Punjab University and Gujranwala Institute of Future Technology (GIFT) University Gujranwala Campuses. Questionnaire comprises 15 questions was prepared. The researcher adopted the questionnaire. Nature of the study was descriptive. Organizational commitment has a tremendous impact on Organizational performance.
According to this study, the employees of Gujranwala Institute of Future Technology University are more satisfied with Pay, recognition of their work, supervision received, Opportunity for promotion and working environment. The employees of The Punjab University Gujranwala Campus are found more satisfied as compared to employees in Gujranwala Institute of Future Technology University in relation to teaching load, job security and flexibility in working hours. From the above discussion we can say that, if we want to raise the Organizational commitment level from the employees, the organization weather Government or Private should give job security. So that he/she could not feel his/her future insecure.
Impact of Conflict Management on Managerial Performance
The purpose of this study was to find out relationship between the Conflict Management Strategies and Managerial Performance. The Conflict Management Strategies selected for this study were Integrating, Accommodating, Compromising, Forcing and Avoiding. The study investigated the relationships among five Behavioural Conflict-Handling Strategies and also their relationship with Constructive and Destructive Conflict. Besides this, the relationship of Destructive and Constructive Conflict with Managerial Performance was also studied. One forty two managers from three different cellular companies of Pakistan (i.e.) Mobilink, Ufone and Paktel participated in this study. The instrument administered was developed by Rahim (1983). This instrument measured the five conflict management styles and also their relationship with Destructive and Constructive Conflict. However, for measuring Managerial Performance the instrument used was developed by Lusch and Serpkenci (1990).
In this correlation study, percentages, means and standard deviations were used to analyze the data. And the results were calculated by using correlation analysis on the collected data. Empirical results both support and question some of the previous findings in conflict research. The results indicated that Integrating, Accommodating, Compromising, Forcing and Avoiding conflict-handling strategies could have different impacts on Constructive and Destructive Conflict in a Performance Context.
The findings of this study shed some light on the effect of various styles and revealed that the use of Accommodating and Integrating styles influence Managerial Performance in a positive way. Recommendations for further research were also provided.
Impact of Communication on Organizational Performance
It is widely believed that organizational communication affects organizational performance and creates comparative advantage for the organization. This study contributes to the growing literature on the influence of organizational communication and its impact on organizational performance. The study further aims at to finding out relationship among interpersonal communication, intrapersonal communication, internal communication, external communication and change in perceived organizational performance. Instrument was developed and its reliability tested through the pilot study.
For the main study, 136 questionnaires were distributed in 34 organizations in banking, oil & gas and telecommunication sectors and the entire respondents provided the data through effective coordination prior and post dispatch of the questionnaires. Regression analyses and correlation were applied. Overall organization performance varied 8% to 26% due to organization communication. Organization performance interrelated 18% to 44% with organization communication's components in banking sector. Organization performance correlated 07% to 35% with organization communication's components in Oil & Gas Sector. Organization performance interconnected 07% to 32% with organization communication's components in telecommunication sector.
The findings of this study depict that organizational communication is an important determinant of change in perceived organizational performance components. 'These findings suggest that increasing organizational communication will have a positive effect on organizational performance. Increasing organizational communication is a long-term process, which demands both attention from management side and initiative from the employee
Study of Time-Based Work Family Conflict in the Nursing Profession in Islamabad
This research investigates the social and domestic problems faced by the married nurses in the fulfillment of their professional responsibilities. Study addresses the critical issue of work family conflict in Pakistani perspective. The Research was conducted in two hospitals of Islamabad (Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences and Poly Clinic Hospital). Different aspects of the issue were endeavored to be explored. The main domain of this research was to see the prevalence of work-family conflict among nurses. One of the more frequent pursuits in the research is the quest to identify which segment of shift schedule (morning, evening and night) represents higher level of work family conflict for married nurses. Sample of the study consisted of two hundred married nurses working in different shifts in hospitals out of which 161 responded back. The Response rate was 80%.
The Study further explored Length of shift, work schedule flexibility, family support that affects Work – family conflicts. The results of the study reveal that presently most of the nurses working in hospitals are assigned 12-hour Shift. Work schedule flexibility and family support are negatively associated with work- family conflicts while work schedule flexibility is positively associated with family supports. Evening and night shift nurses were found to have greater level of work family conflict than that of morning shift nurses. Nurses with cooperative environment at home suffer less from social and domestic problems while lengthy duration of working shifts affects the married life of the nurses.
An Experimental Study of Students Attitudinal Shift Towards Advertising Through Mobile Phones
The study is conducted to analyze the students' Attitudinal Shift towards Advertising through Mobile Phones. Mobile technologies imply many opportunities for marketing, in particular a direct communication with consumers without time or location barriers. However, some aspects of mobile marketing such as mobile advertising still require further research. The diffusion of mobile technologies is considered a factor that may impact consumers' perceptions and behavior. Samples of 300 students froth the universities and colleges of Islamabad / Rawalpindi of various age groups, academic level, and gender was taken. Four variables such as; information, entertainment, irritation and credibility, based on the student attitudes, were selected and measured on 5 point Likert scale.
The results indicate that almost 53 % students enjoy the SMS and take it as entertainment, 51% receive only specific information as and when required. 39% feel irritation upon receiving any SMS on their mobiles phones, whereas, 40% even don't bother to read the full text message, received on their mobiles. Overall 59.7% students like mobile advertising. It can be concluded that the students generally have positive attitude towards mobile advertising. Entertainment and information are considered main factors which affect students' attitudes towards SMS-based mobile advertising. The attitude towards advertising contrast between two genders bias and as per result male students enjoys mobile advertising; where as majority of the female students were irritated from the mobile advertising.
The results of this research are helpful for management to better understand the critical components of mobile advertising in different cultural settings.
Human Resource Management of Paktel has significant role to play in the growth of an organization. Consequently, HRM aspect from induction to its sequential element of development, performance appraisal and placement has been dilated upon in the report. Data has been ferreted out from the reports, manuals and related available documents Salary/emoluments have not been made part of the report on account of its variation affects upon various cadres.
Last part of the report encompasses certain analysis followed by the recommendations. However, it management puts an efforts to run the organization to best of their ability therefore analysis may be taken as academic and idealistic to be arrangements but the criticism. Rather avowed admission is being made that HRM deptartment of Paktel is yielding optimum performance to maintain the role of the organization as viable and dynamo in its manifestation.
It would be out of place if earnest tribute and appreciation is not extended to the HRM dept for their forthright assistance and guidance to accomplish the task in a befitting manner without which it would not have been possible to consummate the ambition of workable report on the organization. I shall remain indebted to the management in contributing for my personal development of equipping administration knowledge in the course of this assignment.
It may be confessed vividly that all said about, is not the official version hence management in no way remains under obligation. However, dedicated attempt has been made to remain as close to the reality of the information as possible.
Gender Differences in Self Perception of Leadership Traits.
The general purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in self-perception between male and female leaders. The sample group included male and female leaders in a few companies (e.g Warid, World Call, Telenor, Habib Bank Ltd. etc) companies. Each manager's self-perception was tested against the way in which others (managers, peers, sub-ordinates) perceive him or her. The difference between the self-rating and that of the others was measured to establish the difference in perception between self and others.
The results showed that men were slightly more self-aware than the females. It is recommended that it would be beneficial to find ways in which the environment can be prepared to limit the impact of gender differences on the implementation of the 360 feedback system (or any other performance management system) and to investigate variables such as cultural differences, age and the concept of self-perception.
Constraints of Management Dynamics of Higher Education in Pakistan
Teaching and learning have been at the heart of education since inception of mankind in this world. Good teaching has not only been a source of cognitive development but also a crucial source of moral and intellectual inspiration for the newcomers into the academic community. Higher education is meant to develop the ability of a student to think clearly, logically and honestly and to promote clear and critical thinking.
This study contributes towards the understanding of the major constraints of management dynamics of higher education in Pakistan. The major constraints are Financial, socio-cultural, technological, availability of skilled man power, quality and of infrastructure, which were taken as independent variables and constraints of management dynamics of higher education as dependent variable. Higher Education Commission of Pakistan is putting serious efforts to overcome these main constraints to promote higher education in Pakistan. Three different public universities namely Quaid-I-Azim University, International Islamic University and Federal Urdu University of Science and Technology based in Islamabad were studied to collect in depth knowledge in the form of primary data about different constraints of higher education faced by students studying at higher levels (Masters, M.Phil and Ph.D).
Enough of the already available relevant literature was studied and Interpretation of the data gave us the findings that concrete measures must be formulated and implemented by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan to minimize the deteriorating impact of these constraints for the management of higher education in Pakistan and strategic plans must be introduced in higher education similar to that of corporate world.
Functioning of NEPRA as an Effective Power Regulator of Pakistan
The effectiveness of a regulatory agency is outcome of the quality of its management, whereas a strong infrastructure i.e., fulfillment of institutional requirements and autonomy of functions are the basic requirements of an autonomous regulatory system, besides the environmental factors that can also influence the effectiveness of a regulatory body. NEPRA, the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority was established in 1997 to ensure transparent and judicious regulation in the power sector, after restructuring of power sector. Earlier the government was the operator as well as the regulator for both power services providing companies i.e., WAPDA and KESC. The power sector restructuring and other reforms in the energy sector were the efforts to avert the risk of any future energy crisis, but they could not be proved to be fruitful.
This research work is based on evaluation of the efficiency of NEPRA as an effective electric power regulator in Pakistan, considering the above stated four main factors. The scientific research method, consisting of hypotheses testing and the formulation of regression model was used in the research work. It has been concluded that NEPRA is working in a nice manner. There are three stakeholders of NEPRA, i.e., government, electric power companies and the electricity consumers. Out of which government and most of the electric power companies are satisfied with the performance of NEPRA, but the electricity consumers are less satisfied. Availability of trained manpower and implementation of regulations have been pointed out as the areas of special attention to improve the performance of NEPRA. Some steps are also suggested in this regard.
This study is an attempt to improve the effectiveness of NEPRA by exploring the influence of different factors upon it. The research work has contributed towards increasing the ability of NEPRA to overcome the present power crisis of Pakistan and to address the grievances of electricity consumers.