Leadership Behavior and Employee Job Satisfaction: A Study of Path Goal Theory in Telecom Sector
This study was designed to test the path-goal theory of leadership in Pakistan telecom (mobile) industry. The study explored relationship between leadership behaviors (directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented) of middle managers and job satisfaction of subordinates. Path-goal leadership model attempts to explain the impact of leader behavior on the subordinate motivation, satisfaction and performance.
Leadership behaviors (directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented) of managers were measured through leader behavior items. Subordinates’ satisfaction was measured by the job descriptive index. While job expectancy I and job expectancy II were measured through job expectancy scale. The four path-goal leader behaviors, seven moderating variables and nine subordinates’ outcomes were measured through the instrument comprising of 189 items. Further, the results of study were obtained by testing 28 hypotheses.
The analysis suggested that the moderating variables influence preference for a particular type of leadership behavior (by the subordinate) and leader behavior has an impact on subordinate satisfaction, job expectancy (I&II) and acceptance of leader. Leader behavior affects satisfaction directly. Further subordinate satisfaction has a direct effect on the subordinate performance which is further influenced by the task demand. There was no difference between male and female respondents regarding any dependent measure. Moreover, the direction of association between variables is not known and it is difficult to predict accurately without further research, which is replicated and revalidated.
Due to time constraints, the research has several limitations. Recommendations are made for future study, particularly replication in the public and private sectors to ensure validity which will help in determining causal relationship between leader behavior and subordinate satisfaction.
Pragmatism in Management Institutions: Rethinking Business School System
Management and Business education industry is considered to be in the era of mushroom growth as variety of programs is offered throughout the world, and similar is the trend of admissions and enrolments in such schools. However, this expansion has made business education much commercial. Today business schools are somehow being criticized for not fulfilling their roles and responsibilities with much rigor and concern, particularly in imparting practical and pragmatic knowledge hence; the quality and value offered to the stake holders become questionable. The researcher therefore considered it important and researchable to explore that what business schools are all about? What education system they are following to impart practical knowledge? And are they being able to satisfy their stakeholders or not? How much industry should be involved in edification process to enhance the practicality and relevancy? The researcher has also recommended a possible mode of industry and school partnership namely pragmatic business edification (PBE) Model. The dissertation also collected responses of the stakeholders about proposed partnership, using focus group survey.
The study was descriptive in nature. Interviews, Questionnaires and Focus group methods were used to collect data. 20 key informant interviews were conducted to gain a better understanding of the education quality and system. In addition, a total of 200 students and alumni’s were approached for the survey asking about the effectiveness of business schools in preparing them for the industry. The focus group study included twenty (20) professionals from education and other industries of Pakistan, exploring the potential benefits and possible hindrances in implementing proposed model.
Research showed that there is an unsatisfactory perception of the education system design that management institutions are following at present. Currently the business education is partially fulfilling the requirements of industry and it is imperative for business schools to look for new, enhanced, and more effectual ways of imparting business knowledge. By working with industry business schools can intensify their efforts to fulfill employer needs. Therefore school-industry collaboration opportunities are needed to be adequately and effectively explored.
A Quasi-Experimental Study of Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Participation in Public Sector Educational Institutions
A quasi experimental research with Non Equivalent Control Group Design (intact matched groups) in non contrived condition (in an organizational context) was conducted to study the relationship between customer participation in decision making about the contents of service, the mode of service delivery and the increased effort in co-production. Customer satisfaction was measured using SERVQUAL developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985). Three field experiments were conducted to study the relationship of three independent variables separately on one dependant variable each. It was noted that consumer satisfaction increased significantly in all experiments, showing a direct and proportionate relationship between various forms of participations and customer satisfaction. It was noted that the consumers expectations were effected only by participation in core decision making, however performance evaluation and consequent customer satisfaction increased significantly.
The research provides a maiden empirical work providing the first ever-primary data on participation of intact groups, thus enhancing the scope of research on customer participation already going on in the field of medical care and providing avenues for exploration of the same in public service as well as commercial services involving grouped customers.
The Gaps in SMEs Financing: A Study on Surgical Instruments Cluster
This study examined the lack of access to finance for Small and Medium Enterprises especially Surgical Instruments Cluster located at Sialkot with an intention to propose a set of recommendations to cater the financing problems. For this purpose, in-depth interview technique was used. The population of study consisted of the members of Sialkot Instruments Manufacturers Association of Pakistan.
The sample comprised of nineteen firms, and Small & Medium Enterprises Bank chosen on the basis of Snow ball sampling technique. In-depth Interviews were followed by transcriptions, coding of data under relevant themes through N Vivo. The results of the study found lack of financial data, high interest rates, lack of entrepreneurial skills, Non- availability of Collateral, Legal & Regulatory issues, Government Capacity and non-participation of Institutional investors in the Pakistani Venture capital industry attributed towards lack of financing options for Surgical Instruments Cluster. Following the Triangulation technique Ratio Analysis of seven firms, Analysis of Investment Portfolios of Mutual & Pension funds, Content Analysis of themes, Pearson Correlation Coefficients and Hypotheses testing concluded that firms in Surgical Instruments Cluster were constrained to necessary financing especially Working Capital.
At the end, a set of recommendations have been proposed including launching of Credit Guarantee Scheme, Creation of Mutual Guarantee Association Fund, Subsidized Interest rates, Subcontracting facilities, Stock Exchange for SMEs like NASDAQ, Increased role of Credit Bureaus and Business Associations.
Developing Effective Corporate Leadership Using Emotional Intelligence for High Performance Organizations
The thesis has two primary foci: (1) To identify issues related to the development of effective corporate leadership for achieving high performance organizations, and (2) To study emotional intelligence with respect to effective corporate leadership and its outcomes in the shape of organizational performance. Numerous tests have been developed to appraise El, among them, two most important are; MSCEIT and ESCI, ability and mixed methods respectively. ESCI was employed in the study due to its pertinence to business world; to assess effective corporate leadership, various aspects were observed including personal, interpersonal, managerial and societal effectiveness; and high performance organization was reviewed through aspects including corporate reputation, employee commitment, market performance and financial performance.
Emotional intelligence was considered as predictor variable while personal effectiveness, interpersonal, managerial and social effectiveness were considered as predicted variables with organisational performance as an outcome variable. Corporate leaders from various business organizations were selected for the formation of sample. Likert scale based questionnaire was developed and administered through various ways; by hand, through postal services, by electronic mails and through online (website). Around 1171 questionnaires were sent to corporate leaders of the organizations listed in Islamabad Stock Exchange (ISE), Pakistan. The participants, who responded back, were sent 959 questionnaires but 331 questionnaires were received back after a period of a year time generating 28% response rate. A statistical package for social sciences, version-19 and SmartPLS were employed for analysis. Eight hypotheses were developed to test the relationship of El with ECL, and 1--IPO as outcome. SEM and regression analysis supported the proposed significant relationship in the hypotheses, and correlation analysis depicted the positive association as well.
Results suggested the development of corporate leadership to the level of effectiveness through augmentation of emotional intelligence, in order to achieve high performance organisation
Study of Management Development Effectiveness of Banking Organizations in Pakistan
The objectives of the present study are to assess the effectiveness of management development (MD) programs in Pakistani banking sector, identify factors affecting the success of MD and investigate relationships among those factors that affect MD effectiveness. The research employed a blend of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Based on extensive literature review a model of MD effectiveness was developed and tested with structural equation modeling techniques. The achieved sample for the current study consisted of managers from 33 banking organizations operating in Rawalpindi/Islamabad using "self-reported rating" survey questionnaire and interviews which resulted in 168 completed responses and 25 in-depth interviews.
Although participants of the study were very hopeful regarding bright future of MD in Pakistan yet the current level of MD effectiveness is not high. Both lack of trainees' seriousness in self-development and less top management support for MD were found serious threats to effectiveness. Observed model of MD effectiveness had a good fit with the predicted model and all paths were significant. Individual initiatives for self-development, MD program design and opportunity for skill utilization were the three variables most closely associated with MD effectiveness. Top management should assign higher priority to MD. Pakistani organizations should create strong link between their MD efforts and their corporate strategies, focus more on creating positive training attitude of their employees, provide training program which are flexible enough, contents of MD programs must be relevant to company's real problems and issues and provide maximum opportunities to utilize knowledge and skills gained through development program in the work place. Risk taking and new ideas should be encouraged.
The reward system needs revising and a continuous learning environment ought to be established for effective MD in Pakistan. This study, for the first time, assessed the current state of MD effectiveness in Pakistan and contributes to the present stock of knowledge and understanding of the subject by contextualizing the concept of "MD effectiveness" in Pakistani banking sector.
The Relationship of Attitudinal and Behavioral Outcomes with Employee Development in the Context of Performance Appraisal in Public Universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
This study examines the impact of performance appraisal on employees' development perceptions and the effects of those perceptions on employees' work-related attitudes and behavior in the public universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The study looks into the mediating role of development in linking performance appraisal and organizational commitment, job satisfaction, employees' trust, and turnover intentions. The model is evaluated through Confirmatory Factor Analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). In Pakistan, efforts to link this 11R activity with employee attitudinal and behavioural outcomes are equal to naught.
The present study is an effort to addresses this gap. Results of the research indicate that employee development perceptions have a direct positive influence on organizational commitment, job satisfaction and employees' trust and negatively affect turnover intentions. Besides, these variables have interdependence as well. The findings support the mediating role of development perceptions in the relationships among performance appraisal and these attitudinal and behavioural outcomes. The results provide guidelines and significant implications to help policy makers to better understand and critically look into the current performance appraisal process critically for positive improvements in this crucial HR intervention to promote positive employee attitude and behaviour while considering their career development.
Furthermore, the study helps in enriching the current body of knowledge on performance appraisal in developing countries. Future studies should examine other antecedents like fairness perception, organizational citizenship behaviour and perceived organizational support to have a holistic approach to the intervention. Replication of the study in other settings is also recommended.
Organizational Performance Enhances Through Intervention of Human Resource Development
This study is conducted to calculate the training cost of the organization and return on it. Today in knowledge economy Employees of the organization become the Assets and capital of the firm and learning and growth become essential part of their career through training and development activities. But in most of the cases it is difficult to calculate the training cost and return on this particular investment. In this study we try to apply 4 level of Kirk Patrick training Evaluation Model to work out Return on Investment 5th Level of Training Evaluation of Jack Phillips. Different models are also discussed in this study.
One of the most challenging issues facing organizations is to place a value on the benefits in training and development, human resources, performance improvement, change, quality, and technology. The ROI methodology, developed by Dr. Jack J. Phillips, has proven to be an accurate, credible, and feasible approach to address the accountability issues for all types of organizations. The methodology has been accepted and used in over 40 countries and is the leading approach to ROI accountability.
Facilitated by Jack and Patti Phillips, Certification in the ROI Methodology provides a practical measurement experience. Participants learn how to use the ROI methodology to measure the contribution of programs, satisfy client needs, enhance program success, and build respect with stakeholders.
The core or main part of this study is keeping isolate training investment or return by other Profitable factors. The financial data will be taken from different three banks and using trend line method and focus group methods to isolate the training and development affect.
Finally calculate ROI of training program and establish relationship with performance management.
An Empirical Study of Investor Behavior in Karachi Stock Exchange, Pakistan
Over the last four decades financial market researchers come up with a resounding evidence about the influence of investors’ behavior on their investment decision making. This is in contrast to conventional economics and finance literature developed over the years. In the pursuit to be counted as pure science, economists and conventional finance researchers ignored the possible effect of different behavioral aspects on investment decision making. They assumed that investors are rational and financial markets are perfect. But this line of thinking was unable to explain the events which unfolded in financial markets over 1980s to 2000s. During the same period, behavioral economics and finance got more and more importance and acceptance in the field of economics and finance.
The field of behavioral finance is fairly new in Pakistan therefore this study aims at exploring the possible effect of investor behavior on investment decision. This study tests two behavioral models, investor regret aversion and investor overconfidence, in Pakistani financial markets. Using primary data, collected through a survey instrument, from a sample of 229 investors using simple and multiple linear regression models, a strong support is found for the two models. All four alternative hypotheses of investor regret aversion model are accepted using both simple and multiple linear regression models. On the other hand, four out of five alternate hypotheses are accepted based on both simple and multiple linear regression models. The study couldn’t find a strong support for the moderation effect of demographic variables in the two models. The results, however, show that investor overconfidence decreases with increase in investor age, experience and value of portfolio. All of the findings either support the findings of historical studies or in accordance with the basic theories in the area of behavioral finance and economics. There are certain limitations of this study and therefore further research is required, as suggested in the future research directions, to get an in-depth understanding of investor behavior in Pakistani financial markets.
Wellness and Productivity in Public Sector Organizations of Pakistan.
Mechanics of modern stressful life are making man short of time to pay attention towards achieving a balanced life thereby creating severe health and productivity deficits. Philosophy of wellness can help people lead more satisfying, happy, and productive lives. Healthy lifestyles are being widely recognized as sustainable ways of attaining holistic well-ness. Need for comprehensive wellness in the workplace context is much acknowledged now than ever before due to its association with healthcare costs and organizational outcomes that are most valued by the employers. Literature indicates a gap for diversified wellness research across different organizational and cultural contexts.
This study endeavored to empirically test association among five latent variables; stage of lifestyle change, personal wellness, personal productivity, organizational productivity, and organizational wellness measures to understand how employees' wellness and workplace productivity could be harnessed in the context of public sector organizations for efficient and effective public service delivery in Pakistan. One shot field survey was conducted in a non-contrived setting using a questionnaire. Stratified disproportionate random sample of 565 public sector managers (supervisory, first line, middle, and top level) participated from 105 organizational units belonging to 24 selected; 12 anticorruption and 12 regulatory organizations based at Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, and Quetta. Hypotheses statements were tested through correlational and regression analyses and accepted as empirical evidence for proposed WAP model.
Only a small proportion of participant's reported good level of lifestyle change (25%), personal wellness (37%), personal productivity (50%), organizational productivity (29%), and organizational wellness measures (29%) indicating a lower or marginal level by rest of the majority. Significant positive correlations were found among these variables of proposed model. Mediation analysis revealed that significant total effect of stage of lifestyle change (b=.256) on organizational productivity reduced to significant smaller direct effect (b=.097) indicating partial mediation through personal wellness and personal productivity. Mediated model significantly explained 33% variation in organizational productivity. Conditional process analysis indicated a significant moderating role of organizational wellness measures. Overall moderated-mediated model significantly explained 58% variation in organizational productivity indicating that wellness lifestyles directly and indirectly affect personnel and organizational productivity varying with the level of organizational wellness measures.
Results suggested a need of workplace wellness initiatives for mutual excellence; enabling employees to achieve their fullest potential and enjoy best possible quality of life through healthy ways of living, and engaging them at work to the best of organizational excellence.
This was an original research based on data collected from key public sector organizations in Pakistan. It provided insights as to how employees' lifestyles, well-ness, and productivity could be harnessed for efficient and effective public service delivery. This opened avenues for workplace wellness research in Pakistan and diverted organizational attention towards employee wellness as a component of their business strategy and corporate social responsibility.
Measuring the Impact of Supply Chain Integration on Organization Performance: The Moderating Role of Socialization and Organization Culture
Increasing competitive markets, technological modernization, discerning customers and short product life cycles lead to the fact that now competition is between supply chains not between companies anymore. Ln addition to it, supply chain management is of vital importance in terms of resource dependency, strategy development and also stakeholder’s relationship management. This demands effective supply chain management and integration of the product flow processes both internally as well as externally for sustainable competitive advantage. The present study aims at investigating empirically the level of internal integration and its antecedents; the relationship between internal and external integration and its impact on the supply chain performance and overall performance in the context of the Petroleum companies of Pakistan. The study also investigated the effect of Socialization and Organization Culture as a moderator of relationship between internal and external integration i.e. with customer and supplier.
A cross-sectional study design was employed utilizing a questionnaire in a non-contrived study settings. A Stratified proportionate random sample of 234 managers from Petroleum companies was used. Nineteen hypothesized relationships were tested using Structural Equation modeling technique through AMOS software (Version 20) and are accepted. Each of the antecedents of internal integration i.e. Job rotation (r=0.40), Interdepartmental trainings (r=0.38), Intraorganizational knowledge sharing (r=0.44), Management Commitment (r=0.54), Supporting Information Technologies (r=0.37) and Strategic Consensus (r -0.59) were found significantly correlated with the internal integration. Results further revealed that these integration practices have stronger effect on internal integration when they are aligned than when each of these practices are considered independently. Modeling fit as co-variation approach using SEM was used to confirm this alignment which demonstrated the importance of implementing these practices holistically i.e. integration of new practices with existing practices instead of implementing them in a piecemeal fashion.
Furthermore internal integration was found to be significantly related with external integration (i.e. Customer and Supplier integration). All three dimensions of Supply chain Integration i.e. internal, customer and supplier integration were found significantly related to supply chain performance which consequently leads to organization performance. Results further concluded that both customer and supplier integration partially mediate the relationship between internal integration and Supply chain performance. This reiterates the fact that there is not only the need to ensure the optimum level of internal integration to exploit the output of the organization but such efforts also need to be linked with integration practices with customers and suppliers as well for enhancing the output i.e. performance of the supply chain.
Using multiple-group SEM, moderating role of Socialization and Organization culture was investigated and found that organizations with better internal integration %N will have more external integration when the level of Supply Chain Socialization is high as well as if it possesses high levels of market and adhocracy type of organization culture.
The findings of the study offer useful insight for the management of the companies which can help them ensure optimal output by giving due importance to internal as well as external integration. Internal integration is prerequisite for external integration and the later can be achieved in a better way if company invests in socialization activities as well as extends its focus on external positioning and maintains fit with external environment. In nutshell, this study provides significant insight for integration-performance relationships
Analysis of Blake & Mouton's Managerial Grid and Its Application to the Management Styles of the Heads of Federal Government Educational Institutions
This study is divided into two parts. Part I undertakes an analysis of Blake & Mouton's Grid managerial styles which they formulated in the context of search for managerial excellence in the United States after World War II. The study highlights this context and documents influence of other social psychologists and scholars of related social science disciplines on Blake & Mouton who themselves belonged to the discipline of Social Psychology. Benefiting from emerging ideas about managerial styles, such as democratic style, authoritarian style, etc, the two authors came up with a clever device of depicting styles on a 9 x 9 grid with 81 cells.
A manager's concern for production and people could be measured on horizontal and vertical axes on a scale of 9 points, the 9 presenting maximum concern. A manager's maximum concern for production and minimum concern for people could be termed as 9,1 style. Similarly, maximum concern for both production and people could be described as 9,9 managerial style. Blake & Mouton posited certain elements of style, e.g decision making, conflict resolving, humour/emotion, strength of conviction which in their view, could be measured on some scale. The authors used a scale of zero to five.
Managers could carry out self-assessment of their styles. They could also learn to refine on the knowledge of their own styles through candid critique from peers. Blake & Mouton have emphasized that accumulated social science knowledge furnishes reliable basis to carryout self-assessment of managerial style and to choose the best style. Through analysis of various styles on social science principles, and documentation of their own observations during their consultancy work, they were convinced that on the basis of 9,9 style, development training could be undertaken to promote organizational excellence. In part-II of the study, Blake & Mouton's method of self-assessment of managerial styles has been applied in the case of educational managers working under the Directorate of Federal Government Educational Institutions (FGEIs) in Pakistan, giving background information on such institutions and the organizational setup in which the educational managers work.
Questionnaires were sent to 52 heads of institutions and 104 subordinates of these heads. The response rate was 87%. Each questionnaire contained 36 items, 18 to measure concern for production and 18 to measure concern for people. The data was prepared by working out responses to questionnaire items on a six-point scale ranging from `never' to 'always' carrying value from zero (minimum) to 5 (maximum). Analysis of data, when figures were rounded for purpose of locating heads of institutions on the grid, showed the style to be predominantly a 7,8 style. This is not an authentic Blake & Mouton's Grid style. Such discrepancy has been analysed in terms of self deception, the idea that without full knowledge of Grid style through a Grid Seminar, manager's answers to questionnaire for determining grid styles are misplaced.
It is then concluded that real value of Blake & Mouton's Grid styles analysis lies in the whole process of organization development which will involve not only self-assessment of managerial style but also a whole range of six phases beginning with self-assessment and ending with consolidation of organization development measures.
Intragroup Conflict Among Employees and Its Impact on Their Performance
Intragroup conflict is an inevitable reality in organizational life. It holds the potential for change. Task conflict is associated with disagreement among group members and relationship conflict is linked with interpersonal incompatibilities. Management makes lucid decisions because they know that intragroup conflict is very important and it has significant impact on employee's performance. They defuse or eradicate its impact but never avoid. This dissertation fills a gap in the conflict literature concerning intragroup conflict and its impact on employee's performance. Moreover, it also clarifies the impact of task conflict and relationship conflict on employee's performance.
The purpose of this study is to test a model of intragroup conflict among employees and its impact on employee's performance. The sample of 142 individuals, working in 27 different teams, belonging to commercial banks of Rawalpindi/Islamabad was selected. Questionnaires comprising four parts were sent directly to target the segment. In the first part, the first 12 questions were about personal/general information; second part consisted of 4 questions relating to task conflict; third part consisted of 5 questions of Cox's organizational conflict scale concerning to relationship conflict; and the last part consisted of 17 questions on employee's performance. Task and relationship conflict showed that the model is significant at .05 confidence level (p>0.05). We compared both variables on individual basis, which revealed that the variable difference is significant at p<0.05. The regression coefficient for relationship conflict was 0.408, which suggests that employees' performance was sensitive to changes in the relationship conflict. The other variable, i.e. task conflict is insignificant to employees performance at .05 confidence level as it is p>.05 level. The regression coefficient of task conflict was negative but without any significance.
In this model, only significant variable that account variation in employee's performance is relationship conflict. It's possible that the employees within the organization try to keep the conflict concealed because of management/ organization reputation or flaming effect. This study would help executives as well as management tier to understand how to take advantage from this research study and to develop measures to solve 'intragroup conflict.