Auto and Hetero-Stereotypes in Travelogues on Pakistan: A Lingvoimagological Study
The language used in tourist travelogues is a site of national stereotypes formed against the character of a country. Travelogues on Pakistan are discourses of representation that reveal such national stereotypes through which international tourists build an image of Pakistani nation and her national character. These discourses are informed by a writer’s political ideology as they are replete with stereotypes about the destination country (hetero-stereotypes). What is described in a travelogue is always a difference; in what aspects a target nation is different from your own. As travelogues are written for a worldwide audience, so it becomes significant to find out what are the images that are presented internationally of a particular nation. The present study aims at identifying the auto and hetero-stereotypes in travelogues on Pakistan by different foreign writers. The research also draws comparisons among the perceptions of the three writers regarding Pakistan and its people. Three travelogues which are written by an American, Australian and Scottish writer have been selected for the present study. The data was chosen through an online store named Amazon, Inc. while using purposive sampling technique. The study uses qualitative approach to conduct analyses of the travelogues. Van Dijk’s ideological square model (1998) is employed to carry out discourse analysis of the selected sections of the travelogues in the light of Leerssen’s Imagological framework. The findings reveal that travelogues about Pakistan frequently stereotype and exoticize Pakistan and its people. There is consensus among foreign writers about Pakistan regarding the absence of women in Pakistan, a sense of fear for one’s life, views about landscape/cityscape, self vs other distinction, and religion. The authors lack an awareness and an acknowledgement of cultural divergence. It is important to understand that such discourses as travelogues evolve into the sources of disinformation and strengthen the already existing stereotypes about the character of a nation.
Teaching of English as a Foreign Language through Audiovisual Translation in Pakistani Schools
The primary objective of the current study was to explore the use of Audio-visual translational techniques on language production skills of ESL learners in Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to examine the efficiency of AV translation techniques as dubbing and subtitling on language production skills of students at secondary level. To maintain the interest of the students, it was imperative to adopt interesting and novel ways of teaching English to second language learners. For this purpose, experimental groups from grade six and seven were selected via random sampling technique. Experimental group was taught via dubbed and subtitled animations. Interview, ability test, as pretest and posttest, questionnaire and observation were used as data collection tools. The researcher collected data from 60 students of two private schools of Islamabad. Experimental group was taught for three days in a week for a month. The data was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed followed concurrent triangulation design. Based on the results of posttest and opinions of students expressed via questionnaire, it was concluded that there was positive role of AV translation techniques (dubbing and subtitling) on language production skills of ESL secondary level learners in Pakistani context. The study would guide the teachers about the use of AV techniques. It would be useful for students to learn basic language skills of English language effectively and to strengthen their creative and visionary faculties. It would further provide guideline to policy makers and curriculum designers for effective syllabus design according to personal and future needs of the students.
TRANSLINGUAL SKOPOI: A CULTURAL- SCHEMATIC ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC SIGNBOARDS
The massive use of public signboards for an effective communication delineates purpose-oriented approach along with the cultural discernment. The present study was designed to identify creative pragmatic patterns in the form of translingual practice influenced by translingual Skopoi in communicative situation through linguistic resources by invoking cultural schemas for pragmatic ends. A qualitative approach by using interpretive research design has been adopted to analyze data which were comprised of 32 pictures of signboards displayed publicly and have been taken from different places like buildings, hospitals, along roadsides, parks, zoo, museum, commercial areas and workplaces in capital city Islamabad following purposive and convenience sampling. Translingual approach was used as an analytical tool along with the hybridization of Skopos Theory and Cultural Schemas Theory for theoretical grounding. The findings addressed correspondence between objectives and contribution of the study by illustrating translingual Skopoi embedded in cultural schemas to fulfill pragmatic needs and communicative goals. Based on the findings, recommendations have been made by the researcher to enhance communication while expansion of scholarship by exploring research areas and incorporating different perspectives and sociocultural considerations has been suggested for future researches.
LIVING IN THE TIMES OF AUGMENTED REALITY: A METAMODERNIST AND PSEUDO-MODERNIST CRITIQUE OF SELECTED CONTEMPORARY BRITISH FICTION
The present research is an attempt to focus on the fictional representation of not only
the impact on the human sensibility of the excessive interaction with the internet or
social media to receive information and news in the contemporary age, but also of the
way one’s frequent engagement with the cyberspace impacts one’s emotional state,
allowing that person to both escape the physical world and create some imaginative
information, which is based on possibilities. Firstly, the shifts triggered in the psychic
patterns of Olivia Laing’s protagonist due to her excessive interaction with the
internet or social media in Crudo are explored to explain her intriguing oscillation
between the opposing poles of contentment and discontentment. Secondly, the
representative pseudo-modern emotional condition that takes in Nikesh Shukla’s hero
in Meatspace because of his own act of frequently engaging with the internet is
studied. The research is qualitative in its approach and carries out a textual analysis of
the two novels by using the critical notions proposed by the prominent contemporary
scholars, Vermeulen and Akker, and Kirby with reference to metamodernism and
pseudo-modernism respectively. This critical enquiry adds some insightful literary
consciousness into the contemporary scholarship concerning an individual’s life in the
age of internet.
Genre Analysis: Studying Research Articles of Business and Management Sciences Using Swalesian and Hylandian Approaches
Thesis Title: Genre Analysis: Studying Research Articles of Business and Management Sciences Using Swalesian and Hylandian Approaches
While some genre researchers have examined the schematic structures of research articles, few have studied them through the dual lens of Move Analysis and Metadiscourse Markers in genre-based inquiries. The present study explores the partgenre of Research Articles of the Business and Management Sciences discourse community in Pakistan. 50 Research Articles from Business and Management Sciences have been analyzed using Swalesian CARS (2004) and Hylandian MAI (2005) The study found that the RAs from the Business and Management Sciences discourse community display the structured presence of Swalesian Moves. Hylandian Stance Markers were used rather sparingly, however, the Engagement Markers were not present in the genre-based text. The outcome provides practical pedagogical resources, a theoretical basis to guide genre-based Research Article writing in Business and Managament Sciences schools, and implications for collaboration with researchers in designing instructional pedagogy for an effective research-paper writing course at universities
Neurolinguistic Programming and English Language Teaching Practices In Pakistan: An Exploratory Study
Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) predominantly integrates the elements of Gestalt therapy, behavioural psychology, Chomsky’s transformational generative grammar, and Bateson’s cybernetic epistemology, which makes its implications for psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, and applied linguistics. Yet, the ELT world does not welcome this approach. This exploratory study was, therefore, designed to investigate the current English language teaching practices in relation to NLP language patterns and diverse NLP techniques at various Pakistani universities based upon the theoretical framework of NLP Milton Model consisting of varied language patterns and NLP scale referring to an assortment of NLP techniques. For this purpose, the study chose purposive sampling technique and survey method and the data was analyzed using an eclectic approach qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The study first performed the NLP Milton Model based observation sheet analysis to understand the significance of language patterns and also their usage by English language teachers. Further, it incorporated NLP scale which was designed by Pishghadam, Shayesteh, and Shapoori (2011) for evaluating the perceptions of English language teachers. The findings of the study depicted the prevalence of few NLP language patterns and techniques, while also elaborating on the others that teachers did not exploit but could be highly operative. Further, they provide an insightful tool to design a module for ELT practices in general and for ESL/EFL teachers in Pakistani context in particular. This study is helpful for all English language teachers (teaching at any level) to develop motivation among their language learners via following NLP Milton model and various other NLP techniques and activities (as illustrated and explained in detail in this study). Also, the designed ELT module does not only provide theoretical knowledge but also various practical applications to train teachers for effective English language pedagogy.
AWARENESS AND ACCEPTABILITY OF PAKISTANI ENGLISH: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY
Over the past several decades English language has been gaining momentum as the most widely used language all around the globe. English language is now considered as an international Lingua Franca. The advancement of English language, all over the world, has generated a number of varieties of English language used not only by natives but also non-native English language speakers. One such variety of English language is Pakistani English which has been established by a number of scholars over a period of time. The following study is exploratory in nature and aims to explore the awareness of this Pakistani English by the English speaking Pakistani populace. The study also intends to assess the attitudes and perceptions that the participants have towards Pakistani English. Drawing on Schneider’s (2007), dynamic model of World Englishes, quantitative and qualitative data was collected using 80 open and closed ended questionnaires and 10 semi-structured interviews. An extensive thematic analysis of questionnaires and interviews responses was carried out in three stages of data analysis. The results suggest that majority of the population still favor Standard American and British English. The results also indicate that the selected population is aware of Pakistani English. The participants are aware of the history and origin of Pakistani English and also about the different features that Pakistani English have. The participants might not be aware of the jargons specific to World Englishes phenomenon but they are aware of the different varieties being created of English language. The research also shows that the participants have overall negative attitudes towards Pakistani English and there is resentment towards the variety. The study also infer that Pakistani English is currently in the third stage of Nativisation in the dynamic model given by Schneider (2007) and is moving towards the fourth stage of Endo-Normative Stabilization. The study contributes to the better understanding of Pakistani English in a sociological perspective.
Futurism, Technology, and Ethics: A Posthumanist Reading of Daniel H. Wilson’s Selected Fiction
This research examines Daniel H. Wilson’s cyberpunk and techno-thriller (a genre of fiction
that combines elements of science and technology with thriller elements) novels,
Robopocalypse (2011) and Amped (2012). For this study, I have drawn upon theoretical
positions expounded in Rosi Braidotti’s book The Posthuman (2013) and focused on her two
specific concepts of ‘posthuman subjectivity’ and ‘post-anthropocentrism’1 along with the
ethical dimensions related to technology. Francis Fukuyama’s (2002) concept of ‘ethics of
technology’ and Gerd Leonhard’s (2015) concept of ‘futurism’ have been used as a
supporting theoretical props. Moreover, I have invoked philosophical posthumanism for this
study in order to support my reading of contemporary American Sci-Fi that has become a
swelling interest for the people around the globe. Humans are using AI, Robotics, and other
digital technologies for the enhancement of their lifestyles and constantly reflecting a
thorough control over it. Cyberpunk fiction advocates a dystopian warning against the human
dominance on the planet earth because Artificial Intelligence and advance technologies have
the potential that will possibly jeopardize anthropocentrism. Humans will frustratingly
struggle for retaining the lost status of humanness in the midst of technology revolution. This
study attempts to highlight the dangers that technology poses to the survival of humans and
the flourishing of humanity. It also explores the perils of technology and the interdependence
between humans and technology that is going to result in ethical and social crises. This
research seeks to explore the ethical implications of posthumanist futurism as it pertains to
the advancement of technology. In particular, it looks at the ethical implications of the
increased reliance on technology in our lives, the potential implications of posthumanism,
and the role of ethics in this changing landscape. I have employed Textual Analysis as my
research method. This investigation is likely to productively intervene in the production of
contemporary knowledge in the area of Posthumanism.
Cultural Sensitization in Linguistics of Deception Detection: A Pragmatic Analysis
Thesis Title: Cultural Sensitization in Linguistics of Deception Detection: A Pragmatic Analysis
Deception is a ubiquitous phenomenon and deception scholarship is an exponentially large field. One prime focus of this field is to study the linguistic correlates of deception to detect a liar successfully. Nevertheless, there is an ever-growing realization that there is no universal way of lying that enjoys pan-cultural vitality. Lying as a mendacious statement depends on the corresponding language system and cultural norms and values. However, until very recently, the lingo-cultural nature of deception has remained underplayed in mainstream deception scholarship. The situation calls for the need of sensitizing linguistics of deception detection to cross-cultural variance introduced by language and culture. Working within the paradigm of Ethnopragmatics, a relatively recent off-shoot of the linguistic pragmatics, the study developed an integrated approach to generate metapragmatic awareness about the meaning, perception and production of deceptive speech acts in Pakistani culture and compare it with analogous findings located in the North American context. The study integrated the theoretical and methodological guidelines of the Cultural Scripts approach proposed by Anna Wierzbicka and Cliff Goddard (Goddard & Wierzbicka, 2002, 2004,2016; Wierzbicka, 1997, 2002,2021) with the Information Manipulation Theory propounded by Steve McCornack (McCornack, 1992; McCornack et al., 2014). The study was conducted in two phases. As cultural knowledge sediments in the form of emic labels and culturally salient key terms, Phase I investigated the Urdu lexical and phrasal items used to denote lying and deception and other cultural keywords to generate a semantic understanding of deception in Pakistani culture. The results were explicated in the form of cultural scripts formulated in the culturally neutral mini-language called Natural Semantic Metalanguage. These earlier semantic explications were further tested in Phase II study using the experimental design proposed by Information Manipulation theory to explore the production, perceived honesty and moral turpitude associated with various forms of deception in Pakistani culture. The results of both phases cumulatively revealed that the Pakistani concept of truth and lying is very categorical, dichotomous and black and white as compared with the scalar and kaleidoscopic view of truth and lying found in the AngloAmerican culture. It was also found that avoidance of lying is an absolute, non-negotiable moral imperative in Pakistani culture, while the Anglo-American attitude towards lying is more pragmatic in nature. Though lying is considered invariably wrong in Pakistani culture, Pakistani data demonstrated a greater acceptance threshold than the US counterparts for other subtle forms of deception that did not involve any blatant disregard for reality. It can be concluded that in Pakistani culture, speech acts are assigned very parsimoniously to the category of lying and locus of sincerity is primarily placed on the literal level. These nuanced differences in the cultural understanding of deception have clear implications for deception scholarship to make its theorization and methods free from ethnolinguistic bias.
Keywords: Deception, Lying, Deception Detection, Ethnopragmatics, Natural Semantic Metalanguage
A Comparative Study of Culture and Imperialism and Saqafat Aur Samraj: A Question of Ideology and Meaning.
Thesis Title: A Comparative Study of Culture and Imperialism and Saqafat aur Samraj: A Question of Ideology and Meaning Translation studies both as an academic discipline and as an interlingual and intercultural practice has expanded enormously in recent years. Its authenticitysignificantly depends on the notion of ideology. Ideology, i.e., both the translator’s individual ideology and the dominant ideology of the day influences the translation process in many subtle ways and at different levels. The complex interaction of different ideologies results incertain crucial differencesduring the translation and influences the process of translation considerably. Therefore, in order to make an accurate transmission of the source text possible, translators need to analyze it meticulously, and convey its meaning as correctly and as completely in the target language as possible. This cannot be done if the translator lets his/her own ideological slant seeps through his work into the text. The target text, however, once published, acquires a life of its own, and tends to dictate its own terms, which could and should reveal the dominantideological concepts the author chose to infuse into it. Mixing the translator’s ideological slant with the source text ideology, therefore, creates further comprehension problems for the readers. This reason makes it important for a researcher to gauge the potential ‘ideological dislocation’ in the target text. The present research work analyzes the Urdu translation of Edward Said’s book Culture and Imperialism to find out if there is an ideological dislocation in the target text, and if so, what is its nature. The studyenquires where and how the translator is trying to change the ideological slant of the source text by exploring its impact on readers. Drawing upon Spivak’s notion of the ‘politics of translation’, the researcher has conducted a textual analysis of the target text which has reasonably established the presence of ideological dislocations in the translation.One of the direct results of this dislocation is the change in the meanings of the source text as the cultural comprehension of the target readers is radically affected. The study recommends that a translator should maintain the authenticity of ideology; rhetoricity and logic of the text by taking the readers abroad instead of bring the author home.
Key words: Ideology, Translation, Meaning, Comparative Study, Culture and Imperialism.
Cyberbullying: A Forensic Linguistic Analysis of Social Media Memes
In the present time, people find it easy to threaten, abuse, swear, and humiliate others through social media and yet they are ignorant of the fact that they are involved in crimes of language. The basic reason is that they are not aware of the crimes of language and keep on infringing the rights of social media users. Keeping in mind this situation, an exploration was needed to highlight unseen crimes through language from a legal perspective. This study used research tools informed by pragmatics while keeping the forensic ends in view. The researcher explored criminal use of speech acts in memes on social media sites. For this purpose, 35 memes were selected from 25 pages and 25 groups on Facebook. Data were collected through purposive sampling. The objectives were to identify and categorize speech acts in memes, explore possible motivating factors behind the use of such memes and evaluate their socio-legal sensitivities. Analysis of speech acts was conducted with the help of Pragmatic Act Theory presented by Mey (2001), whereas Speech Act Theory by Austin (1962) was relied on for general classification of speech acts. To highlight socio-legal sensitivities related to the memes in various forms of cyberbullying, its conceptualization propounded by Willard (2007) was used as a theoretical ground. The assistance from a professional lawyer was sought throughout the project to have an expert opinion on the matter of cyberbullying in memes. The lawyer assisted during the process of selection of relevant memes. During the process of data analysis, descriptive and interpretative analysis was carried out by keeping both frameworks side by side. It has been found that memes containing various speech acts represent different forms of cyberbullying. The researcher suggested that people should be sensitized to the socio- legal side of such types of practices. The researcher also hoped that the thin line between freedom of expression and cyberbullying would be clearer in future, and implementation of cyberbullying laws would be possible with lesser absurdity. Lastly, keeping in view the basic human rights, it has been suggested that forensic linguistic study focusing on multimodal analysis of videos should be conducted so as to highlight the socio-legally sensitive content on social media sites.
An Analysis of (Im)Politeness Strategies Used by Primary School Teachers of English in Punjab
Politeness needs to be implemented since verbal aggression creates conflict between a
teacher and a student. The main objectives of this research study were to identify and
analyse the (im) politeness strategies used by Primary School Teachers of English in
Punjab. Moreover, the impact of teachers’ verbal aggression on students’ dropout rate
was also investigated. This research study will be of great help for teachers who are
unaware of verbal aggression and its impacts on students. The nature of the study is
both quantitative and qualitative. The sample of the study were 30 English teachers
for classroom observation, 10 teachers and 15 dropout students for interviews from
the district Rawalpindi, Chakwal and Mianwali, Punjab. For the purpose of data
collection, two instruments were used i.e., classroom observation checklist and
interviews. Polite and impolite utterances of male and female teachers was presented
in the form of frequencies. Further, the collected data was analysed by using discourse
analysis method, thematic analysis for teachers’ interviews and descriptive analysis
for dropout students’ interviews. Data was analysed in the light of the Brown and
Levinson’s (1978) Politeness model and Jonathan Culpeper’s (2005) Impoliteness
model. The findings of this study suggested that male and female teachers made 1088
polite utterances and 242 impolite utterances. It was observed that teachers frequently
use positive (im) politeness, negative (im) politeness and bald-on record (im)
politeness strategies. Minimal use of off-record politeness and with-hold politeness
strategy was observed. The interviews of the dropout students revealed many reasons
behind their dropout. Teachers’ harsh behaviour was one of the reasons. So, we can
assume that rude behaviour of teachers can be one of the causes of students’ dropout
from schools. It is concluded that teachers' appreciation, admiration and polite
interaction are the most important operative elements in creating the environment
conducive to learning. The findings of the research study suggest that, Punjab School
Education Department should arrange training for teachers on the awareness about the
impact of harsh words on students. For future researchers, it is suggested that same
research can be conducted on higher level i.e., elementary, high and higher secondary
The Economy of Slippage and Morphing: Tracing Configurations of Diasporic Identities in Indian and Pakistani Anglophone Fiction
THESIS TITLE: THE ECONOMY OF SLIPPAGE AND MORPHING: TRACING CONFIGURATIONS OF DIASPORIC IDENTITIES IN INDIAN AND PAKISTANI ANGLOPHONE FICTION
This dissertation is a comparative study of Indian and Pakistani selected diasporic Anglophone fiction. It enquires completely different settings created on the thematic basis of gender, religious identities, economic and political issues, marriage and culture. A common thread running through the selected novels is to capture the essence of transnational and transcultural struggles over issues of identity in terms of race, class, nationality and gender. It highlights the significance of cultural varieties to establish one’s identity as well as to affirm that migrant identity is not a given but rather a product of lived reality, something always in process in a culturally hybrid world. Pakistani Anglophone fiction writers deal with the themes of religious identities, economic and political concerns in their diasporic fiction, while Indian diasporic fiction writers have the thematic basis of marriage, culture, and nationality in a liminal cultural space, but the transnationals from both countries feel the same sort of effects of hybrid culture. Multiple theoretical angularities from Homi K. Bhabha, Arjun Appadurai and James Clifford form the theoretical framework for this study. The findings of the study underlines the ideology, distinct way of thinking, and theme selection of diasporic writers of Pakistan and India that the difference which occurred at the time of partition of India. These differences in ideologies and theme selection in the writings of diasporic writers still exist. The comparative study brought to light the distinct diasporic characteristics in Indian and Pakistani Anglophone fiction.
Re-Remembering Home: Nostalgia and Displacement of Identity in Barracoon: The Story of the Last “Black Cargo” by Zora Neale Hurston
The present study is qualitative in nature and aims to analyze the dynamics of re-remembering home with reference to nostalgia and identity. The research is delimited to Hurston’s Barracoon: The Story of the Last “Black Cargo”. The memoir is approached using Dr. Janelle L Wilson’s concepts presented in her book Nostalgia: Sanctuary of Meaning. Being the last witness of the Middle passage, Lewis, the protagonist of the selected memoir, serves as the connection between nostalgia and (recreated) identity. The ‘third space’ created by Lewis is a reaction to the loss of home as he is being stripped of his identity. The textual analysis explains the outcomes of nostalgia and its relevance in the modern-day slave narratives. Hurston’s work is conservative, but it is also politically aware of its time, and it opens up new scope for African narratives. The significance of memoir with reference to contemporary Black Lives Matter Movement is investigated using Watson, Turner & Hines’s (2020) theory Black Lives Matter: We are in the Same Storm but we are not in the Same Boat which highlights the planned and systematic dehumanizing of blacks in America. It provides insight into the issues faced by displaced people. It justifies the Black Lives Matter Movement as after all these years discrimination against Black is still prevalent in American society.