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Water Resources Preservation in Pakistan: A Case Study of Mangla Dam.
Ms. Iram Abid
Water is one of the greatest bounties of God, says in the Holy Quran "and we made from water everything living". Water is one of the most essentials for livings. Its scarcity has developed a number of management issues in many parts of the world. Pakistan once water surplus country has approached the water scarce country. Agriculture is the prime user of water and Pakistan economy is Agriculture based. In this research, the researcher has worked on the need of natural resources preservation in Pakistan, followed by the impact of Global Warming and Climatic Changes within Pakistan and the strategies to implement SDGs in Pakistan. Moreover the research has addressed the case study of Mangla Dam and provision of clean energy to the indigenous people of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. This study is qualitative research which has attempted to have a detailed discussion on the role of Pakistan and how effective has Pakistan been in the implementation of these goals dealing with the international institutions such as the IMF, the World Bank and the UN for Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) followed by the post 2015 agenda and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for water preservation in Pakistan especially in Mangla Dam.Water caused large-scale conflicts between provinces and nations. The confusion exists for allocation and sharing of resources between provinces and the federal government. Distribution of water among provinces is to be resolved by the federal government, whereas the allocation of water for irrigation and agriculture purposes falls in provincial domains. These problems have increased due to repeated Indian insolence of the Indus Basin Water Treaty. Hence, comprehensive water management policy remains one of the most important challenges faced by the government. Government has to fix priority areas for national water policy to deal with the water issue properly. The researcher has used secondary sources in the research, such as journals, books, articles, newspapers, documentaries and magazines. The study found wide gaps between the local people’s needs, desires and expectations and the government policies and possible solutions; between people’s practices and historical and proposed institutions; and between local people’s and policy-makers’ understanding of the issues. Water supply projects need to result in improved water services, but with solutions tailor-made to the local culture, together with local actors, rather than being imposed on them. Pakistan is running short of good quality water for irrigation as well as domestic use. Keywords: MDGs, SDGs, Water Scarcity, Water Management, Preservation, Resources, Mangla Dam
In the context of the Stockholm Declaration, the Rio Conference and the recent Paris Agreement, the importance of conservation of natural resources has become an important part of the global social agenda. This is evidenced by the adoption of the United Nations, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund for the purpose of developing and maintaining existing resources, especially through the MDGs and the SDGs. Pakistan is a member of all international organizations, and most importantly, Pakistan will be negatively affected by climate change and global warming in the top 10 countries. Therefore, it is important for Pakistan to address its environmental issues and share its natural resources with the sustainable development goals6.