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Role of Corporate Visual Identity in Building Brand Personality: Mediating Role of Brand Communication and Moderating Role of Brand Equity
Antecedents and Consequences of Constructive Deviance Behaviors: A Moderated Mediation Model
Impact of external and internal factors on banks performance an evidence of commercial banks listed at Pakistan stock exchange
Work-Family, Family-Work Conflict and Subjective Well-being of Teachers of Degree Awarding Institution: The Moderating Effect of Agreeableness
Spillover of Online Vigilance of Employees Creative Performance: Coping Mechanism
Employee Diversity, Psychological Safety and Voice Climate on Innovative Performance with moderating role of Paradoxical Leadership A study of FMCG sector
The Effect of Bank’s Merger on Shareholder’s Value & Performance of Banks in Pakistan Merger has become a global strategy for business expansion with the passage of time. Organizations have been effectively associated with the merger at the domestic and global levels. The increasing rivalry in the worldwide financial and non-financial market has incited the entities to adopt a merger strategy for the business expansion (Kuchey and Jan 2017). On the same pattern, the trend of mergers affected the economy of Pakistan, particularly in the last decade. While exploring the financial market there are almost eighteen (18) mergers in only banking sectors. The current study has investigated the effect of the merger on the performance of banks & the value of shareholders. Out of eighteen (18) merger deals, some cases of amalgamation have been taken which happened from 2011 to 2015. To check the effect of pre and post-merger performance of banks nine (09) financial ratios have been used by the researcher simultaneously nine (09) financial indicators have been used to evaluate the impact of the merger on the value of shareholders. In this study secondary data has been used which consists of three years before & after the (+3,-3) merger. Data has been collected from the audited annual reports of consolidated banks. The current study has been employed the descriptive approach to statistically check which variables are significantly influenced by mergers. Besides the financial ratios, the researcher has been used the paired sample t-test technique to analyze the performance of banks and the value of shareholders in pre & post-merger as well as difference and correlation. The results of the study have indicated that merger does not show a significant impact on performance if proxied by cost to income (C-In), cost to asset (C-A), non-markup interest income to total asset (NMII-TA), earning asset to total asset (EA-TA), equity capital to total asset (EC-TA), interest margin to earning asset (IM-EA), deposit time to capital (DT-C) and loan to deposit (L-D) ratios but if the performance is measured through the proxy of net-markup interest income after provision to total asset (NMIIAP-T.A) then it is significant and shows reliable performance. The statistical result of this research has revealed that the Value of shareholders does not significantly influence by merger if it is proxied by return on equity (ROE), return on asset (ROA), return on capital employed (ROCE), return on deposit (ROD), Spread ratio, earning per share (EPS) and interest ratios. Even the shareholder’s value, if evaluate through net interest margin ratio (NIMR) & non-markup interest expense to total income ratio (NMIE-T.In) then it is negatively significant. Further, if the value of shareholders of merged banks is proxied by pre and post-merger non-markup interest expense to total income ratio (NMIE-T.In) then it is highly positive correlated but return on equity (ROE) has shown a weak positive correlation in pre & post-merger. Whereas the performance of combined banks is proxied by pre and post-merger deposit time to capital ratio (DT-C) then it is highly correlated but the equity capital to total asset (EC-TA) ratio has shown a strong negative correlation after & before combination. The performance of merged banks has been significant and increased due to amalgamation but there is not much improvement in the value of shareholders. The study may be extended for other sectors as well as comparatively study with other economies.
Changing Dynamics of Patterns of Risk and Returns of PSX During COVID-19
Elucidating The Behavioral Factors Influencing Investors’ Intuitive Decision Making In Pakistan
Role of knowledge infrastructure capability on individual knowledge management engagement through knowledge process capability with thriving at workplace in IT sector of Pakistan.
STOCK MARKET BUBBLE IN PAKISTAN VIS-A-VIS ITS IMPACT ON INVESTORS
Authentic Leadership, Psychological Capital and Innovative work behavior: Moderating role of Thriving at work in IT industry of Pakistan