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اردو غزل پر بیسویں صدی کی ادبی تحریکوں اور رجحانات کے اثرات
Urdu Literature, particularly Urdu Poetry, can boast of having narratives not known in other world literatures. One of them being Ghazal, a unique form of versification that is specific to Urdu poetry alone. The focus of the thesis is the study of Modern, that is, 20th century Urdu Ghazal. There are two main reasons for this choice, or delimitation of the study. First, though it is true that lot of literature is found on Urdu poetry, but unfortunately, most of it is in the form of essays and articles and no authenticated researched document is available on this genre. Second, lot has been written en Classical Ghazal but Modern Ghazal has not yet been ventured enough by critics and researchers. An effort has been made in the present study to view Modern Ghazal in the light of 20th Century literary movements, and its influence on Urdu Ghazal. There are in all eight chapters. The first chapter is an introduction of the tradition of Ghazal and its evolution in 18th & 19th century. The second chapter presents an analysis of the literary ambience, the political atmosphere and the intellectual environment at the advent of the 20th century, and it is in this backdrop that Romantic Ghazal is studied. The third chapter is a study of the distinct features of lqbal's Ghazal and its influence on Urdu Ghazal. The fourth chapter focuses mainly on the Progressive Movement and its influence on Urdu Ghazal. The fifth and sixth chapters are about different Urdu literary circles and movements, like Halqa-i-Arbab-i-Zauq, Pakistani Adab, Islami Adab, Arzi Saqafti Tehreek, and their contribution in promoting Urdu literature in general and Urdu Ghazal in particular. The seventh chapter is on modern trends and thoughts, their detailed analysis and their impact on Urdu Ghazal. The eighth chapter is a conclusion of the research followed by recommendations for further study.