Academics - Research coordination office
Engineering and Computer Science
Governance and Public Policy
Peace and Conflict Studies
Back to Department Listing
پاکستانی اردو لغات (جامع) کا تقابلی جائزہ + ضمیمہ
A comparative of Pakistani Comprehensive Urdu Dictionaries has been undertaken in the thesis. For this purpose three lexicons have been chose, which are commonly used in offices and institutions: Ilmi Urdu; Feroze-ul-Lughaat and Nasim ul Lughaat. In chapter one details are given in "MOQADMA" about this thesis and then thesis has been divided according to the alphabet, for instance the alphabet for Alif to Say have been analysed in Chapter two. Chapter three has been devoted to Jeem to Kha and in the fourth chapter alphabet Daal to Zhey have been dealt. In chapter five the alphabet Seen to Ghain are studies. Chapter six deals with letters Fay to Gaaf and in chapter seven the alphabets from Laam to the last letter Yay. Finally a general discussion has been Conducted in chapter eight. The diacrical sign A' has been Taken from all the three dictionaries and all the words starting with A have been put together that are in harmony with each other in their idioms, sayings, proverbs, composition, pronunciation and calligraphic shape and also in the masculine and feminine forms. Besides there are such words that are found in TWO dictionaries and are not included in the THIRD dictionary. Such words and composites are analyzed separately. In the case where in one alphabet the number of synonymous words, and proverbs are too many, are given on three/ fourth ¾ of the pages. The rest are given in annexure so that the volume of thesis does not get out of the proportion of other alphabets, and the size of the thesis does not get unwieldy. The words are usually spoken in Punjabi are written under separate heading. It has been mentioned as to which word are found in a particular dictionary, and the others that are found in all the dictionaries have been mentioned. The meanings of such words as given in dictionaries are also mentioned. Then there are words of English origin that have been urduised because of constant usage such words have been treated separately according to the dictionary where these occur. Feroze-ul-Lughaat has mentioned such words even when their synonyms in Urdu are available. Lastly there is a list of words that have been mentioned differently in one or two dictionaries in respect of pronunciation, discritical signs, shape, writing or in masculine or feminine forms. Such words have been researched critically with reference to other dictionaries. In majority of cases the unanimity of rules and the usage have been observed. Similarly the masculine and feminine forms have been authenticated and effort has been made to attend to all possible lexical aspects. In this way all the words from Alif to Yay have been analysed and researched.