The Effect of Bank’s Merger on Shareholder’s Value & Performance of Banks in Pakistan
Merger has become a global strategy for business expansion with the passage of time. Organizations have been effectively associated with the merger at the domestic and global levels. The increasing rivalry in the worldwide financial and non-financial market has incited the entities to adopt a merger strategy for the business expansion (Kuchey and Jan 2017).
On the same pattern, the trend of mergers affected the economy of Pakistan, particularly in the last decade. While exploring the financial market there are almost eighteen (18) mergers in only banking sectors. The current study has investigated the effect of the merger on the performance of banks & the value of shareholders. Out of eighteen (18) merger deals, some cases of amalgamation have been taken which happened from 2011 to 2015.
To check the effect of pre and post-merger performance of banks nine (09) financial ratios have been used by the researcher simultaneously nine (09) financial indicators have been used to evaluate the impact of the merger on the value of shareholders. In this study secondary data has been used which consists of three years before & after the (+3,-3) merger. Data has been collected from the audited annual reports of consolidated banks. The current study has been employed the descriptive approach to statistically check which variables are significantly influenced by mergers.
Besides the financial ratios, the researcher has been used the paired sample t-test technique to analyze the performance of banks and the value of shareholders in pre & post-merger as well as difference and correlation.
The results of the study have indicated that merger does not show a significant impact on performance if proxied by cost to income (C-In), cost to asset (C-A), non-markup interest income to total asset (NMII-TA), earning asset to total asset (EA-TA), equity capital to total asset (EC-TA), interest margin to earning asset (IM-EA), deposit time to capital (DT-C) and loan to deposit (L-D) ratios but if the performance is measured through the proxy of net-markup interest income after provision to total asset (NMIIAP-T.A) then it is significant and shows reliable performance.
The statistical result of this research has revealed that the Value of shareholders does not significantly influence by merger if it is proxied by return on equity (ROE), return on asset (ROA), return on capital employed (ROCE), return on deposit (ROD), Spread ratio, earning per share (EPS) and interest ratios. Even the shareholder’s value, if evaluate through net interest margin ratio (NIMR) & non-markup interest expense to total income ratio (NMIE-T.In) then it is negatively significant.
Further, if the value of shareholders of merged banks is proxied by pre and post-merger non-markup interest expense to total income ratio (NMIE-T.In) then it is highly positive correlated but return on equity (ROE) has shown a weak positive correlation in pre & post-merger. Whereas the performance of combined banks is proxied by pre and post-merger deposit time to capital ratio (DT-C) then it is highly correlated but the equity capital to total asset (EC-TA) ratio has shown a strong negative correlation after & before combination.
The performance of merged banks has been significant and increased due to amalgamation but there is not much improvement in the value of shareholders. The study may be extended for other sectors as well as comparatively study with other economies.
The study aims to investigate the nexus between organization justice, job satisfaction, and organization citizenship behavior in the context of NADRA Pakistan. A number of econometric techniques employed to evaluate the data. This study evaluates 370 NADRA employees’ data, including front line managers. Statistical techniques were used for the data analysis i.e., Factor analysis, KMO butler test, Descriptive statistics, Correlation and regression analysis. The outcomes confirmed positive relationship between organizations justice and organizations citizenship behavior. Likewise results revealed positive nexus between job satisfaction and OCB and the results reported the mediating role of job satisfaction in the association between organization justice and OCB. The results of the research are important for the higher-level management of NADRA as well as other institutions that can also give benefit to government and society.